I. Foundation for School and Life Success
A. Introductions to not only the field, but to college and how to survive and prosper.
B. You must use the college requirements and learn the methods utilized at your school.
C. Notes, outlining, references, testing techniques, etc.
D. Assistance available through student services.
E. Use of computer, Angel, Word, Internet and so on.
F. Use of library, outside references, sources, tools.
G. Basic Research skills for life
H. Organizing thoughts
J. Presenting your ideas effectively
The Shannon and Weaver model
II. Components of a Speech Transaction
A. Situation and Context
B. Speaker / Transmitter / Source
C. Channels / Media
E. Symbols / Semantics
I. Noise / Interference / Screens / Filters
J. Internal Noise
K. External Noise
L. Cultural Noise
N. Semantic Noise is not one of the three forms of noise, it means the signals or symbols of a transmission are not being understood properly due to outside factors (the other three forms of noise)
O. The components of a speech transaction occur simultaneously and are interdependent
P. All communication is transactional, involves a two-way passage of information, emotion, intent.
III. Intro into basic course concepts
A. Communication Model
- Intent of Transmitter,
- What was meant to be communicated
3. Medium. Media
4. Message, intended message
7. T2 (not Arnold!)
- Words, actual language, vocabulary
- How you say the words, voice, inflection, etc.
d. - Everything else, see, hear, smell, touch, etc.
- How we prove and argument, why we believe things
f. Ethos, Credibility, Power, Likeability, Trust, Source, Expertise, Position
g. Logos, Logic (some variance by culture)
h. Pathos, Emotion, Emotional Appeal
i. Mythos, Cultural, Cultural shorthand, David v. Goliath, Patriotism. Flag, etc.
12. Noise: Screens, \ Filters, Interference, anything that gets in the way of the message
13. Internal Screens,
- Whatever happens inside your mind or body to interfere with understanding the message as intended, or to interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood
- Internal noise is what is occurring inside the transmitter or receiver. For example an event earlier in the day or in the life of the individual could change the way they interpret or send signals. Physical, psychological, cognitive forms of interference may impact how message is encoded or decoded, interpreted or received. Disabilities, health, fatigue, hunger, external events impact on how you feel or think, and unrelated thoughts are examples of internal noise.
14. External Screens
- Whatever happens outside of your mind or body to interfere with understanding the message as intended, or to interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood.
- External noise is what occurred outside of the sender or receive. This could include sound, smell, lighting, temperature, time of day, events occurring at the same time as the message, other messages conflicting or concurrent with the intended message, environment, etc.
15. Cultural Screens
- Differences in culture (including Demographic, Psychographic differences) that interferes with understanding the message as intended.
- Differences in culture interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood.
- Cultural noise comes from the self-identity, backgrounds, beliefs and culture of the sender and/or the receiver.
- Messages can have differing meanings. Protocol, prolific, etc.
16. Semantic Noise, not understanding the words, not understanding the language
- Not one of the three forms of screens or noise, because semantic can cross internal, external and cultural boundaries and it simply means tat symbols (usually words) are not being transmitted or interpreted the same between parties in the communication transaction.
17. Demographics as way of understanding yourself and your audience
b. Gender (Sex)
c. Psychographics and Culture
d. Age and Gender are fixed properties
e. Psychographic is everthing else you can measure or put a number to
f. Psychographic differs as is is self-identified, what you volunteer yourself as
B. The Communication Process
1. Speaker/ Sender/ Transmitter
a. The source of the message
b. Requires technical skills
c. Requires enthusiasm and active stimulation
d. Involves intent
e. Requires understanding the Receiver
f. Requires decisions on how to send message
g. Requires knowledge, processing preparation and understanding
a. How the message is sent
b. Tolls used to send message
c. Media or Medium utilized in encoding and decoding message
d. Means by which the message is communicated
e. One of more channels may be used
f. May involve technical support or intervention
g. Could be as simple as eye contact
a. Whatever is being communicated
b. Intended and unintended messages can be transmitted
c. Verbal and non-verbal transmissions
d. May or may not be interpreted properly by receiver
4. Listener/ Receiver/ Audience
a. Every message is filtered through the listeners frame of reference
b. Listeners frame of reference is the sum total of their experiences, goal, knowledge, values, attitudes and beliefs.
c. No source and receiver have the exact frame of reference
d. A message and its transmission must be adapted to the audience
e. Noise gets in the way of the communication
a. Message sent by listener to the speaker, receiver to the transmitter
b. The receiver becomes the transmitter
c. The transmitter become the receiver
d. Because all communication is transactional (involving a transaction of information, feelings or ideas) feedback operates under the same principals and rules as the original transmission and channel
e. Feedback may be immediate or delayed
f. Noise/ Screens/ Filter interfere with both the original transmission and the feedback
g. Successful speakers adjust their message based on careful studied reception of feedback
6. Interference/ Screens/ Noise / Filters
a. Anything that impeded the communication of a message
b. Can be internal or external
c. May also involve internal and external cultural filters
d. External comes from outside, physical or psychological, of the speaker or listener
e. Internal involves anything, physical or psychological, involving what is inside the sender or receiver, speaker or listener.
f. External may be noise, lighting, major events, size or shape of room, sound, temperature, other speakers and so forth
g. Internal may be poor listening skills, lack of concentration, the other 50-% of what is going on in your brain, physical ailments or disabilities, fatigue and so forth.
h. Successful speakers overcome interference in a wide range of ways, numerous times during their message
a. Selecting symbols to communicate a message
b. Determining how to transmit the message
c. Combination of verbal, vocal, visual and other
d. Anticipating the receiver
a. Understanding symbols uses to communicate a message
b. Understanding the intent of the message
c. Understanding and translating verbal, visual and other codes
d. Anticipating the intent of the sender
a. How a message is encoded
b. Verbal are the words used, the vocabulary
c. Vocal is how the words are said or transmitted, vocal tones, inflections, etc.
a. Ethos - credibility, real and perceived
b. Logos – logic, common pattern of thought to a group
c. Pathos – emotional appeals
d. Mythos – myths, common stories and shorthand by culture
a. Explains an individual, group, audience, market or culture
d. Gender or sex
e. Psychographic (anything else you can put a number to)
For additional information please click on "read more" below"
a. The experiences and background of an individual, group, audience, market or culture
b. The common communication short hands of a group
c. The common beliefs or ideas of a group
d. May be geographic, biological, psychological, sociological, etc.
13. Semantics -language
14. Transactional – two way involving passing of information, community, feeling or idea
a. Time, place and circumstances of communication
b. Reason for communication
c. Environment of communication
d. Methods of communication
16. Negotiated Meaning- determining common ground on what a concept, idea, thought or object means
1. Understanding Diversity
2. How Diversity impacts Messages
a. The tendency of a group to believe that its way of thinking, doing things or culture is somehow better or superior to anyone else’s.
b. Does not mean others are not respected or valid
c. Ours is better, our way is right
d. Nationalism. Religious evangelism. Democracy, Etc.
e. Can play a positive role in creating group pride
f. Can play a negative role in creating perception of being superior
g. Can lead to positive growth or to prejudice and hostility
4. Bias, Prejudice, Stereotype (see earlier in outline and also end of this weeks notes)
a. Bias is a tendency to feel one way or another about a person, place, object or idea. It is can usually be easily changed and may change by circumstance or environment
b. Prejudice is a strong culturally entrenched bias. It is not easily changed.
c. Stereotype is a bias that is used as a communication shorthand to quickly make judgments or understand and image or event. It is normal and may be prejudicial (difficult to change), situational or simple bias in its base. Television, film, commercials, first impressions all use stereotyping.
d. All bias, prejudices and stereotypes are value neutral; they may be good or bad based on the individual, situation, environment or circumstances of an event (communication).
e. Avoid prejudice in public speaking as it can create noise/filters/screens
5. Be aware and sensitive to today’s multi-cultural world
6. Be aware that thoughts, ideas, interpretations, mores, morals, ethics and attitudes are directly effected by culture and enculturalization
7. See the text. The subject is or can be highly controversial.
D. Other Key Terms
1. Stage Fright
3. Positive nervousness
6. Frame of Reference
IV. Transactional Communication,
A. All communication involves a transaction
B. Communication is irreversible
C. Communication is power
D. We judge people by their communication skills
E. How we judge varies by culture
F. The Greeks
a. Democratic Concepts
d. Absolute Truth
e. Relative Truth
G. Polarization, and how communication can help depolarize
H. Disclaimers, use of
1. Rules of CCSN and the course
a. No weapons, pornography, deliberate attack, drugs or alcohol
b. Turn off cell phones,
c. No gum,
d. No food,
e. Control your beverages
I. Cost of Education
J. Introduction to use of numbers and statistics
V. Communication changes over time, environment, culture
1. Definitions of words change
2. Understanding gestures changes
3. Audiences prefer conversational tone
4. Audiences prefer visual stimulus
5. Audiences can fact check on-line
6. Audiences are more questioning and less trusting
7. Minor mistakes are noticed and remembered more
8. Speaking may not involve video transmission, mediation, and other factors that may not have been a factor in the past
9. It is easier for audiences to record or photograph than in the past
10. Mass media has influenced audience preconceptions
B. Being open minded
C. Understanding why people differ
D. Bridging the differences
E. Understanding what influences you
F. Understanding how to influence others
J. Dealing with question and answers
M. Proper Special Even Speech
O. Understanding cultural diversity
P. Presenting ideas and information effectively
Q. Applying multiple skills effectively
VII. Elements to be Aware of : Opportunities and Challenges
1. The standard of what is right and wrong
2. A basic moral code which keeps society functioning properly
3. By sending a message you do impact the knowledge, view, perceptions and actions of others
a. Do no harm
b. Be truthful
c. Be honest
d. Be aware of your impact on others
4. Mediated communication ethical challenge
c. Truth or lack of truth in content
d. Diversity and depth of content
e. Ability to “pod” or “cocoon”
B. Critical thinking skills
1. Assess the validity of information
2. Used by both speaker and audience
3. Assess, evaluate, select and use ethically and effectively
4. Must be open to and consider contrasting information or views
C. Cultural Sensitivity
1. Be aware of cultural perspective and sensibility of audience
2. Be aware of Noise, screens, filters, and situation context
D. Visual and Presentation Aids
1. Learn and use software
2. Lear and use other tools
3. Be able to use traditional aids
4. Be aware that audience tolerance of mistake has decreased
5. Professional in appearance and use
6. Used at proper times
7. Used for correct purpose
8. Grabs attention of audience
9. Informs, persuades or impacts audience
VIII. Contexts of Human Communication
A. Interpersonal Communication:
1. Two or more people interacting with each other as unique beings
B. Group Communication
1. Three or more people interacting to accomplish a task, reach a shared goal or reach a compromise solution
C. Organizational Communication
1. Between or within organization for the objective of achieving common goals
D. Mass Communication
1. Originates with a media organization
2. Transmitted to a large, fairly anonymous and diverse audience
3. Or transmitted using electronic means to a non-exclusive audience
4. Or provided (such as in print or outdoor) for selection by a broad range of individuals choosing to receive the message
E. Public Speaking
1. An individual speaking or presenting to a group
2. Speaking or presenting to an audience over which the speaker has minimal control
3. Speaking or presenting with the intent of informing, entertaining, persuading or in other ways impacting audience members
4. Speaker has the primary responsibility for content
5. Time is limited or restricted for presentation
IX. Public Speaking skills are used everyday
A. Serves social, political and communal purposes
B. Informal in
1. Group meetings,
3. Attempts to persuade
4. Attempts to inform
5. With strangers, family and friends
6. As part of civil duty and responsibility
1. Class presentations
2. Work presentations
3. Community presentations
4. Formal family events
5. Religious or other group events
X. Public Speaking: Underlying Need to Speak in Groups
A. Public Speaking is an evolving art
1. Style used and expectations vary by audience and event
2. Listening skills have deteriorated
3. Attention spans are reduced
4. Formality is less required than in past
5. Perception of Ethos has changed
6. Speakers are expected to use visual aids correctly
7. Speakers in some situations are expected to entertain
8. Audiences have access to sources, fact-checking and additional information during and after the speech
9. Oral Communication is and always has been instantaneous
10. Oral Communication can be taped, photographed and redistributed easier than in the past
B. Public Speaking and all Oral Communication remain a basic human interaction
3. Communal purposes
C. Comparison over the ages of ways public speaking has changed (table 1.1)
D. Developing Multiple Communication Skills
1. Skills can be used in other areas of life or in other work
2. Builds Confidence
3. Helps overcome anxiety
4. Become better listeners
6. Oral presentation
7. Understanding persuasion
8. Understanding others
9. Adapt to audiences, situations, context
E. Patterns of Speech Organization (explained in later lessons)
XI. Back to basics. Why learn to speak in groups or in public?
1. Understand the value of a course in public speaking and applications in students life of the communication model
2. Understand the long tradition of communication studies
3. Identify the major similarities and differences between public speaking and everyday conversation (interpersonal communication)
4. Understand that nervousness is normal, and even desirable
5. Investigate methods of using or controlling nerves, making it work for you as a speaker
6. Understand the elements of the communication process and how to use them in everyday life
7. Understand to adapt to and grow stronger from cultural diversity
8. Understand ethnocentrism, when to use it and how to avoid it
9. Understand the concepts in the textbook
10. Understand how to apply all of these concepts to speaking in public
11. Using the tools for your own self-understanding and advancement.
B. Public Speaking is vital
1. Spreading, using and resolving ideas, influence and knowledge
2. Public speaking touches everyone and every aspect of life
a. Helps gain success in every aspect of life
b. Vital as a means of civic engagement
c. Can be a form of empowerment
1. Career advancement, understanding communication is a key resource
2. Career advancement, being able to speak to groups is a key asset.
3. Understanding and using Communication will lead to improvement in:
a. Grades, Academics
b. Success (Money and otherwise)
c. Understanding others and the world around you
d. Marketing and being marketed or sold to
e. Civic Responsibility (more later)
a. Organizing thoughts
b. Tailoring message to the audience
c. Response to and adapting to feedback
d. Seeking Maximum Impact
D. Differences from one on one interpersonal communication
a. Public Speaking is structured
b. Public Speaking requires more formal language
1. Appropriate to audience
2. Best to communicate complete concepts and ideas
3. You are being judged by listeners
4. Your ethos is directly involved in communication (more later)
E. History and players in public speaking (see text)
F. Similarities between public speaking and everyday conversation
1. Thoughts are organized, logically, emotionally or culturally
2. Structured with a need to engage, reengage and motivate
3. Time, environment, group interaction and relationships come into play
4. Message is tailored to the audience
5. Message is situational and fixed in a time or place
6. Message is meant and designed for maximum impact
7. Messages adapts to feedback
8. All parties leave changed in one way or another by the interaction
G. Public Speaking requires a different method of delivery
1. Language use
2. Structures or Designs
3. Goals and Expected Outcomes
4. Time limits or frames are vital
5. Feedback is usually not in the form of interruptions, but non-verbal in nature
6. Effective speakers develop their own method of delivery, avoiding distractions, being too informal or too formal (dependant on situation), avoiding distracting mannerisms and verbal habits…
XII. Changes over time, location and culture
A. Listening Skills, Attention Spans vary by time, group, culture
1. Lincoln Douglas Debates lasted hours, audience of farmers
2. Billy the Kid was classically educated
3. 1960’s Debates and State of Union watched, listened to
4. Retention skills diminishing with decline in reading
5. Multi-Cultural effects (good and bad)
6. Decline or evolution of vocabulary
7. Use of verbal, vocal and visual shifts
8. Various other education research finding
B. Need for visual aids and entertaining or reengaging audience
1. Maintain attention and comprehension
2. Reinforce narrative on multiple levels
3. Amplify examples
4. Explain concepts
5. Use ethos, pathos, logos and/or mythos
6. Should be geared to audience
C. Conversational tone
1. Not the same as conversation
a. Less colloquial
b. One way verbal
c. Slightly above level of audience
d. Use contractions
e. Use personal pronouns
2. Similar to conversation
a. Vocabulary at audience level or explained
b. Use of repetition to reinforce, explain
c. Adapts to feedback from audience
d. Gives impression of one-on-one conversation
e. Eye contact (explained elsewhere in course)
D. TV impact on public speaking
1. Appear to be talking to each viewer individually
2. Not cemented to podium
3. Use of gestures
4. Eye contact
5. Jerry Springer, Jay Leno
6. George Carlin, stadium, TV studio
E. Internet impact on public speaking
1. Immediacy expected
2. Current information and events expected
3. Audience may be more informed
4. Audience may have stronger opinions or views
5. Audience has shorter attention span
6. Audience can research what you say during the speech
7. Audience can check your facts
8. Audience can do further research later
9. Speech may be taped for later on-line review
F. Need to do Public Speaking and Groups over Video or Audio links
1. Video conferencing becoming common
2. Video of live events becoming more common
3. Video extension of interpersonal now a reality
XIII. Seven stages of developing and presenting a speech
A. Purpose: Overall Goal
1. Determine the purpose of the speech
a. Why did you select topic
b. Is it appropriate to the audience
c. What do you hope to accomplish
d. See private, public, general and specific in future notes
B. Be audience centered in selecting a topic and doing your speech
1. Audience centered communication
2. Audience adaption
3. Target your message to a particular audience, time and place
4. The same exact speech cannot be used with different audiences
5. All speeches are organic and need to change based on audience, feedback, situation, location, time, goals and so on…
1. Meets your purpose
2. Adapted to audience
3. Selected and polished through research
4. Willing to change based on research and new developments
D. Gathering Information
1. Begin with yourself: information you have knowledge on
2. Have a passion and interests in the topic
3. Seek help from others (librarian suggested, one with an MA)
4. Use differing sources, not just internet
5. Use academic sources (defined in later unit and lecture)
6. Seek out
f. Data bases
7. Be strategic
a. Plan your search
b. Stay on focus or shift topic
c. Think of how audience will perceive source
d. Think of how instructor will perceive source
E. Identify Main Points
1. Organize ideas
2. Group information
3. Organization and outline in text and in later units and lectures
1. BS is not rewarded as term continues
2. Many methods, one in the text
a. Complete sentence (not favored by this course)
b. Short reminder points
c. Decide if extemporaneous, memorized, manuscript, oratorical (explained later in this course)
d. Extemporaneous required in this course (without notes or with a few key notes to remind you0
3. Practice with note cards, eliminating them as you grow comfortable
4. Practice Needed for
b. To minimize missed materials,
c. To assist in finding place
d. To help reduce nerves
e. To reinforce knowledge of topic
f. To support ethos
g. To advance as a speaker and communicator
G. Managing the Tools and Your Speech
1. Voice (to be discussed later in the text, in later unit notes and lecture)
2. Body (also to be discussed later)
3. Audience Analysis: understanding your audience
4. Topic: knowing your subject and being organized
5. Presentation Media (practice with it)
7. Make sure you
a. Do a speech appropriate for the occasion
b. Use your note card when you must but only glace at them
c. Make and keep eye contact (direct, sustained, distributed, deliberate and at least 80% of the time)
d. Make sure the audience can hear and understand you
e. Volume, tone and other factors appropriate for your subject
f. Use gestures
1. Appearing natural
g. Arrive early
h. Check out room, equipment and environment
i. Practice or dry run all technical equipment
1. Adapt or change if needed
2. Be read for anything to go wrong, have backup
j. Analyze and understand your audience
k. Monitor your time
1. Be ready to end early
2. Be ready to stretch length
3. Be ready to adapt to audience
4. Make sure main points are made
5. Make sure you have time for summary and action
XIV. Speech Selection / Topics / Ideas
A. Interesting to you
B. You should know about subject enough to start research
C. Have a passion about subject (if possible)
D. Interesting to your audience
F. New information for your audience
G. Appropriate for the situation
H. Appropriate for the time allotted
K. Select based on requirements of speech
1. Most confident, use early in term
2. Lots of information, save for last two speeches
3. Major passion that requires a action, use as last speech
4. Think about your personal time allotment.
5. Research all term on all speeches, not last minute!
6. Ask how you can inspire, inform, transform the audience.
L. Selecting a topic
1. Make a personal inventory of what you know or are interests in
2. Talk to friends,
a. Things they can tell you that you know about
b. Things they are interested in, common interests
c. Sources they can assist you with
b. These notes
d. Research (how much is out there related to what you want to day, which is not the same as the overall topic!
M. Resources for inventing your speech
1. Always begin with your own experience, interests and knowledge
2. Look at general or directory sources of knowledge
3. Look into academic or juried sources of knowledge
4. Interview experts or primary sources
5. Conduct computerized searches
6. Consider specialized sources of information
7. Utilize librarians, professors, those there to assist you.
8. Never be afraid to ask!
N. Steps in Organizing A Speech
1. Open with impact, engage the audience
2. Focus on your thesis statement
3. Connect with your audience
4. Preview the body of your speech
5. Present your main points
6. Repeat key points (roadmap)
7. Summarize your main points
8. Close with impact
O. Ways to Close a Speech Effectively
1. Present a short memorable quotation
2. Use an anecdote or a story
3. Make a direct appeal (a call for action)
4. Return to your opening
5. Reengage your audience
6. Reinforce the reason for your speech
7. Make sure the audience knows what is in it for them
P. Methods of Delivery
4. Extemporaneous (required in this course)
Q. Matching Purposes
1. Persuasive: To have a class develop a favorable impression or consider an action on an issue or idea of importance to you.
2. Entertaining: To have the audience share an enjoyable experience.
3. Informative: To teach, expand knowledge, grow
R. Informative Speeches may persuade
S. Persuasive Speeches must inform
T. All communication influences, intentional or not
U. We are all influenced by communication, whether we wish to be or not
XV. Dealing with Nerves
1. Prepare, prepare, prepare
2. Practice, practice, practice
3. Think Positive
4. Use the Power of Visualization
5. Understand that nervousness is normal
6. All professionals, experienced speakers and actors, feel some form of stage fright or nerves, and learn to use them to their advantage or for their character persona.
7. Understand how to compensate for and cover your nerves
8. Do not expect perfection
9. Acquire speaking experience
10. It’s only a Speech, no the end of the world!
B. Methods to deal with nerves
1. Realize it is normal
2. Realize it happens to everyone
3. Realize that this is only a speech, a minor part of your life
4. Gain experience where you can
5. Be prepared and in the right frame of mind
d. Self confidence
g. Think Positive
h. Be well rested
i. Use physical exercise if it works for you
j. Breathing exercises are used by many speakers prior to a speech
k. Be confident about your introduction and conclusion
l. Forget the past and keep moving forward
m. Focus on the end goal, result, point
n. Repeat if needed, as repetition is normal
o. Be ware that what you see and feel is not the same as the audience
p. Realize that unlike written words, speech does not remain, so your mistakes and much of what you say will be gone and over, leaving only your overall point and the impact of your speech
q. Make eye contact
r. Use presentation aids (often called visual aids)
s. Understand learning styles and their use
t. Concentrate on the message, on communicating with your audience, and not yourself or your nerves or words you had planned to say. The message is what is important.
C. Listening and Critical Thinking
a. Adults listen 50% or less
b. Teenagers listen 25% or less
c. Listening is a voluntary active process, it is psychological
d. Hearing is physiological
e. You can learn to listen
f. Studies show that those who practice listening skills are less likely to develop memory loss in any form
g. Studies show that those who practice listening skills get better grades, higher pay and achieve their goals more often than those who do not.
h. Critical thinking requires active listening
i. Critical thinking involves being able to access the strengths and weaknesses of an argument
j. Critical thinking involves being able to distinguish between the fact, theory and opinions of an argument
k. Critical thinking allows for thinking outside of the box
l. Critical thinking allows for compromise and growth
m. Critical thinking involves being able to judge the credibility of sources
n. Critical thinking requires accessing the quality of evidence
o. Critical thinking involves discerning relationships between ideas
p. Critical thinking involves priorities on what to remember and in what context
q. Critical thinking allows for fewer mistakes and reduces trial and error in everyday life
r. Critical thinking DOES NOT MEAN NEGATIVE THINKING!
s. Critical thinking is a normal process that requires practice and reinforcement
t. Critical thinking is an active process
a. The process of gathering and interpreting evidence in support of claims
b. Needed because
i. Knowledge evolves,
ii. Facts change,
iii. New information is always being discovered
iv. New interpretations are always developing
a. Statements you want your audience to
iii. And/or act upon
b. Speaker must clarify and support their claims
VII. Evidence through research may be primary, secondary or tertiary.
a. Evidence is information used to clarify or support a claim
b. Academic primary evidence
i. Includes first hand knowledge or experience,
ii. Includes original documents or objects,
iii. Includes juried articles in academic articles or books
1. Usually through a University or Academic press
2. That are reviewed by at least three experts in the field
3. That are reviewed on a “blind test” basis
4. That are revised to assure accurate and factual material
5. That may include expert testimony.
6. That has checks and balances to minimize bias
iv. May include testimony or narratives from the original sources
1. Those who have experienced the event or issue considered
2. Those who have first hand knowledge of the experience or event
3. Those considered expert witnesses
v. May include oral or written testimony or narratives
2. Personal journals
3. Original notes
4. Original documents
5. Original articles or objects
6. Actual physical proofs
7. Complete interviews that minimize bias
8. Personal well done and professional interview with a primary source
c. Secondary references include
i. All other forms of reference that relate to the topic, specific thesis or point being made in a presentation or paper.
ii. Most books,
iii. Major news sources
iv. Major media outlets
v. Anything related to the thesis, subject, issue, point or sub points
d. Tertiary sources are other sources not directly related with the point, topic, points or specific thesis of a paper or presentation.
VIII. Directory media are those secondary or tertiary references that are used primarily to provide a foundation for, or general introductory understanding of the topic, thesis, point or subject.
a. Directory media include, but are not limited to,
iv. Many or most commercial internet sources
v. And any book that provides primarily a source for other references, including those that are academic or primary.
b. Directory media are not, under most circumstances, considered primary sources.
IX. Supporting Materials provide substance, strength, credibility, and appeal.
a. Arouse Audience interests
d. Show the
i. Meaning of ideas
ii. Importance for receiver (audience)
iii. Substantive statements
iv. Substantiate controversial statements
v. Substantiate new information
vi. Substantiate surprising or hard to understand statements
vii. Credit ideas of others properly and support ideas derived from others or other sources
viii. Support statements made that are essential to speakers/transmitters arguments or points
e. Gathered through personal experience, library resources and expert interviews
X. Facts and figures tend to be most objective (judge the source objectively).
a. Factual statements can stand alone but
i. Source must be supported or believed by receiver / audience.
ii. Speaker can or even must interpret their meanings
iii. Speaker should carefully distinguish facts from interpretive claims derived from the information.
iv. There are usually multiple ways to interpret “facts”
v. Speaker must cite reputable sources in support of claims and/or “facts” alleged to be interpreted correctly or true.
vi. Speaker must be cognizant of potential bias in sources of “factual” information
1. All sources/writers/individuals select information based on their own filters, bias, objectives or thesis.
2. Even neutral sources and statements are colored by the culture of the source/reference/writer/ speaker/ individual.
3. Even objective sources must be selective in deciding what information to present and what to omit.
4. All of communications is filtered or limited by size, time, potential, bias, culture, intent or perceived intent…etc.
b. Figures, statistics and numbers are considered numerical “facts” (but may or may not accurately indicate what you are studying in their methodology, collection, statistical error, volume or interpretation.
i. Figures /statistics
1. Forms of numerical information that describe some population, event, relationship or real world data collected
2. Describe size
3. Describe scope
4. Make predictions
5. Illustrate trends
6. Support or disprove claims
7. Show relationships
8. May not be relevant when reexamined
ii. Speakers may
1. Unpack or present “meaning” of figures for the audience/receiver
2. Provide explanation
3. Provide analysis
4. Use visual aids to make the figures real or show relationships
c. Facts and Figures are needed
i. To support claims
ii. To make the unfamiliar failure
iii. To add or support credibility
iv. To help persuade on controversial topics
d. Facts and figures can
i. Be used unethically
ii. Be misleading
iii. Be mistrusted by the audience/ receiver
iv. Be misinterpreted by the source/speaker/transmitter
v. Be bias
vi. Be incomplete
vii. Be derived incorrectly
viii. Include distortions
ix. Have omissions through fault or in error
x. Clutter a speech if too many used or used too often
xi. Confuse the audience if too many used or used too often
xii. Be outdated (fallacy or regency)
xiii. Be too dependant on one source or easy sources
xiv. Be non-academic or academic in nature
xv. Can represent possibilities instead of certainties
xvi. Can be willfully misused by source or resource utilized
e. Speakers should not
i. Rely too heavily on one or just a few sources
ii. Ignore contradictory information or sources
iii. Seek out only sourced that support their own view or assumptions
iv. Omit material that is important for interpreting the information
f. Three devises for turning facts and figures into supporting materials
1. Help audiences understand unpopular ideas
2. Help audiences understand unfamiliar ideas
3. Help audiences understand unfamiliar concepts
4. Should include at least two attempts to translate into terms failure with the audience
5. May have to be repeated in the speech as needed
1. May combine facts and figures
2. Are used to clarify a topic, idea or concept
3. Can be used to demonstrate how something works
4. Can be used to show why steps in a plan are needed
1. Are word pictures
2. Can invoke vivid, mood setting images
3. Are needed for full understanding of image or perspective
4. Are used for visualization of images, concepts or ideas
5. Can be overused
6. Can actually confuse audience is used incorrectly
XVI. Additional Concepts for Review
A. Communication is ongoing, changing, and dynamic.
B. Communication is transactional, negotiated, and unavoidable
C. We live in a communication society, with marketing/capitalism/commerce very dominated by the process of communication.
D. We live and depend on an information society, growth areas of 21st Century
E. Self-identity is influenced and some day defined by communication.
F. Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, societal
G. Group dynamics include the roles of players, rules of interaction, situation, mores’ of group, structure of the group, role of the group.
H. Adults listen 50% or less, Teens 25% or less, Kids 15% or less.
I. Speaking in public is the number 2 fear of Americans
J. See review for midterm and final notes in future units for specifics on the exams and from the textbook (again it is important you read the text, as the exams are based on the textbook)
K. Education is repetition
- We need to hear messages more than once to be sure we are listening properly and to make sure we understand the message properly
XVII. Other Notes
A. Self Concept, how you feel about yourself, a relatively stable set of perceptions you hold about yourself
B. Self Esteem. Evaluations of self worth
C. Reference Groups,
1. The groups you use to evaluate yourself against
2. The groups you use to craft or reflect your self-image
D. Negotiation of Meaning, meaning is what is agreed upon or understood between the parties involved
E. Intent of Receiver, what was expected to be communicated
F. Symbols, all communication uses symbols, words are symbols, etc.
G. Transmitter sends with intent, receiver decodes with intent
H. Intent may differ, altering the communication
I. Perception, how we see or perceive things.
J. Selection, data we choose to pay attention to
K. Organization, how we process and store information
L. Constructs, the systems of association we use to access stored information
M. Magic T, how to increase your grade by seating choices
N. Textbooks go to other textbooks or Internet course notes if you do not understand lecture or what you read in the course textbook
O. Web CT use
P. Bell Curve
Q. Point system to be used
R. Syllabus distributed and explained
S. Contract signed and returned for course
T. First Speech sign up
U. Introduce each other and tell a little about ourselves
V. Com Model
Y. Intro to course
Z. Transmitter is the speaker, originator(s) of the message, source.
XVIII. Concepts Continued
A. Remember you have all semester to master these concepts, but keep in mind the exam and speech dates and reading assignment dates.
B. Receiver is the audience, respondent, intended target.
C. Channel is the medium/ media / method used to send a message. Usually multiple methods at one time.
D. Message is what is intended to be communicated.
E. Signals or Codes are the elements that are used to put together the message.
F. Meaning is interpretative and not fixed or constant.
1. To negotiate meaning implies that signals or codes may have more than one interpretation and can be impacted by the noise/screens/filters of both the sender and the receiver.
G. Feedback is the reversal of the model, where receiver becomes the transmitter, sending a return message back to the original transmitter.
H. Noise/ Screens/ Filters impact both the transmission and feedback, both sender and receiver.
I. Encode is to put the elements of the message together as signals.
J. Decode is to read and interpret the elements of the message or signals
K. Stalin example.
L. Greeks and the reasons for model, codes and proofs.
M. Codes: Visual, Vocal Verbal.
N. Verbal: words, the actual written language. Vocabulary, use of words.
O. Vocal: how you say the words. Subtext. Multiple meanings, Example: I love you.
P. Visual: everything else includes what you can see, feel, touch, smell, and hear.
Q. Visual aids are also called Presentation Aids because not all aids are seen.
R. Some cultures are more verbal, others more visual, and others more vocal.
S. Vocal, Visual, Verbal for most Americans.
T. Visual is the most memorable of the codes, but may not be remembered correctly or mean the same to all receivers.
U. Vocal is why you an understand foreign language films and helps to learn other languages.
V. Rhetoric; the codes used to transmit or receive a message and how those codes are interpreted. For example: waves crashing on a beach means sex.
W. (Screens, Filters, Interference) is the natural elements that may interfere with receiving the message as intended. Meaning is negotiated by understanding both the sender and receivers “noise”.
X. Semantic noise- when words do not mean the same thing and get in the way of the message, when words are not understood or have multiple meanings.
Y. There are three types of noise, all of which are interconnected and may influence or overlap each other.
Z. Demographics are numbers used to understand an individual, group, audience or market.
XIX. Additional Concepts to review and learn
A. Demographics are determined by how an individual, group or market identifies itself. They are self-volunteered information because identity and identification are most important in understanding the individual or group being studied.
B. Age and Sex (Gender) are the most commonly used Demographics and are for the most part quantitatively correct (most information is actual and not volunteered).
C. Psychographic are all other Demographically quantified information. Examples include income level, household income, geographies, geographic history, education level, racial and ethnic identity. Religion / Faith / Beliefs, group affiliations…
D. Cocooning: closing out the outside world.
E. Podding: letting in only what you want to hear, seem believe.
G. Ethos: Credibility
H. Credibility comes from the perception of confidence, integrity, liability, power, competency, experience, and knowledge. Prestige, expertise.
I. Competence can be education, experience, knowledge, and performance
J. Integrity can be from being straightforward, truthful, open, honest, ability to look at all sides, commitment, following your own advice, etc.
K. Likeability comes from good will, personality, appearance, eye contact, facial expression (smile), conversational tone, relevance, and approachability.
L. Power comes from being decisive, the position you hold, leadership ability, etc..
M. Pathos is emotion. To tap Pathos use stories (narratives), examples, appeal to ethnocentrism, motivation (to action or change), strong beliefs, group affiliations. Pathos is the second most powerful proof for Americans. Marketing and civic utilize pathos.
N. Logos is logic. It is reflects what is rational. Logos may use numbers (facts, figures), expert testimony, basic ethics, shared unimpeachable beliefs. Pheno-Grecco-Roman-Anglo roots. Judeo-Christian logic.
O. Mythos. Myths. Cultural heritage. Examples may include stories (narratives), patriotism, heroes, and pride, historic deeds, group beliefs, shared experiences, things that cement and unify identity.
P. Underdog…David and Goliath.
Q. State Anxiety: An uneasiness caused by situation or state.
R. Physiological and Psychological Indicators are measures of changes that occur because of anxiety. These do impact screens/filters/interference/noise.
S. Catastrophizing means blowing things out of proportion.
T. Cognitive Restructuring: changing the way you think
XX. Communication Models
A. See textbook
B. Search Internet
C. Take notes in class
D. See Jillians Notes
E. Use this link: