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Friday, April 18, 2014

Persuasive Speech Designs and Structures

  Speeches must select appropriate designs, structures or organizational strategies
                                               i.     Can use some or all of the designs or structures utilized in informative speaking
                                             ii.     Categorical can be used to list reasons
                                            iii.     Sequential may be used to show steps in a plan
                                            iv.     Chronological could be used to support reasons for action
                                              v.     Comparative may work well with a speech of contention
  Problem-Solution
                                               i.     Convinces audience there is a problem
                                             ii.     Shows audience a probable/ recommended solution
                                            iii.     Shows how to deal with the problem effectively
                                            iv.     Establishes problem exist and is significant
                                              v.     Should offer solutions that are concrete and easy to follow
    Problem-Cause-Solution
                                               i.     Establish that a problem exists
                                             ii.     Provide the primary or most likely cause
                                            iii.     Show how you can solve the problem by addressing the cause
   The stock issue approach
                                               i.     Acknowledges a need for change because of a significant problem
                                             ii.     The elephant in the living room or gorilla in the closet
                                            iii.     Questions that reasonable people are likely to have on their mind
                                            iv.     Addresses the following questions
a.     Is there a need for change because of some significant problem
b.     What is the best solution to the problem
c.     Who will put this solution into effect
                                              v.     Focuses on inherency
a.     Is a harmful effect caused by this problem
b.     Will proposed solutions solve it
c.     To what extent is harm an inevitable part of the situation
d.     How much resistance is there to change
e.     Can change occur without greater damage

Persuading Others


When you persuade others, you use language, images, and other means of communication to influence their attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions. Persuasive speeches may address questions of fact, value, or policy. Speeches on questions of fact ask whether something is true or not true. Speeches on questions of value take a position on the worth of something. And speeches on questions of policy are concerned with what should or should not be done. Speeches on questions of fact typically are organized using topical, chronological, spatial, or cause-and-effect pattern. Speeches on questions of value are best organized using a topical, chronological, or spatial pattern. Because speeches on questions of policy ask for action or passive agreement on the part of the audience, the problem-solution, problem-cause-solution, or motivated sequence are the best patterns of organization for such speeches.

In general, persuasive speakers face five types of audiences: negative, positive, divided, uninformed, and apathetic. Each type calls for different persuasive strategies. 




Negative audiences require persuasive speakers to thoroughly demonstrate their credibility, take a common-ground approach, visualize the topic in positive ways, and address audience objections. Persuasive public speakers facing positive audiences use narratives, engaging evidence, vivid language and images, and calls to action to reinforce listeners' opinions. 




When speaking to a divided audience, persuasive speakers must integrate the strategies for negative and positive audiences. Uninformed audiences require speakers to use motivational tactics, demonstrate expertise, rely on repetition and redundancy, and employ subtle persuasive strategies. 




For apathetic audiences, speakers must gain and maintain audience attention, relate the topic to the audience, display dynamism, and take a one-sided approach to the topic. Ethical public speakers must meet the National Communication Association's standards of ethical communication. Ethical persuasive speakers present their information and arguments truthfully, accurately, and honestly, and never deceive or manipulate the audience.




Click on "read more" below for additional notes, links and chapter review.

Persuasion and Audience: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs