For that reason an image and understanding of self cannot be avoided in understanding effective and ineffective communication.
We all have bias, prejudices and stereotypes. We all have predispositions and self image.
So it is that the study of communication is a social studies or humanities field, integrated with psychology, sociology, social anthropology and other fields of study.
Its about an individual, other individuals, groups and the society.
Psychology: The study of how thinking influences behavior, of how our mind works and how our own personality and mind impacts our interaction with others.
Personality: Enduring internal predispositions and behavioral characteristics that describe how people react to their environment, both internally and externally.
Self: The sum total of who a person is; a person's central inner force.
Self-concept: A persona's subjective description of who he or she is.
Attitude: Learned predisposition to respond to stimulus, including another person, object or idea, in a favorable or unfavorable way.
Belief: Way in which we structure our understanding of reality- what is true and what is false for an individual, their belief structure or basis.
Value: Enduring concept of good and bad, right and wrong.
Mindfulness: The ability to consciously think about what you are doing and experiencing.
Subjective Self Awareness: Ability to differentiate the self from the social and physical environment.
Objective self awareness: Ability to be the object of one's own thoughts and attention - to be aware of one's state of mind and that one is thinking.
Symbolic self awareness: The ability to think about oneself and use language (symbols) to represent oneself to others. Use to be thought of as uniquely human, however studies have shown this exist in select other species on earth as well.
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Material self: Concept of self based on an awareness of all the tangible things you own. This can also extend to abstract ownership, such as job, profession, formal relationship to others (wife, cousin, employee, boss, citizen, journalist and so on).
Social self: Concept of self as reflected in social interactions with others,
Spiritual self: Concept of self based on thoughts and introspection's about personal values, moral standards and beliefs.
Looking glass self: Concept that suggest you learn who you are based on your interactions with others, who reflect you self back to you.
Styles: We we identify with and interact with others.
Attachment style: A style of relating to others that develops early in life, based on the emotional bond one forms with one's parents or primary caregiver.
Secure attachment style: The style of relating to others that is characteristic of those who are comfortable giving and receiving affection, experience intimacy and trusting other people.
Anxious attachment style: The style of relating to others that is characteristic of those who experience anxiety in come intimate relationships and feel uncomfortable giving and receiving affection.
Avoidant attachment style: The style of relating to others that is characteristic of those who consistently experience discomfort and awkwardness in intimate relationships and who therefore avoid such relationships.
Roles: Positions and traits we take up, present or fall back on in interacting with others.
Androgynous role: Gender role that includes both masculine and feminine qualities.
Self-reflexiveness: Ability to think about what you are doing while you are doing it.
Communibiological approach: Perspective that suggest that genetic and biological influences play a major role in influencing communication behavior.
Shyness: Behavioral tendency not to talk or interact with other people. This may be external or simply an internal fear. Many people can cover this fear but feel apprehension and the impact of shyness none the less. It impacts the nature of their communication at most all levels.
Communication Apprehension: Fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with others.
Willingness to Communicate: General term for the likelihood that an individual will communicate with others in certain situations.
Self Worth and/or Self Esteem: A person's evaluation of their worth or value based on their perception of such things as sills, abilities, talents, appearance, faith and self image.
Social comparison: Process comparing yourself or others who are similar to you. Can be done for measuring self worth or value.
Life position: Feelings of regard for self and others, as reflected in one's sense of worth and self-esteem.
Face: A person's positive perception of himself or herself in interactions with others. The need to have a positive perception of self by yourself and from others.
Facework: Using communications to maintain your own positive self perception or to support, reinforce or challenge someone else/s self perception.
Preventative facework: Efforts to maintain and enhance one's own positive self-image.
Corrective facework: Efforts to correct what one perceived as a negative perception of oneself on the part of self or of others.
Face-threatening acts: Communication that undermines or challenges someones positive self image.
Politeness theory: Theory that people have positive perceptions of others who treat them politely and respectfully.
Assertiveness: Not being afraid to ask questions or to push for what is in your best interests. Tendency to make requests, ask for information, and generally pursue one's own rights and best interests.
Responsiveness: Tendency to be sensitive to the needs of others, including being sympathetic to others' feelings and being willing to place the feelings of others above your own feelings.