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Wednesday, January 16, 2013

APA In-Text Citation Guide

Source: Penn State Library

Using in-text citation with APA style

APA style uses the author/date system for in-text citation. Within the text of your paper, include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. See the following examples for correct ways of using in-text citation.
Using the author/date system
Author's NameExample of Usage
Author's name part of narrativeGass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Author's name in parenthesesOne study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Multiple works (separate each work with semi-colons)Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote, author's name part of narrativeGass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Direct quote, author's name in parenthesesOne study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, date, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Works by multiple authors

APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following chart to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.
Citing Works by Multiple Authors in Text
Type of citationFirst citationSubsequent citationsFirst citation,
parenthetical format
Subsequent citations, parenthetical format
One authorField (2005)Field (2005)(Field, 2005)(Field, 2005)
Two authorsGass and Varonis (1984)Gass and Varonis (1984)(Gass & Varonis, 1984)(Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three authorsMunro, Derwing, and Sato (2006)Munro et al. (2006)(Munro, Derwing, & Sato, 2006)(Munro et al., 2006)
Four authorsTremblay, Richer, Lachance, and Cote (2010)Tremblay et al. (2010)(Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, & Cote, 2010)(Tremblay et al., 2010)
Five authorsHay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, and Freiberg (2007)Hay et al. (2007)(Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, & Freiberg, 2007)(Hay et al., 2007)
Six or more authorsNorris-Shortle et al. (2006)Norris-Shortle et al. (2006)(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Krech Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.


Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259.

Krech Thomas, H. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.

"Song for Dwight" written, directed and co-produced by Michael Toole

Michael O'Toole and Fin Keegan shared a link.

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Adult Education is not spoon fed, you have to work at it.

Program In middle school all the way up to high school I was spoon fed the materials taught in class. I did not have any study habits or routines. I just breezed through everything. When I attended UNLV, I was not spoon fed anything. I had to learn the hard way. I had to read textbooks and power point presentations. When the teachers didn't pass out a review exam (which had the exact same questions on the actual exam) I looked around like what is this?? I literally had to learn how to study in a matter of weeks. So it is better to just learn and think for yourselves. When you go into your career no one is just going to give you the answers, you need to figure it out. LOK on Socratic Backfire?
-From a student

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90 Links from a Communication Students

30 Communication Article References
and 30 more for good luck...

1. Changing Minds, Articles on Communication

2. Effective Communication – That’s Just What I Mean!

3. The Power of Nonverbal Communication

4. Types of Nonverbal Communication

5. Are Man and Women Equals in Nonverbal Communication?

6. Nonverbal Obama: Aside from His Words

7. Secrets of Nonverbal Communication

8. Developing Effective Communication Skills

9. 10 Communication Secrets of Great Leaders

10. Tips for Communicating Well at Work

11. Effective Communication

12. Coaching Through Conflict : Effective Communication Strategies

13. The Human Factor: The Critical Importance of Effective Teamwork and Communication
       In Providing Safe Care

14. Essentials of Effective Communication

15. Communication Among Health Care Workers: An Essential Component of Quality Care

17. Should Physicians Use Email to Communicate With Patients?

18. Effective Communication Begins With a First Impression

19. Communication Strategies

20. Improving Clinical Communication

21. Students Struggle For Words

22. Good Communication Skills Key To Success

23. Effective Communication in Academic Advising

24. Communication at The Core of Effective Public Health

25. The Discipline of Listening

26. Active Listening in Cross-Cultural Communications

27. Build Better Listening Skills

28. The Number One Skill

29. How to Improve Your Listening Skills

30. Is Social Media Sabotaging Real Communication?

Click "read more" below for 60 more links from two other students.