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Wednesday, January 16, 2013

APA In-Text Citation Guide

Source: Penn State Library

Using in-text citation with APA style

APA style uses the author/date system for in-text citation. Within the text of your paper, include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. See the following examples for correct ways of using in-text citation.
Using the author/date system
Author's NameExample of Usage
Author's name part of narrativeGass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Author's name in parenthesesOne study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Multiple works (separate each work with semi-colons)Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote, author's name part of narrativeGass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Direct quote, author's name in parenthesesOne study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, date, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)

Works by multiple authors

APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following chart to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.
Citing Works by Multiple Authors in Text
Type of citationFirst citationSubsequent citationsFirst citation,
parenthetical format
Subsequent citations, parenthetical format
One authorField (2005)Field (2005)(Field, 2005)(Field, 2005)
Two authorsGass and Varonis (1984)Gass and Varonis (1984)(Gass & Varonis, 1984)(Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three authorsMunro, Derwing, and Sato (2006)Munro et al. (2006)(Munro, Derwing, & Sato, 2006)(Munro et al., 2006)
Four authorsTremblay, Richer, Lachance, and Cote (2010)Tremblay et al. (2010)(Tremblay, Richer, Lachance, & Cote, 2010)(Tremblay et al., 2010)
Five authorsHay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, and Freiberg (2007)Hay et al. (2007)(Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, & Freiberg, 2007)(Hay et al., 2007)
Six or more authorsNorris-Shortle et al. (2006)Norris-Shortle et al. (2006)(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)(Norris-Shortle et al., 2006)

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing, Rossiter, & Munro, 2002; Krech Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.


Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4), 245-259.

Krech Thomas, H. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.


Anonymous said...

Colleen RT

Thank you. This will help a lot.

Anonymous said...


Wow... I'm glad I saw this. Thanks!

Anonymous said...

LOK COM 131 PTA Program

I wish I could have seen this before the last speech I gave. This is helpful. I've been using a website called but it is good to know how to do it without filling in the blanks and having it done for you.


Jenny M said...

I found this very helpful. I am more familiar with MLA so having this for APA is a very useful tool.
-Jenny Miller

Eric Raba said...

This has been incredibly helpful!

Anonymous said...

Oscar Perez RT,
This is good info., but I still am confussed about the page #s being included in the in the text of a speech.This in text citation example does not show that.

julia maxwell said...

I like your post ,now I must complete my research for my paper.

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