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Lynch Coaching


Wednesday, July 4, 2012

Piano stairs - -

Reading this blog...a key note.

Critical Thinking involves listening to the other side, seeing things from their point of view, and responding with informed perspectives...

Communication is transactional, requiring listening, understanding, and the ability to learn or change.

Symbols include more than words or images.

This blog has biased posts that are intended to get students to think, to listen, to respond. They are not intended to attack, make anyone change their views or represent the views of anyone whose material is used as necessarily correct, or gospel.

Use your brain and feel free to post honest substantive "comments."

Thank you;

Art Lynch

The right to vote...

“The Speaker of the [New Hampshire] State House was notoriously caught on tape telling a Tea Party group that he supported the bill because students tend to vote Democratic.”

-- Report, Brennan Center for Justice

Republican strategists think that Democrats can’t win if they cripple our voter registration activity; if students, minorities, and working Americans aren’t allowed to cast ballots, and if they can disqualify 5 million Americans from voting.

That’s why the Koch brothers and their corporate allies are backing a coordinated effort to manipulate the rules in 2012.  Their plan for taking the Senate and the White House is simple: Force us to fight with one hand tied behind our backs.

Republicans are limiting the right of every American to vote by requiring photo ID, setting registration deadlines and putting polling places in neighborhoods that discriminate against various voter groups.

Republicans are hitting us where it hurts, trying to cut the legs out from under the grassroots organizing that has helped Democrats win close, tough races for years.  With 23 seats to defend — and Republicans needing only four to take the majority — this is a serious threat.

Our Election Protection Project is up and running — challenging the legality of these voter suppression tactics and expanding our turnout program to account for the new rules.

It’s no accident that these new laws — making it harder to register new voters, cutting back on early voting that allows working Americans to cast their ballots, even specifically targeting students and minorities — are aimed at disenfranchising Democrats.

And it’s no accident that Republicans are targeting states like Florida, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Virginia — presidential battlegrounds with marquee Senate races in 2012.

The powerful, corporate-backed, right-wing American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) is pulling the strings here.  And they know exactly what they’re doing.  If their voter suppression can push the four states I just mentioned into the GOP column, they take the Senate.  And the states they’ve targeted could swing more than enough electoral votes to take the White House.

Our Election Protection Project is our best chance to stop this voter suppression campaign and make sure 2012 is a fair fight — but we must reach our goal by midnight Sunday. Can you help by sending a $5 contribution right now to help us reach $100,000?

Early grassroots support has made it possible for us to fight back, formally asking the Department of Justice to step in and researching every possible way to stop these rules from taking effect.  But we can’t keep up the fight if we can’t fund this project.

And with so much at stake in 2012, the truth is that we have to find a way to win whether it’s a fair fight or not.  We’re going to have to work that much harder to bring voters to the polls despite the Republicans’ voter suppression program.  It’s going to be harder.  It’s going to be more expensive.  We’re going to have to ask more of you.

Please don’t sit on the sidelines.  Fight for the right of every American to vote.

Thank you,

Guy Cecil

First published 10-23-2011

Hometown 4th of July with largest community fireworks in the state

Damboree 4th of July

Damboree (I announce near Alien Shop by start of parade route)

Damboree Celebration

Boulder City
Damboree Celebration
"Preserving Our Past to Educate the Future"

Wednesday, July 4th
 9:00am PARADE BEGINS at Colorado St., down Nevada Hwy. to Fifth St., to Broadbent Memorial Park at Avenue B & 5th St.

*New Water Zone - The only location for water play on the parade route starts at Aztec to Ave B & Ave B to the end of the parade at 6th Street. If you want to engage in water play, you MUST be at this location. No water play will be allowed at any other location on the parade route
9:05am FLYOVER by the Boulder City Veteran's Flying Group
Located at 1301 5th St.
Food, drinks & games
Presented by non-profit groups
Flag Raising & National Anthem
Presentation of parade trophies & greetings by dignitaries
1:00pm COIN TOSS at the Pool (admission: price to the pool)
Games & Contests
Sponsored by the Boulder City Parks & Recreation Department
Sponsored by the Boulder City Parks & Recreation Department
6-11:00pm FESTIVITIES AT VETERANS' MEMORIAL PARK Located at 1650 Buchanan Blvd
6:30pm Food - fun, water park & competitive games
7-8:45pm Pie Eating and Live Music
Boulder City Damboree

The largest Fourth of July parade and fireworks in the state of Nevada celebrates both Independence Day and the founding of Boulder City as the city for workers who helped "tame the mighty Colorado" by building the Boulder Dam.

In 2009,  2010, 2011 and 2012, I served as a parade announcer and was involved in other civic activities in Boulder City, NV. You will find me near the trading shop and Alien Shop, just south of the Post Office near the start of the parade.


GOP delegates sue to be free from Romney

 From (click here)

123 Republicans and counting want to be 'unbound' at national convention

Over 120 delegates to the Republican National Convention have joined a lawsuit against the GOP arguing they have been illegally coerced into choosing Mitt Romney for the party’s presidential nominee and demanding they be “unbound” to vote for another candidate instead.

The federal lawsuit, filed this week in U.S. District Court in California by mostly supporters of Ron Paul, demands the delegates be freed to “vote their conscience” for presidential nominee at the party’s August national convention in Tampa, Fla., rather than being “bound” to vote for a certain candidate, as many state party bylaws require, based on the primary elections and other delegate selection procedures.

Courthouse News Service reports at least another 40 additional national convention delegates have asked to join the lawsuit.

Supporters of the effort say there is “evidence that the voting rights of Ron Paul Republican delegates and voters … have been violated by nearly every state GOP party and the RNC during the 2012 primary election phase.”

The delegates claim the party violated federal law by forcing them to sign loyalty affidavits, under threat of perjury, to vote for Mitt Romney, though he is not yet the official nominee.

“They don’t want to be bound to any candidate, or even be forced to vote for the nominee,” Richard Gilbert, of Gilbert & Marlowe, attorney for the delegates, told Courthouse News. “To have a real convention, the delegates must have free will so that when they meet, they can persuade each other and then decide who to vote for.”

The courts have typically allowed political parties leeway in the nomination of their candidates, but this case asks the court to consider the choice of presidential nominee a “federal election,” subject to laws that would free delegates from party procedures to vote their conscience.

Beyond merely asserting delegates’ “right” to vote their conscience, however, the lawsuit asserts the GOP has engaged in a racketeering-like scheme to push Romney as the candidate.

“The Republican National Committee and its chairman have been aiding the Governor Romney campaign for at least six months,” the lawsuit asserts. “The RNC and its chairman, defendant Reince Priebus, have … combined with a particular candidate with all of the aid the RNC can possibly, but improperly give … to obstruct, intimidate and harass delegates from voting their conscience.”

Specifically, the lawsuit charges Republican officials and operatives have used threats of violence, certified unlawful slates of delegates, demanded affidavits of loyalty to Romney under penalty of perjury and have even altered ballot results to make sure the national convention is stacked with delegates who will vote for Romney.

“Some campaigns act like organized crime syndicates – and I mean organized crime, no doubt about it,” Gilbert told Courthouse News. “In Arizona, the voting machines were rigged so that Ron Paul votes were counted as Mitt Romney votes. It was so intentional that a Romney delegate refused to certify the vote count, and for that he got thrown off the convention.”

The plaintiffs are asking the court to order the RNC to inform delegates they can vote for the nominee of their choice, to reinstate delegates who lost their seats at the convention because they refused to sign loyalty affidavits and to recount ballots by hand or hold another convention in areas “where the sanctity of the ballots are untrustworthy.”

Yet striking down party rules that bind candidates to vote in accordance with the primary process could suddenly open up the nomination to another campaign season, as presidential hopefuls could attempt to sway the elected delegates to their side, a potentiality Gilbert recognizes.

“If the judge rules in our favor, I won’t be surprised if three or four new candidates, say Sarah Palin, jump in and say they want to be considered,” Gilbert told Courthouse News. “It will be the most interesting national convention in my lifetime if the judge rules for us on this.”

A video created by allies of the lawsuit explaining its basics can be seen by clicking here.

Some sources report that Gilbert & Marlowe represent presidential hopeful Rep. Ron Paul, R-Texas, but the attorney’s office would not confirm with WND whether it has represented Paul previously nor whether the congressman has any connection to the current lawsuit.

Partying Like It’s 1934

A while back I read Lionel Robbins’s 1934 book The Great Depression; as I pointed out, it was a Very Serious Person’s book for its era. Its solution was a return to the gold standard — which would have made things worse — and free trade, which was basically irrelevant to the problem of insufficient demand.

So have the VSPs learned anything these past 78 years?


When I read headlines about the call by European leaders for action to stimulate growth, I wondered for just a second whether there was a crack in the austerian consensus. But noooo. The answer of the leaders to a severe shortage of demand — the private sector simply isn’t spending enough — is, wait for it, deregulation and trade liberalization.

This is not so much a bad idea as an irrelevant one. What would it do to reduce the burden of household debt? What would it do to narrow the destructive German surplus?

The beginning of any understanding of macroeconomics is the realization that what’s good from a micro point of view can often be irrelevant or even harmful from a macro point of view when the economy is depressed. But that hard-won insight has now been willfully forgotten.


Published 5-28-2012

What does it mean to be a partiot?


Are Gay unions the same as marriage?

Regarding the “religious duck,” many people argue that gay marriage is against Biblical teaching, and therefore, should not be allowed.  I agree with an opinion that I read which states, “It is up to each church to decide whether or not gay unions are acceptable within their doctrine, and established rites” (   

-From a student
Bill Moyers
Behind this Fourth of July holiday are human beings, like Thomas Jefferson, who were as flawed as they were inspired.

Search PBS
Bill Moyers Journal
Bill Moyers Journal
Bill Moyers Journal
The JOURNAL on American History: Photo Essays
The JOURNAL has covered many topics in American History — 
topics ranging from immigration to the idea of the American 
 Get reacquainted with the vital strands of the nation's
 past and present 
with the MOYERS ON HISTORY player or in the 
slideshows and pages gathered below.
Immigration Timeline

The 21st century is not the first to grapple with the issue of regulating immigration. In the late 19th 
and early 20th century, public opinion began to swell against the influx of immigrants from Southern 
and Eastern Europe. In order to restrict immigration to the perceived "better" immigrant groups,
 Congress passed first the Quota Act of 1921, then the even more restrictive Immigration Act 
of 1924 (the Johnson-Reed Act).

The 1924 law imposed a total quota on immigration of 165,000 — less than 20 percent of the 

pre-World War I average. It also based ceilings on the number of immigrants from any
 particular nation on the percentage of each nationality
 recorded in the 1890 census- before the large waves began to arrive from Southern and 
Eastern Europe. The result was obvious — between 1900 and 1910 an average of 200,000 
Italians had entered the United States every year. After the 1924 Act, the annual 
quota for Italians was set at less
 than 4,000.

>>Slideshow: Explore a media timeline about immigration here.

Legacy of Lynching

Please be advised that there are graphic still photos of 
lynchings in this slideshow. While these photos are 
germane to the subject matter, some viewers may 
find these images disturbing.

In 2000 the newspapers were full of talk about an exhibit 
entitled "Without Sanctuary" on view in a New York gallery 
and later at the New York Historical Society. The cause 
of the talk? The exhibition was of lynching postcards 
 — souvenirs of violence once popular items in the United States. Nooses are news these days. 
The now well-publicized incident in Jena, Louisiana is just one of a string of events — 
in states from New York to Minnesota. In 2006 James H. Cone spoke on the resonance o
f the symbols of lynching:
"...blacks and whites and other Americans who want to understand the meaning

of the American experience need to remember lynching."

-James H. Cone, Watch Dr. Cone's speech "
The Cross and the Lynching Tree"

at Harvard Divinity School or read the article of the same title.
>>Slideshow: The legacy of lynching in the United States.
The Gilded Age

The United States is the most economically stratified 
society in the western world. As THE WALL STREET 
JOURNAL reported, a recent study found that the 
top .01% or 14,000 American families hold
 22.2% of wealth — the bottom 90%, 
or over 133 million families, just 4% of the nation's wealth.

Additional studies narrow the focus: This from 

the Pew Foundation and THE NEW YORK TIMES: 
"The chance that children of the poor or middle class will climb up the income ladder, 
has not changed significantly over the last three decades. "This from THE ECONOMIST'S 
special report, "Inequality in America:" "The fruits of productivity gains have been 
 skewed towards the 
highest earners, and towards companies, whose profits have reached record levels 
as a share of GDP."

This trend, among others, has some historians and cultural commentators 
comparing our era to that of the late 19th century Gilded Age. Bill Moyers guest 
Steve Fraser notes its hallmarks: crony capitalism, extreme inequalities in wealth and income, 
ostentatious spending and wage depression. Mark Twain is responsible for naming the period between Reconstruction and Roosevelt, 'The Gilded Age.' As THE OXFORD COMPANION TO 
UNITED STATES HISTORY notes, it is the only period to be commonly known by a 
pejorative name. More information on the Gilded Age, including an interview with historian 
Steve Fraser, can be found here.

>>Slideshow: Explore images from the Gilded Age.

The History of Labor Day

In the late 1800s, the growing U.S. labor movement 
began to demand official recognition. The New York 
Central Labor Council, a branch of the Knights of Labor, 
organized the first Labor Day Tuesday, September 5th, 1882. 
 In 1887, Oregon was the first state to adopt Labor Day 
as an official holiday, and many other states gradually 
followed suit. In 1896, hoping to curry favor with Labor
 to help him win a reelection, President Cleveland declared
 the first Monday in September Labor Day.

>>Slideshow: Learn more about the history of Labor Day.

Lincoln in Pop Culture

Abraham Lincoln is never far out of the American minds 
— in 2009 THE JOURNAL talked with scholar 
Eric Foner about Lincoln in the popular mind and 
presented a special, "Lincoln's Legend and Legacy"
 in which acclaimed actor Sam Waterston and 
historian Harold Holzer explored Lincoln's legacy 
and legend in poetry and prose by great American 
writers across the decades who have wrestled to 
define the true Lincoln through the lens of their own times.

>>Slideshow: Find out more about Lincoln's pop culture legacy.

Women's Peace Movements

In June 2009, he JOURNAL profiled Leymah Gbowee
 a woman who led her fellow countrywomen to fight for 
and win peace in war-torn Liberia, and Abigail Disney, 
who produced the documentary of their struggle and 
triumph in the award-winning film PRAY THE DEVIL 
BACK TO HELL. Gbowee's endeavor is one in a long 
line of women's peace movements.

>>Slideshow: Find out more about women's
 peace movements.
The U.S. in the Middle East

In his conversation with Bill Moyers, historian  
Andrew J. Bacevich poses the question: "How did we 
come to be a nation in which we really thought that we 
could transform the greater Middle East with our army?" 
 The answer, says Bacevich, lies in part with our long, 
yet little-acknowledged history in the Middle East." 
"The reason we are in Iraq today is because the 
Persian Gulf is at the center of the world's oil reserves. 
 I don't mean that we invaded Iraq on behalf of big oil, 
 but, the Persian Gulf region would have zero strategic significance, were it not for the 
fact that that's where the oil is."

>>Slideshow: Find out more about the U.S. and the Middle East.

A timely message from Sheriff Andy and Opie

Remembering Leonard Pat Goodall

Funny how life touches places and people in ways unexpected and distant. The man I interviewed when I was Operations Manager for our Chicago college radio station, WUIC, later served on my Masters Advisory Committee in far off Las Vegas.

In today's paper there is an obituary of the man who build the school I earned my undergraduate degree at, the University of Illinois, Chicago, and who was chancellor when I attended that school, passed away. He later advised on my Masters Degree in Communication at UNLV where he was a professor emeritus, and retired after being the fourth president of UNLV.  Leonard Pat Goodall has a strong impact on both cities I call home, Chicago and Las Vegas...

The below is from the San Francisco Chronicle:

Former University of Nevada, Las Vegas professor, president and author Leonard "Pat" Goodall has died at age 75.

The university announced Tuesday that Goodall died Monday at home in Las Vegas after battling brain cancer.

Goodall was the university's fourth president, serving from 1979-1984. He remained a professor of management and public administration until his retirement in 2000.

The Las Vegas Review-Journal reports (( ) that Goodall authored nine books including "An Investor's Memoir," advocating a conservative approach to investing.

Current university President Neal Smatresk says Goodall will be remembered for his work during a critical phase of growth at UNLV.

For Las Vegas Review Journal Coverage and a photo click here.

Church of Lego


I just read an article in the latest New Yorker, "Birthright," by Jill Lepore, a Harvard history professor, on the history of birth control and abortion in America. I regret that I cannot link to it. It is one of the most interesting pieces I have read in a long time, and a magnificent study of the past and present that everybody really needs to read.
Abraham Lincoln's words were set to music by Aaron Copland in 1942, not long after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
Enlarge Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Brooklyn-born Aaron Copland was an American original in more ways than one. It's not just his music, with its openness and simple elegance. It's that he expected ballet dancers to act like cowboys, pianists to play blues and orchestra players to accompany political speechmaking. His Lincoln Portrait, composed during World War II, matches words from our 16th president with symphonic music.

Copland spoke to NPR about it in 1980, saying that he got some of his inspiration for the Lincoln Portrait from an unlikely source.

"I was reading a biography of Abraham Lincoln by an English lord — Lord Charnwood," Copland recalled. "I picked it up someplace at a railroad station in a paperback. And I got some of the things quoted in my Lincoln Portrait from that book ... So that was a lucky chance, my having found that book. I thought it was so odd for an English lord to want to write a biography of Lincoln. "

Aaron Copland Talks to NPR about 'Lincoln Portrait'

Lincoln Portrait was commissioned by conductor Andre Kostelanetz in 1942. It was soon after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and Copland meant for it to boost spirits during that difficult time. You might recognize a couple of American songs embedded in the music: Stephen Foster's "Camptown Races" and the folk song "Springfield Mountain."

This special new performance (at the top of this page), produced by NPR Music, features the U.S. Marine Band, also known as "The President's Own," conducted by Col. Michael J. Colburn. The narrator, who begins about halfway through, is Broadway star Brian Stokes Mitchell.

The Declaration Of Independence

July 4, 2012
Twenty-four years ago, Morning Edition launched what has become an Independence Day tradition: hosts, reporters, newscasters and commentators reading the Declaration of Independence.
It was 236 years ago this Wednesday that church bells rang out over Philadelphia, as the Continental Congress adopted Thomas Jefferson's draft of the Declaration of Independence.
Below is the original text of the Declaration, alongside photos of the NPR staff members and contributors who performed the reading.

Declaration Of Independence
The original text of the Declaration of Independence, with photos of NPR staff and contributors who performed the reading:
When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

— That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it,

Jean Cochran
And to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.

But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.

Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government.

Chris Arnold 2010 by Doby Photography
The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

Mike Pesca
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

Tamara Keith 2010 by Doby Photography
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

Lourdes Garcia-Navarro
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

Cheryl Corley
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers. He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us, for protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States.

Mara Liasson
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world; For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent; For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury.

Linda Wertheimer
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences, For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies.

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments; For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

Jackie Northam
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

Michele Kelemen
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

Ari Shaprio
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.

Richard Knox by Jacques Coughlin
A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.

Scott Horsley
We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.

Cokie Roberts
They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved.

And that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances,establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do.

And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

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The Fourth of July July 4, 2011