Source: Penn State Library
Using in-text citation with APA styleAPA style uses the author/date system for in-text citation. Within the text of your paper, include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. See the following examples for correct ways of using in-text citation.
|Author's Name||Example of Usage|
|Author's name part of narrative||Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.|
|Author's name in parentheses||One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).|
|Multiple works (separate each work with semi-colons)||Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).|
|Direct quote, author's name part of narrative||Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).|
|Direct quote, author's name in parentheses||One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).|
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)
Works by multiple authorsAPA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following chart to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.
|Type of citation||First citation||Subsequent citations||First citation,|
|Subsequent citations, parenthetical format|
|One author||Field (2005)||Field (2005)||(Field, 2005)||(Field, 2005)|
|Two authors||Gass and Varonis (1984)||Gass and Varonis (1984)||(Gass & Varonis, 1984)||(Gass & Varonis, 1984)|
|Three authors||Munro, Derwing, and Sato (2006)||Munro et al. (2006)||(Munro, Derwing, & Sato, 2006)||(Munro et al., 2006)|
|Four authors||Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, and Cote (2010)||Tremblay et al. (2010)||(Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, & Cote, 2010)||(Tremblay et al., 2010)|
|Five authors||Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, and Freiberg (2007)||Hay et al. (2007)||(Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, & Freiberg, 2007)||(Hay et al., 2007)|
|Six or more authors||Norris-Shortle et al. (2006)||Norris-Shortle et al. (2006)||(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)||(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)|
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Krech Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.
Example paragraph with in-text citation
ReferencesDerwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259.
Krech Thomas, H. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.