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Friday, February 28, 2014

Sample Outline Format with APA references

Complete-Sentence Outline
Topic: Astrology
General Purpose: To inform
Specific Purpose:  To give a general overview of astrology to my audience
Thesis: The 4 main components of astrology are the planets, zodiac, houses, and aspects (Rogers-Gallagher, 2009)

Click "read more" below to reveal full outline with APA references. (NOTE references may no meet class standard for Academic)

      I.         Astrology is not astronomy (Bakich, 2004).
a.     Astronomy is the science that studies celestial objects.
b.     Astrology is a belief that celestial objects in the cosmos influence individual lives here on earth.
     II.         Astrology is not a science, it is a philosophy or mythology ("Astrology: Is it;" Bakich, 2004).
a.     Astrology is a combination mythology and magic (Bakich,2004).
                                               i.     Much of the symbolism and correspondences of astrology come from ancient mythologies, notably Roman and Greek (Bakich, 2004; Gillet, 2011).
1.     For example, because Venus was the Roman goddess of love, the planet’s influences on humanity are related to love.
b.     Astrology uses the theory of magical correspondences (Bakich, 2004).
                                               i.     Correspondences are relationships between things; they make use of the connectedness of things (Holland, 2008).
                                             ii.     If you don’t believe in magic, you can think of correspondences as another type of mythology.
   III.         Astrology is geocentric based (Gillet, 2011).
a.     This means the universe is viewed from earth, not space.
b.     The definition of geocentric is “with the earth as a center” (Webster/’s new world, 2000)
                                               i.     I’m pretty sure everyone here knows the earth revolves around the sun, but from our perspective here on earth everything in the sky seems to move around us, this is the principal of the geocentric view (“Apparent motion of;” Gillet, 2011; Webster/’s new world, 2000)
   IV.         Astrology is highly symbolic.
a.     If I say a zodiac, planet, or house represents death, for example, this death is usually a symbolic one, such as the “death” or a relationship.
     V.         The aspects of astrology are the planets, zodiac, houses, and aspects (Gillet, 2011; Rogers-Gallagher, 2009)
a.     Each represents a different level of human existence (Rogers-Gallagher, 2009)
Transition: I will explain these aspects now.
               I.         The planets are the first main components of astrology (Gillet, 2011; Rogers-Gallagher, 2009).
a.     They are believed to represent or influence the many general aspects that make up our lives and personalities.
b.     Astrology does not include earth because of its geocentric principal, but does include the Sun and the Moon, in addition to the old and new planets.
                                               i.     The old planets are ones our ancestors knew before the existence of advanced technology.
1.     The old planets are Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.
                                             ii.     The new planets are the planets that were discovered more recently, within the last couple centuries.
1.     The new planets are Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto
                                            iii.     Unfortunately, I don’t have time to go into detail on what each of the planets represent, so I included that information in the handout I’m going to pass out after my speech.
     II.         The zodiac signs are the second main components of astrology (Rogers-Gallagher, 2009).
a.     The zodiac signs are sections of the sky, each is 30 degrees, and are believed to describe the behavior a planet or house will use to express itself.
b.     Every zodiac sign is assigned its own set of key concepts, or types of energy.
                                               i.     The first of these energies is a sign’s polarity (Gillet, 2011; Rogers-Gallagher, 2009).
1.     The polarities are masculine and feminine, not to be confused with male and female.
a.     Masculine energies are those that are active and assertive.
b.     Feminine energies are those that are receptive and passive.
                                             ii.     The second concept is a sign’s quality (Rogers-Gallagher, 2009).
1.     The qualities are cardinal, fixed, and mutable.
a.     Cardinal energies are those that initiate change.
b.     Fixed energies are those that are thorough and unstoppable.
c.     Mutable energies are those that are flexible and changeable.
                                            iii.     The final concept is a sign’s element (Rogers-Gallagher, 2009).
1.     The elements include earth, air, fire, and water.
a.     Earth energies are those that are solid, practical, supportive, and reliable.
b.     Air energies are those that correspond to the intellectual and mental aspects of life.
c.     Fire energies are those that initiate action and creation.
d.     Water energies are those that correspond to the emotional aspects of life.
                                            iv.     The specific key concepts of the zodiac signs will also be included in the handout (Gauding, 2009; Rogers-Gallagher, 2009).
   III.         The houses are the third main components of astrology (Gillet, 2011; Rogers-Gallagher, 2009).
a.     The houses represent different areas of our lives, or the various circumstances and encounters we may face.
   IV.         Aspects are the final component of astrology (Rogers-Gallagher, 2009).
a.     The aspects are angles that represent the relationships between planets.
b.     In my opinion, the aspects are the hardest to understand, so I’m going to explain these personally.
c.     The main aspects of astrology are conjunctions, sextiles, squares, trines, quincunxes, and oppositions.
                                               i.     Conjunctions occur when planets are within 0 to 8 degrees of each other.
1.     Planets in conjunction are believed to operate together.
                                             ii.     Sextiles occur when planets are 60 degrees apart, and link planets of compatible elements, meaning earth and water or fire and air.
                                            iii.     Squares occur when planets are 90 degrees apart, and the relationship between them is tense and uncomfortable.
                                            iv.     Trines occur when planets are 120 degrees apart, and are usually between planets of the same element.
                                              v.     Quincunxes occur when planets are 150 degrees apart, and join signs that don’t share a quality, element, or gender.
1.     Their relationship is difficult, like that of two strangers who don’t speak the same language trying to communicate.
                                            vi.     Oppositions occur when planets are 180 degrees apart, and are believed to work against each other.
Transition: Now that I have touched on astrology’s main components, being the planets, zodiac, houses, and aspects, I’m going to bring up birth charts.
      I.         Your birth chart is where all the components I just went over, the planets, zodiac, houses, and aspects, come together (Gillet, 2011).
a.     More specifically, your birth chart illustrates the location of these components at the moment of your birth, based on your location.
b.     A birth chart looks kind of like this.
                                               i.     The planets and zodiac are represented by symbols
                                             ii.     The houses are often represented by roman numerals, starting here (point)
                                            iii.     These crazy lines in the middle are the aspects
c.     In a minute, I’m going to give out these handouts.
                                               i.     They will contain more detailed information on the planets, zodiac, and houses than I would have been able to give in 10 minutes.
                                             ii.     I also included a website where you can get your own birth chart for free.
     II.         On that note, I will conclude my speech. Thanks for listening.
Apparent motion of the sun. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Astrology: Is it scientific?. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Bakich, M. E. (2004, december). Astrology: Fact or fiction?. Astronomy32(12), 50-56. Retrieved from
Botticelli. (Artist). (n.d.). The birth of venus. [Web Photo]. Retrieved from              (in slideshow)
Gauding, M. (2009). The signs and symbols bible. New York: Sterling Publishing.
Gillet, R. (2011). The secret language of astrology. London: Watkins Publishing.
Holland, E. (2008). The wicca handbook. San Francisco: Red Wheel/Weiser
Rogers-Gallagher, K. (2009). Introduction to astrology. In I. Llewellyn (Ed.), Llewellyn's 2010 Astrological Calendar (pp. 24-31). Llewellyn Publications.
 (2000). Webster's new world pocket dictionary. (4 ed., p. 136). Clevland, Ohio: Wiley Publishing.

Tuesday, February 4, 2014

Titantic’s Morse Code Messages Brought to Life by Audio Artist

Titantic’s Morse Code Messages

102 years ago today...April 15, 1912...

RMS Titanic departing Southampton on April 10, 1912. (Photo: Wiki Commons)
RMS Titanic departing Southampton on April 10, 1912. (Photo: Wiki Commons)
At ten minutes to midnight this morning a modern passenger liner stopped above the grave site of the Titanic, holding a prayer vigal as the names of all of those who lost their lives, including five major British and American industrialists, were read. At midnight the site became and International Historic site, making further taking of "artifacts" illeagle.

On the night the Titanic struck an iceberg, 100 years ago last night, a network of wireless operators on ships and land stations frantically communicated with each other across the expanses of the North Atlantic in an effort to mount a rescue mission. The surviving messages form a real-time record of the events of that night. 

The only surviving real-time record of the sinking of the Titanic 100 years ago this weekend are the transcriptions of Morse Code messages sent to and from the ship via Marconi Wireless–the most advanced long-distance communication of its time.

On the 100th anniversary of the disaster, an audio artist has used voice synthesis software to bring those messages to life.

That Titanic broke into two sections and sank rapidly at 2:19 AM on April 15, 1012.

Image of the Carpathia loading Titanic Survivors. Adults had to climb rope ladders to a cargo hold, children were placed in burlap bags, tied in and loaded into shipping nets to be hoisted onto the deck. The California was less than ten miles away but the radio room had shut down for the night, causing an even greater loss of life as the Carpathia was almost four hours away at full steam. The Titanic sank in calm seas. If the ship had enough life boats instead of the minimum requirement of the maritime union more than 1400 lives could have been spared. Best film for the human side of the disaster, I recommend "A Night to Remember"(1958). Of course those who love attention to digital detail and an unrealistic love story, go to theaters this week and see the modern film "Titanic" (available in 3D).

  •  The Carpathia was one of the ships that received the Titanic's calls for help

  • BBC News - Titanic: The final messages from a stricken ship

  • BBC: Discovery, Titanic - In Her Own Words 

  • PRI's The World