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Saturday, February 28, 2015


APA Style Sample.

Arthur T. Lynch

Dr. Mark H. Rossman, Ed.D, Faculty Mentor and Chair
Dr. Maxine Rossman, PhD, Committee Member
Dr. Behrooz Sabet, PhD, Committee Member

Barbara Butts Williams, PhD, Dean, School of Education

 DRAFT ONLY: AS OF 6/26/2012
This is protected by copyright, but is not an accepted or published dissertation. It is a draft.

A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy

Capella University

© Art Lynch, 2012

This dissertation used a phenomenological approach in investigating the development of a grass roots community history based educational outreach and chronicled its development from inception to incorporation into the mission of an established institution. The theoretical basis for the study was Deweyian principles of student centered, experiential learning while supporting a collaborative partnership between school and community, and education’s role in civic engagement and democracy.  These ideas were explored through the lens of a three-legged stool: Public Policy and Purpose, Community Interaction and Identity and Pedagogical Issues. An important characteristic found in successful community programs, no matter the cultural or socioeconomic status of the community, is that they should make use of community members talents and skills, reflect the values of that community in a meaningful way, and come from the community itself, and also make an effort to offer positive improvement, growth, and change. The themes found during the observation of the program might serve as a useful template for other programs, including civic engagement (both organizational, macro level and individual, micro level), meaning (to learners, teachers, and volunteers), experience (experiential learning, experience of participants) hands-on learning, sharing of memories and experience, community relationships), and a sense of identity (in the passing down of memory, teaching of history, and with the individual learning activities of students, as learning is closely connected with identity. These themes provide the fundamentals for how we learn, and participate and grow in our individual and community life.

Click Read More below to continue reading. 

To my wife Laura without whom this dissertation would not have happened.  I would also like to dedicate this dissertation to all those who have been or are my friends, family and associates who have provided the support and foundation on which my knowledge and beliefs are built.

Table of Contents
            Acknowledgments                                                                                                iv
            List of Figures                                                                                                         
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION                                                                                    1
Introduction to the Problem                                                                                  1
Background                                                                                                            3
Statement of the Problem                                                                                      4
Purpose of the Study                                                                                             6
Significance of the Study                                                                                       7
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework                                                                  8
Research Questions                                                                                               9
Definition of Terms                                                                                             11
Assumptions and Limitations                                                                             13
Organization of the Remainder of the Study                                                       15
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                        16  
            Introduction to the Literature Review                                                                 16  
Review of Research Literature and Methodological Literature                           16
   Public Policy and Purpose                                                                                23
   Community Interaction and Identity                                                                29
   Pedagogical Issues and Methods                                                                      40
Chapter 2 Summary                                                                                             52
CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY                                                                                 54  
            Introduction to Chapter 3                                                                                    54
            Description of the Method                                                                                  55
            Design of the Study                                                                                             56
            Sample and Population                                                                                        57
            Instrumentation                                                                                                   89
            Data Collection and other procedures                                                                 59
            Data Analysis Procedures                                                                                   60
            Chapter 3 Summary                                                                                             61
CHAPTER 4. Presentation and Analysis of the Data                                                    62  
            Introduction                                                                                                         62
            Description of the Sample                                                                                   62
            Overview                                                                                                             63
            The Initial Development of the 31ers Education Outreach Concept                  64
               Interview One                                                                                                   66
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                  68  
            The Seeds of the 31er Education Outreach                                                          69
               Interview Two                                                                                                  69
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                  72
               Volunteer Recruitment and Interview Three                                                    73
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                  76
            2009 and 2010 Education Outreach Activities                                                    76
             Interview Four                                                                                                    80
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                  82
            Expansion of Education Outreach Activities                                                       82
               Development of Curriculum and Education Based Activities                          85
               Fall 2010 Activities and a Teacher’s Perception                                              86  
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                  87
               Student Activity: Participation in a Skit                                                          88
               Interview Five                                                                                                   89  
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                  95
               Fall 2011 Outreach Activities                                                                           96
               Spring 2012 31ers Event                                                                                   97
               Interview Six                                                                                                   101
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                105
               Curriculum Examples                                                                                      106
               Interview Seven                                                                                              108  
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                114
    Ongoing Evolution of a Community Education Program                                          115
               Interview Eight                                                                                               116
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                118
     The Transition from a Grassroots Organization to an Institutional Organization   118
               Interview Nine                                                                                                119
               Discussion and Analysis                                                                                137
            Chapter 4 Summary                                                                                           139
CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION                                                 146  
Introduction                                                                                                       146
            Summary                                                                                                            146
             Purpose                                                                                                             147
             Methodology                                                                                                    147
             Discussion of the Results in Relation to the Literature and Conclusions        148
             Conclusions                                                                                                      158  
             Recommendations for Further Research                                                           160  
REFERENCES                                                                                                              162
APPENDIX A. SAMPLE CONSENT FORM                                                            169 

APPENDIX C. INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE GUIDE                                        170  
APPENDIX D.  FIRST HOUSE MONOLOGUE                                                       174  
APPENDIX E. HOLLYHOCK PROJECT BROCHURE                                           176  
APPENDIX F  EXHIBIT IN 31ERS ROOM AT MUSEUM                                    180  

List of Figures

Figure 1. 31ers Education Outreach Brochure, 2009

Figure 2. 7th Grade Worksheet, First House Monologue

Figure 3. 7th Grade Worksheet, Hoover Dam Presentation

Figure 4. Timeline and Themes Summary                                                                          

Boulder City 31ers: A Phenomenological Study of a Community Based History Preservation Project I believe this needs to be as a header. Check Capella’s dissertation format.
            Boulder City, Nevada is located  just over Railroad Pass from urban Las Vegas, a half hour from downtown and the “Fabulous Las Vegas Strip”, yet it is a world away, located over Railroad Pass, nestled on a plateau overlooking the desert El Dorado Valley and the Boulder Dam which gave the town of 15,000 it’s existence, now known as the Hoover Dam. Overwhelmed by Las Vegas and national media infiltration, transients and one unified Las Vegas School District, the Depression Era history of the town and its unique qualities could fade into suburban generic relics of the past.
            One woman, Patty Sullivan, a descendant of the original workers on the dam, and a core group of individuals who she recruited to her cause, is building a grass roots educational outreach to preserve the past by passing it on to the children, teenagers and adults who call this green oasis in the desert home. Her “31ers” project grew from a nostalgic get together into an effort to pass on history, values and a sense of community pride in our overly metro-mediated times. She has gained the full support of the local Boulder City Museum, along with levels of key support from the Bureau of Land Management, National Forestry Service, National Park Service, Colorado River Authority as well as local educators, organizations and key volunteers.
The education outreach initiative in Boulder City, Nevada serves as an example of a countervailing trend against the top down, standards and accountability movement frequently termed in shorthand as “No Child Left Behind,” in which instruction is provided as a commodity, fitting a business model or consumerist view of education, in which perhaps the love of learning for its own sake (and perhaps teaching) struggles for air. In an era of strained resources and burdened, sometimes dysfunctional families, and distressing drop out rates, government mandates tend to envelope schools and classrooms into a smothering sameness, and this lack of creativity may ironically squash vaunted American ingenuity and ambition. At the same time, some argue that general standards give all students an equal opportunity for a good education.   Somewhere in the middle are educators, families, and community members who would like some input in the process. 
Education philosophers such as John Dewey continue to be important in the debate because he generally addressed the concerns of students, teachers, families and communities concerning the overall purpose and aims of education. The ideas of John Dewey continue to be an influential voice in progressive education, constructivist learning, and community participation. Deweyan views on education and American democracy as intertwined, characterized by individual, intrinsic desires, and connection to community, experimental and reality based (Dewey, 1916). Examples of outreach programs such as the 31ers may exemplify earlier principles of John Dewey and others who espoused experiential, discovery based education and the role of education as part of the larger community and a healthy democracy (Dewey, 1916).         
There continues to be a tension revolving around the debate of the purpose of education. American education has long shifted between vocational / consumerist aims and a liberal, character building model, reflecting the nation’s dual nature of idealism and practicality, individualism and community (Bowen, 1999).  The input of community interests, such as co-production and expanded education initiatives may provide an alternative to the current emphasis on techniques, methods and results in the classroom, and the overall co-modification of education, with schools as delivery models to satisfied customers (Aronowitz, 2008).
            The creators of the 31ers outreach program may not have an expertise in education, or necessarily knowledge of Dewey’s philosophy, but they do possess an intuitive belief that education and community are tied together, and that children might enjoy hands on, experiential learning. A community’s sense of itself, in terms of its issues, needs, and social norms comes at least in part from an understanding of its origin and history. This is probably particularly true in the case of Boulder City, which is a fairly stable and conservative community, which prides itself in its uniqueness, quality of life, and laborious birth. Boulder City also is also unique in the role it played in both the Hoover and FDR administrations, the latter as a public works project, literally giving men and families a way of out poverty, and also serving as an example of American “can do” spirit in building the Dam. However, while many of the original families still reside here, there was a fear that those subsequent generations would not appreciate the living history that the Dam represents.
The generation who lived through the Great Depression, more specifically the workers and their families who suffered through extreme condition to build the Boulder Dam (now Hoover Dam) are dying out, and with them the direct history and lineage for the birth of the unique “six companies” town of Boulder City, Nevada.  One of the descendants of the original settlers, Patty Sullivan, has taken on the task of reversing the trend by preserving history and making it relevant to the children and new citizen Boulder City. She has extended the annual reunion event for the families of those who settled in the Colorado Basin Project Boulder Dam area in 1931, to include educational outreach, community events and the establishment of a future curriculum for Boulder City schools.
The 31ers Education Outreach Initiative Art – it is important that you use the past tense. I will indicate examples but when you revise the documkent, be sure to make these correctikons as much as possible.
The approach used by Sullivan  involves challenging students and citizens to become engaged in the preservation of the history of their community through interactive narratives or oral theater in the Chautauqua tradition.  Without going through the formal structure, Sullivan and her “team” named and identified a problem in the community, framed the issues, set up and divided into a decision making structure, identified and began outreach to community resources, organized public actions and took the first steps toward crafting a learning community. There was also the thought that studying the building of the Dam and the community would be an opportunity to present cross disciplines of history, geology, biology, engineering, architecture, social or cultural studies, and art.  The outreach project was borne out of one individuals’ pride of family and community, and wanting to keep that knowledge alive.  So the education outreach project is an uncorrupted reflection of a town’s ideals and sense of identity.
Statement of Problem
There is a need to engage children in history and preserve community identity. Local and regional history is being lost or relegated to adult scholars, instead of being reinforced at the local level as a part of the fabric of and part of the heart of the “community.”  Schools do not necessarily have the resources or time to address this issue. The Boulder City Educational Outreach has identified this as a problem and has taken steps to work with the school and other community organizations to bring this history alive. An important aspect of this problem is determining effective and relevant educational approaches to this. This is especially problematic at a time when financial and other resources are strained. A second problem was ongoing feelings of discouragement about the top-down, confining demands of the No Child Left Behind accountability model. In the rush for results the love of learning may be lost, risking student’s future accomplishments through school.  So the needs of the community and a school may find common cause, in which the informal expertise of community members joins forces with expertise of professional educators.
The principles of individual engagement in constructivist learning and community engagement in education appear to be complementary, where the aims and role of learning can meet. In short, bringing the classroom into the community, and community into the classroom encourages a more active, discovery-based style of learning. Sociological and pedagogical trends and issues of community control, participation, and civic engagement, the ongoing debate over purpose of education, the benefits of different modes of learning, such as computer mediated learning over experiential learning inform this study.  Certainly, computer on-line learning can also be learner-centered and encourage active, exploratory learning. The difference is the social nature of a program such as the Education Outreach, which seems to reflect the Deweyan principle of learning as a social process. Therefore, this study  examined the 31ers Education Outreach as an example of how Deweyan principles of constructivist learning and democracy may be linked and implemented.  The full name of the project is 31ers Educational Outreach of the Boulder Canyon Project Act. The Act was the legislation that made the building of the Dam possible.  The program will be referred to as the 31ers Educational Outreach for the purpose of brevity throughout the study.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study was to observe Deweyan principles of constructivist learning and democracy in action, and examine how the goals of education and community can be met by joining forces, thus providing benefits to students, teachers, families, and the overall community.  This study  also provided an example of what works and what needs improvement to assist similar grassroots projects in other communities. This study  examined the historic evolution of a community activist instigated program designed to preserve and promote active understanding and participation in the history of the specific community of Boulder City, and the period of time known as the “Boulder Dam Colorado River Project.”  The specific  objectives of the study are: Be sure you agree that these are the specific objectives of your study.

1.     To add to the continually evolving body of knowledge concerning Dewey’s ideas about democratic education and constructivist learning as a counterpoint to current emphasis on essentialism (standards based education) in education.
2.     To explore the link between democratic communities based learning and constructivism, and the use of informal learning to meet school curriculum and community goals.
3.     To provide a viable solution for  preserving community heritage.
4.     To add additional knowledge to the continuing the debate on constructivism versus essentialism.
5.     To study the collaborative process among individual participants and organizations through program initiatives and development. ART – I don’t feel this was a purpose of the study as this can be a dissertation in itself.
Significance of the Study
This study contributed to the body of research and knowledge in the continued application of the ideas of John Dewey and other theorists in this tradition, added to the knowledge about using oral theater as effective pedagogy in various subjects, and finally provided an example of community / school partnership and co-production.
Looking at the aims, role and process of education, as defined by Dewey, as applied through the 31ers project led to a stronger understanding of how to successfully implement similar programs across the country. This  provided a professional value both for academia and for practitioners of education, historic preservation and social research.  It helped to  clarify ambiguous points of theory, looked at new aspects of a problem, and aided in  important decision-making processes. The study  explored the link between democratic, community-based education and constructivist learning, and the opportunities and limitations that apply. It provided one solution in preserving community heritage. The resulting proposed model provided a template for collaborative decision making among educators and community members. This study also provided a potentially important link in an emerging area of scholarship - education and civic engagement – given the rapid changes in our society and the need to preserve and learn from the past.
In the current educational climate some may believe that Deweyan principles are obsolete in addressing the ongoing crisis of struggling students and overwhelmed teachers, but these principles may still speak to the deficits, and continue to be relevant to discussions among academia, educators, and the community.  Many educators, community members and families are not waiting, but initiating, implementing and expanding programs within and outside schools. 
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework
Nassbaum-Beach presented a hopeful note for schools that seems to make schools a place of inclusion, and implicitly embraces community and experimentation: 
The secret to change lies in developing the social fabric, capacity and connectedness found in communities of practice and learning networks. I believe that by focusing on a strengths-based model of education, looking at possibilities rather than problems, by using inquiry to ask the kinds of questions that reveal the gifts each of us bring to the table, by realizing that “none of us is as good as all of us” and somehow leveraging all of that to shift the conversations toward building a new future- one that focuses on the gifts each teacher, student, parent and leader has, that we have all we need to create an alternative future for schools. One that focuses on the well-being of the whole and uses diversity as a means to innovation (The Fabric of Community, para. 8).
Education Outreach programs such as 31ers is a part of a larger context of different types of community / school partnerships, which may be generated from the school or from the community.  A classic example of a partnership is the PTA.  In recent years initiatives and scholarly research are encouraging more community participation in education, with school and community partnerships and  education / community organizations encouraging alliances (Caplan & Calfee, 2006).
The framework for this study l used the template of Dewey’s concepts of the learning environment and experiencing, the importance of history and community identity, and the roles and relationships of education as part of the larger community as integral to democracy.  The framework necessarily included experiential learning with a focus on oral history, as well as community teaching in partnership with school-based instruction as a reflection of the 31ers Outreach program.
School and community partnerships have a lengthy if sometimes ambivalent history.  Of course, school is an important part of a community, and plays a central role in many communities. John Dewey thought that schools should provide a cohesive, assimilative, and social environment that enhances learning that is intrinsic, student centered, flexible, experiential, contextual, active, and relevant (Dewey, 1916).  This study examined the goals and activities of the education outreach program in relation to these concepts, and will include other relevant philosophers and theorists as a point of comparison and contrast.
Dewey (1916) felt strongly that unless history is taught as something that makes the present understandable there is no point in teaching it. He wrote,
The segregation which kills the vitality of history is divorce from present modes and concerns of social life. The past, just as past, is no longer our affair. If it were wholly gone and done with, there would only one reasonable attitude toward it. Let the dead bury their dead. But knowledge of the past is the key to understanding the present. (Chapter 16, Section 3) 
It is reasonable to assert that education is a fundamental shaper in identity, and individual identity is tied to family, ethnicity, community, and nationality.  An interesting aspect of teaching history and discovering identity is how this knowledge might be transmitted. Is history something that is static to be handed down as an artifact, or will learners interpret through their experience, giving additional meaning to a set of facts?  Finally, the professionalization of educators, and cultural and social economic changes in community has resulted in disengagement between schools and community. In fact public policy and attitudes has encouraged a trend where education becomes an individual rather than community responsibility. However, John Dewey believed that education and community are stronger as a partnership.  Individual goals and community goals are not mutually exclusive – Nodding explained that Dewey tried to find a balance between individualism and communitarianism ideally resulting in mutual support (2007). This perspective allows for individual voices to have an impact on institutions.
The community, and democracy in general, benefits from an educated citizenry, and schools and educators benefit from input from community members. Learning does not just take place in a school, but in community life, and community members can be teachers alongside school faculty. In his evolutionary document published in 1897 “My Pedagogic Creed” Dewey threw down a gauntlet, which seems jarring in its relevancy to current problems:
I believe that much of present education fails because it neglects this fundamental principle of the school as a form of community life. It conceives the school as a place where certain information is to be given, where certain lessons are to be learned, or where certain habits are to be formed. The value of these is conceived as lying largely in the remote future; the child must do these things for the sake of something else he is to do; they are mere preparation. As a result they do not become a part of the life experience of the child and so are not truly educative (Article 2, p. 77).
The framework for this study looked at how Dewey’s ideas of an experiential, community based teaching might be carried out by the 31ers program, demonstrating its benefits, and discovering any limitations.  The study was completed against the backdrop of current education’s mandate to provide an accountability driven, standard based curriculum. The feasibility of a partnership between community agencies, individual volunteer, and school faculty will be examined. The framework will take into account recent theorists who have further developed and expanded upon ideas of progressivism and community education.
Research Questions
1.     To what degree does this outreach program illustrate principles of John Dewey and other theorists in terms of constructivism and community based education?
2.  To what extent should the community be involved in education, and in what ways can community based education program be effective and beneficial as an adjunct to schools?  I’m not sure about what you are trying to say in this research question. Please revise.
3. To what extent do the issues, views, values, goals of various groups within the 31ers community interact with one another?  
4. To what extent were the pedagogical and community organization elements of the program initiated and implemented?
5. How is this program similar to other community programs?
Definition of Terms
Chautauqua: Public presentations and community outreach that began out of protestant revival traditions in 19th Century America rural communities, with assemblies and reading circles and influenced by progressive’s eras ideas of humanistic education, tolerance and faith in social progress; currently continues as oral history theater outreach and workshops (Resier, 2003).
Constructivism: As developed by Bruner and influenced by Piaget, knowledge is built, not found, going from general to particular, filtered through prior experience, learning is active and contextual (Bruner, 1985).
Co-Production: A joint effort by professionals and non-professionals to meet particular goals or outcomes, a term coined by Elinor Ostrom that means public services are provided by both paid and unpaid labor; for schools this means between educators and community members (Peterson, 2009)
Expanded Learning: Education programs that offer students additional opportunities to learn outside the school hours, with expansion of time and place; often through community-school partnerships. Examples include after school and summer programs, extended day and year, community schools, school-community networks, and online learning. (Stonehill, Little, Russ, et al, 2009).
Essentialism: Education, or schools, have a focus on core, basic subjects (such as reading, writing, math, history), with a traditional pedagogical approach of teacher to student, free from experimentation, rooted in social traditions. (Gutek, 2004)
Oral History Theater: Oral history, the telling of personal stories and reflections likely began with spoken language; as theater it dramatizes cultural, historical and personal events
(McDonough, 2003).
Pragmatism: (or experientialism or instrumentalism) As Interpreted by Dewey learning is an ongoing process of discovering (and discarding) knowledge, influenced by scientific process and with an emphasis person in environment, problem solving and interdisciplinary study (Gutek, 2004)
Progressivism: As implied by the term, an educational philosophy that emphasizes progress and reform, influenced by liberal thought with roots in pragmatism; It diverged into two schools of thought – child centered learning, and social reconstruction. (Gutek, 2004).
Assumptions and Limitations
1.     That the project has a lasting mark on the community.
2.     That the project has an impact that can be measured or observed using acceptable academic methodologies.
3.      That the study added to the continued body of knowledge concerning Dewey’s ideas about democratic education and constructivist learning as a counterpoint to current emphasis on essentialism (standards based education) in education.
4.     That the study will reinforced the link between democratic, communities based learning and constructivism, and the use of informal learning to meet school curriculum and community goals.
5.     That the end result to the study will be a potential aid in preserving community heritage.
6.     That the study will contributed to the debate on constructivism versus essentialism, and ongoing questions about education’s role in meeting individual and social needs. 
7.     That participant observer, interviews and historic research  provided the needed resources to complete this study and the intended degree program.
1.     The span of the study includes one previous year of participant observer, research into past 31ers events and observation and study of 2010 events up to and including the October 31ers luncheon.
2.     Since the 31ers is a voluntary project that does not have financing, government direct support or a high level of non-voluntary resources, expectations for 2010 could fall short of providing the needed data and academic resources needed to complete this dissertation in a realistic time line.
3.      The characteristics of the town may be unique, not applicable to other locations. It has a population of 15,000 and includes one high school, middle, and two elementary schools. The schools include children of every socioeconomic class. This characteristic may also be beneficial as the school closely mirrors the town.
4.     Economics of the high cost of continued tuition, limitation of funds for travel and outside resources needed, if any, will limit the ability to continue beyond this year’s event.
Organization of the Remainder of the Study
            Chapter 2 will discuss the appropriate literature related to the problem just described. Chapter 3 will describe and discuss the research methodology selected to respond to the problem. Chapter 4 will present and analyze the data collected using the methodology described in Chapter 3. Chapter 5 will provide a narrative summary of key points and present conclusions based on findings within the context of the study.

Since 1980’s there has been a push back to more traditional teaching after the Jonny Can’t Read Report Cards, eventually evolving in No Child Left Behind. Many traditionalists felt that schools were not doing their jobs, and children not learning because of the undisciplined implementation of progressive education. During this same period, schools and neighborhoods became increasingly set apart from the overall community, with neighbors no longer knowing each other, and schools with frayed connections to the community. Schools either served as havens from the community, or reflected problems in the community. Increasingly, people are not viewed as citizens, or community members, but merely consumers. In some cases, schools are no longer viewed as a source of community growth with a connection to overarching national goals but as another type of business, producing products, that may or may not be meeting demands of the customer (Barber, 1992).  However, as a review of literature may reveal, what may be called a crisis by definition, since its ongoing, is really more of a chronic condition with continual debate about the role of schools, the purpose of education, its connection to community, effective teaching and meaningful learning. One of the first, but hardly the last, to question education and schooling was John Dewey, who while not always understood, with a cadre of supporters and critics, remains relevant as new generations of educators discover his philosophy. This literature review will not confine itself to John Dewey, but will use his philosophy of education, in both macro (democracy and community) and micro (teaching and learning) terms as a template and as appropriate preparation in studying a school – community partnership, the 31ers that may illustrate some of his principles of democratic participation, community links and active learning.
The original American conception of education, gradually implemented, was as something public and broad-based, reflecting democratic values and combining individuality and community interests (Trow, 1999). This history and a perception of erosion have also created opportunities for experimentation, which goes beyond home schooling, charter schooling and online schooling. Crisis and disillusionment seems to create two factions in the education establishment, public policy, and community reaction: a) a conservative desire to want to “go back to the basics” which may be rooted in the common belief that the “good old days were better” and wanting to start all over again or b) a progressive desire that if approaches are not working that a fresh, inventive, try it a new way path should be taken, and the bureaucratic confines of education needs some airing out.  Dewey summarized the conflict at the pedagogical level in his book Experience and Education (1938):
The history of educational theory is marked by opposition between the idea that education is development from within and that is formation from without; that it is based upon natural endowments and that education is a process of overcoming natural inclination and substituting in its place habits acquired under internal pressure. At present, the opposition, so far as practical affairs of the school are concerned, tends to take the form of contrast between traditional and progressive education. If the underlying ideas of the former are formulated broadly, without the qualifications required for accurate statement, they are found to be as follows: if the subject-matter of education consists of bodies of information and of skills that have worked out in the past; therefore the chief business of school is to transmit them to the new generation. In the past, there have also been developed standards and rules of conduct, moral training consists in forming habits of action in conformity with these rules and standards. Finally the general pattern of school organization constitutes the school as a kind of institution sharply marked off from other social institutions. (p. 17-18)

Since Dewey wrote this, education continues to be a source of conflict among traditionalists and progressives. At this point, there is an emphasis of process over substance, pedagogy over knowledge. Ultimately there is also ongoing question of who decides policy and who should be in control? Education at any level can be exclusionary, left in the hands of professionals and policy makers, but impacts the whole community. However, John Dewey believed that schools are part of the community, and the community is a part of school. This can be used at the micro, pedagogical level, and at the macro, general principal level. Learning itself should be active, relevant, practical, personal, and connected to community (Dewey, 1899).
There has been extensive research and debate about effective pedagogy in American education, covering such as areas as best practices in teaching, the motivation and desire of students to learn, and the overall purpose and goals of education. Research covers such areas as learning styles, ongoing and sometimes politicized arguments about accountability, direct instruction, narrow vocational goals or broader goals of civic mindedness and democracy.  Education is probably the one thing that everyone has an opinion about, informed or not, because everyone has had some experience with it, good, bad or indifferent. 
John Dewey continues to cast a shadow over the educational landscape, down through the decades as educators go back and forth between fundamentals and experimentation. This seems to reflect the dual but overlapping nature of the American culture, which flits between narratives of individualism and community idea, traditions and change.  Schools seem to serve as ongoing labs for these ideals. Educational research is generally divided between practical instructional theory and larger philosophical debate about the purpose of education. Dewey and a few others have covered all sides of these questions, from sociological questions of national consequences to the relationships between schools and community, and day-to-day pedagogical questions. John Dewey proposed a theory of education, which was a radical shift from direct instruction and memorization rote which is widely used in classrooms. Educators and scholars continue to debate the merits of Dewey’s ideas which concern pedagogical approaches and philosophical implications of education and how education is connected to community and overall themes of democracy.
            In understanding Dewey, it is useful to view his philosophy as being part of progressive education, of which constructivism is a part. Dewey (1859-1952) came of age at a time of great social change and various reformist movements in response to this change, such as labor laws, health and safety reforms, and women’s rights. He lived to see the fruition of, and sometimes misunderstanding of his philosophy and pedagogical ideas, and of course the first glimmer of an increasing technology, communication based society.  By the time Dewey died in 1952, there began to be a trend of more students were graduating from high school and attending college, and education was viewed as an important step in social and economic well being. The post-war years also saw a shift from progressivism to traditional, direct instruction with an emphasis on science, in response to a perception that Russia was “winning the space race” (National Assessment of Adult Literacy, 2010). ART – I have stopped reviewing Chapter two here. Please revise it using the examples I have provided.
 Beginning in the 19th century and through the progressive era society was changing its sociological perception of children and youth. Historically, children were viewed as small versions of adults, and adolescence was not recognized as a life stage. This began to change as the fields of psychology and sociology were being developed, communications and technology were bringing people together, and there was the growth of a middle class and people with more leisure time and expendable income (consumerism) in turn giving rise to advertising and mass marketing. Immigration and child labor laws put more children in schools, and children began to be able to stay in school longer. Education and literacy became an important policy goal. These trends continued through the twentieth century. School enrollment increased with the baby boom generation after World War II and there was a greater emphasis on standardization and an emphasis on graduating from high school (National Assessment of Adult Literacy, 2010.)
Progressivism and constructivism theories have been subject to different adaptions and interpretations, and has been perceived by some educators and policy makers as being ineffective or a failed policy. Other educators during the Progressive era took a different route from Dewey and developed a model based on bureaucratic hierarchy and factory floor work systems. This model, termed Administrative Progressivism, is still the way most schools are run, a work-based model that aims for efficiency and output, with divisions by age and ability, division of duties, classification of students, evaluations and cost effectiveness Another type of progressivism, vocational education, has also had surges of popularity, depending on social needs and political demands (Loss & Loss, 2010)
Dewey’s concepts encompass both individual development and the wider community. While Dewey’s ideas put an emphasis on constructivism, discovery based learning centered on a child’s interests and curiosity,  this learning was firmly planted in the student-teacher relationship. Within the context of a curriculum Dewey’s concepts of pedagogy was always connected to civic participation and a healthy democracy, and continue to influence policy discussions of the role of education as a part of democracy and citizenship.. A review of literature shows that  While Dewey did not discount the important of assessments and accountability, according to progressivism pedagogy these practices should be connected to improving the teaching and the learning experience. From this perspective, evaluation is part of the learning process of experiential learning and discovery..Progressive pedgogy is also concerned with developing effective tools for teaching and learning Public policy, community participation and pedagogy can be researched as separate topics, it is interesting to at how they interrelate, and can be examined in school-community partnership programs such as the 31ers Outreach Program. Dewey and other theorists can be viewed through the lens of a three-legged stool: Public Policy and Purpose, Community Interaction and Identity, and Pedagogical Issues as a way to illuminate the concepts.
In the course of the review terms such as social capital, expanded learning, and authentic learning reflect ongoing interest among scholars in diverse fields beyond education, including sociology, psychology and neuroscience. The topics of public policy, community participation and pedagogy also provide useful ways to look at a program such as the 31ers, which is an example of a community / school partnership, expanded learning, and active learning. Because the 31ers program is using drama as part of its curriculum the literature review will explore examples of using drama as a pedagogical tool.
Public Policy and Purpose

Some educators and policy makers believe that the cultivation of learning that encourages political or civic participation remains the chief purpose of education, but this certainly remains a point of contention in conflicting views of students as citizens versus consumers or workers (Smith, 2010). This also reflects ongoing tension between private and public realms and participation and relationships of these realms. According to Gutmann (1987) as cited by Smith (2010), the Greek term for private information was idiotes – meaning a person who was only interested in private affairs was a fool (i.e. idiot). There are examples where private and public spheres merge, such as the institution of marriage. and social organizations. Greek ideals of democracy are one that fits in the public, not individual realm. The classical model emphasizes personal networks, relationships, associations, and community. The current, contemporary model is one of community as a place, and a marketized network (Smith, 2010)
Benjamin Barber (1992) expounded on the ambivalence of views about the relationship of democracy to education.  According to Barber, if using the premise that democracy is for the masses, and education is about attaining high standards, therein is the source of the achievement gap. How do you maintain high standards while ensuring education is inclusive and geared to diverse needs and abilities?. There is also a matter of personal versus public responsibility. Democracy emphasizes public good, as opposed to market oriented individual attainment. Barber stated a choice, false or real, seems to come up – a public education that wallows in mediocrity as it endeavors to support the masses, versus a movement toward private endeavors for those with means or motivation. Barber wrote,
There was a time when this relationship was taken for granted.
public, private, and religious schools in America’s earlier days
expressed a common commitment to education as a concomitant
of democracy. Historically, the meaning of public education was
precisely education into what it meant to belong to a public:
education in the res publica – in community, commonality, in
community, in the common constitution that made plurality and
difference possible. (p. 14)

            While there has always been a practical and vocational strain in American education there has been growing alarm from some quarters about the increasingly consumerist and vocational orientation of American education. Because schools reflect society it is natural that schools reflect at some elements of business and industry. The accountability model of No Child Left Behind reflects a business orientation of measurements and results.  The history of American education could be easily viewed in the prism of liberal arts versus vocational ideals of education, with corrective swings back and forth. Questions periodically arise about funding sources and how funding is influenced by overall views as school as a private or public operation, and whether schools are training workers with specific skills sets or to help people reach their potential and become fully functioning members of society (Wadsworth, 2005).
Education, Purpose and Fiscal Policy
            According to Barber, as a practical matter ideals of liberty are not typically practiced as unfettered liberty, but instead are grounded in a sense of morality and meaning. While we might think of liberty as being without restraints, we seem to value it as a matter of relationships and rationality. Within a community, the idea of individual rights is not just selfish aims, but part of a shared ideal. From the American perspective, the ideals of liberty is related to the future, and progress and an understanding of the past, both failures and success.  Our perception of the past also encourages asking important questions that move beyond a compilation of facts. Identity forged through history creates the necessary understanding and imagination to harness the future. In other words, it is a humbling reality check, a way to avoid a false sense of confidence or distorted feeling of despair. So democracy and liberty is a living thing, and is inherently disorganized as a process 2002).
            Fiscal policy and mythological ideals of pulling up your own bootstraps has permeated politics in the last few decades. This has resulted in decreased funding for schools, and an ingrained belief that more funding through taxation will not resolve education problems.  In general most people understand that education is important and requires a level of financial support. At the same time policy decisions are left to the professionals and there is a disconnect between what is happening within classrooms and public perceptions. The top down model of accountability does not necessarily lead to positive results in a classroom  (Broun, Puriefoy, Richard,  2006)  Some may question how fairly rigid government mandates impact or change the individual circumstances of students, particularly in socioeconomic conditions.  These issues lead to policy debates and at times innovative solutions.
Stanley Aronowitz has suggested that increasing commercialism as a threat to original values of education and its relationship to community, public good and democracy. Aronoiwtz, in his recent book Against Education, 2008, wrote that the trend of standardization, vocationalism, and privatization may result in a weakened democracy, because a democracy requires citizens who are actively involved and informed. In his view, education is no longer viewed as a social, public good, but a private, individual endeavor. In other words the democratic ideals of education are transformed in favor of pragmatic interests of capitalists. This tension is an example of education’s reflection of overall cultural and political trends, and perhaps a reflection of America’s ongoing conflict between idealism and pragmatism. In the view of some educators and philosophers such as Aronwittz, while there has always been a vocational aspect to American education, people with a narrow vocational focus are poorly prepared for a society that is so fast changing. There is concern that a focus on discrete set of technical skills overlooks the importance of critical thinking skills in a fast changing world..
The Relationship between Democracy and American Education
            In 1916 Dewey wrote, “Democracy is more than a form of government, it is a form of associated living, a co-joint communicated experience (p. 87)”. Dewey thought education itself supported democracy in two ways: through its pedagogical practice, which acknowledged a social, associated way of learning, giving students ways to practice democracy, and more generally, the idea that democracy requires an informed citizenry. Dewey suggested this could be done by combining unity, diversity, character building, mutual respect, and also communication. In Dewey’s view personal fulfillment and success is made possible by community ideals of participation in a democracy. A democracy is not just an idea, but a way of living, which recognizes individuals and community, at the core of which is relationships. More particularly, Dewey thought schools fail because they neglect school as a form of community life. The challenge may be encouraging democratic ideals into institutions that are fundamentally hiearchirial or authoritative in structure, process or design, including government agencies, schools, workplaces and family life.
Citizenship and Civic Participation
            The research of Robert Putnam and other scholars shows that early involvement in community public life leads to life long civic participation.  Putnam and Feldstein (2003)  have suggested that this participation is best when it is interpersonal, contextual and meaningful. Education has the potential to play an important role in developing constructive citizenship, and has historically played that role as a part of the public school system.  Civic participation by students may lead to learning new perspectives and meeting people from different backgrounds and expertise, resulting in the broadening of horizons and new learning opportunities. Putnam and Feldstein suggest that for students, civic participation may offer an active, experiential learning experience. Instead of reading about something, or learning from a teacher, students learn from those with actual experience and practice. Moreover, students may participate in projects that could make a difference in their communities, (2003). Civic education is ideally suited as way to learn to interact, monitor and influence through student participation, community service, and cooperative learning activities (Patrick, 2000).
            Democracy has long been a subject of consideration among academics and policy makers. In 1918, Cora Bigelow, a pioneering teacher and union activist, addressed the relationship of democracy and schools. She wrote that “Autocracy, wherever it appears in school affairs, must give way to democracy (p. 197)”. Bigelow believed that mutual effort on the part of all participants, and a more open relationship between teachers and administrators was an important part of reducing authoritative tendencies of a school system.
            As much as people may idealize it, democracy is a construct that does not necessarily flow out naturally from social roles or community. Barber (1992) has framed democracy as something that is extraordinary and rare.. From this perspective, collective participation without education is merely opinion or perhaps mob rule. Citizenship comes through education and the development of knowledge and competence.  Democracy creates an expectation that all people have this capacity and potential. Barber suggested that education helps to create democracy.  In this perspective, it is important to hold on to larger goals of democracy while focusing on discrete goals of education. (1992).
Community Interaction and Identity

The attitudes and characteristics of a community tend to shape and influence schools.  These include expectations relating to curriculum, participation and programs. There may be a conflict in implementing the general aims of democracy or cultural ideals, resulting in uniformity and an emphasis on results over experience. Schools using the factory model may be efficient, but not take into account the needs of the community..  Schools have been a primary driver of the assimilation of different cultures, but there has been ongoing disagreement on whether this process should look like a melting pot or a mosaic. In 1901, Ella Flagg wrote, “It is the free public school that has made the child of foreign parentage strive to take on the habits of dress, speech, and thought that would identify him with the people and ancestors were merged into this social and political society at an earlier date (p. 192).”
Education can play an important role in shaping individual, ethnic, and national identity that is connected to history and envisions the future. According to Barber, community and individual participation and identity is best fostered through an understanding of the present as a continuation of the past, and as a prologue of the future. It can provide a connection to the past that is missing from the individualist conceit that the present day is somehow distinct from the past. Technology and an emphasis on progress and the future encourages this attitude. Barber has suggested that education can encourage a sense of individual and community identity through stories.   Through story we imagine the future, and work on reconstructing the past to fit with current understanding. Our collective stories shape our identity, our connection to others, and brings context to education. In this perspective, what could be termed our “identity crisis” and competing stories from different cultural and socioeconomic elements is nothing new, but is a part of the national conversation since America’s founding (1992).
            Broun, Puriefoy, and Richard suggested that public engagement in school can be placed in four categories, depending on goals and purpose: information dissemination, involvement, collaboration and constituency-building (2004). According to Mathews (2008), family involvement and community participation is an important component of school achievement resulting in better test scores and attendance rates, and also graduation and college admission rates. Community participation encourages working on goals and strategies, and a sharing of rights and responsibilities, and supports local cultural needs.
Community involvement and civic engagement has become the focus of attention since Robert Putnam’s influential study “Bowling Alone” (2002). Putnam and other theorists of social capital have written that an active civic culture requires a combination of networks, reciprocity, and trust is necessary for participation. Pierre Bourdeiu researched social capital as another form of capital along side economic and cultural capital (Edwards & Foley, 2001) Schools and education are clear barometers of these three forms of capital at work in terms of resources, access, and levels of participation. Szreter (2001) noted that social capital is not just about relationships, but the quality of relationships in a group In this perspective, social capital is a synthesis of different qualities, which may depend on the purpose and needs of a group, as well as access and participation level. It is not necessarily an outgrowth of traditional, tight knit communities, but could be something new, and therefore be a change agent. In fact traditional structures might hinder effective social capital, closing off growth and new ideas. Szreter also discussed Putnam’s concept of social capital in terms of how networks are linked.  In this model, horizontal, equalitarian links are crucial to social capital, as opposed to traditional authoritarian structures.  Horizontal ties encourage development of what is termed “loose links” which may be crucial in helping someone venture out of a tight network of family and neighborhood. This is especially important for people trying to leave poor neighborhoods While schools have characteristics of authoritarian organizations, they can also provide crucial links between individuals and the broader culture.
            Youniss, McLellan, Yates, 2001 studied how youth become engaged in civic participation and how this shapes overall identity. Children may have identity as family, school, and community members, and a sense of civic identity.  According to their study and review of other studies, adults active in membership and leadership positions had begun participating at a young age. Just as youth are constructing other parts of their identity, so they have an opportunity to construct a civic identity. This participation helps them become familiar with roles and norms, and shapes their sense of relationship to the world. Families, schools and school-partnerships, and various community organizations are instrumental in this identity. Community becomes an additional source of meaning, and youth have an opportunity to meet other people and act out roles
Social researcher James Coleman (2000, Schuller, Baron, & Field) had looked at social capital by linking civic engagement to school achievement, and the relationship between social and human capital, notably in a study of Catholic Schools, which included less advantaged students. His findings showed that benefits were accrued to students of different socio economic levels. Coleman postulated that social capital provides necessary resources and links that give students access and opportunity for achievement. Coleman did not necessarily think that social capital development was a result of a school mission, but instead that students benefited from social capital as a by-product of their school attendance and social relations. Never-the-less Coleman’s work shows that schools may provide an important source of expectations, norms, and connections for students, especially if this is lacking in their families and neighborhoods. This role of school in the lives of children, family and neighborhoods is demonstrated by the role of magnet, charter, private, and comprehensive schools. In some cases schools may be the only source of support and engagement for children and families.
            On the other hand, other scholars continue to debate the relationship between schools and society. According to Munn (2000) within school administrative offices and classrooms there may be less concern for the needs of the community, and instead a rather insulated focus on specific goals and achievement. Curriculum issues are top down, and evaluation of teachers and achievement of students do not really take into account social relations and support. The focus is on results, not on community participation. Taking another perspective, MacGillivray and Walker (2000) suggested  that schools that encourage high expectations can become a provider of social capital.  In this framework, schools have a much more formal process of social capital than individuals, going beyond norms, networks and trust, to provision of services, community involvement and partnerships. This combination of informal networks out in the community with the formality of school organization may be either an impediment or an advantage. Brown and Lauder (2000) noted that trust is an important attribute in learning achievement, and can be achieved by sharing resources, open communications and valuing education.
            Social capital can be summarized as the connections within various parts of a community, starting with family, neighborhood and school, and including work, voluntary groups, sub-culture associations and participation in continuing education and training (Field, Schuller & Baron, 2000). It is a combination of informal and formal structures. It is an important component in supporting and constructing participation and school – community partnerships.
Shields (1994) noted the importance of including families and the community in school reform efforts:
This vision of school improvement compels us to create a new conception of the appropriate relationship between the school and its community, parents, and families. Pedagogically, as we have come to know the importance of rooting learning in children's real lives, we can no longer tolerate the artificial boundaries between the classroom and the home. Politically, as we move the authority for decision making down to those closest to children, we cannot afford to exclude parents and community members from the process of crafting new schools. Nor can we avoid being held more directly accountable to the immediate community constituency for decisions made at the school site. Practically, schools have no chance of enacting the fundamental changes on the reform agenda in the absence of whole-hearted support from the entire community--parents, citizens, and business. (par. 3)   
Expanded Learning and School Community Partnerships
            Community school partnerships can be generated from schools or communities, from individuals and organizations. Expanded learning and partnerships programs are covered under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.  According to the The Department of Education after school programs have been around for over a century (Stonehill, 2009).  Washington D.C. policy makers under the Obama administration have supported the “21st Century Community Learning Centers Program with the goal of serving one million students.  The No Child Left Behind Expanded Learning Initiatives support and funds school – community partnerships, through demonstrations and initiatives under the  Time for Innovation Matters in Education Act of 2008.  A National Service Corps legislation was passed in 2007 to support school and after school learning opportunities.
 Expanded Learning include a) after school programs with supervised activities, b) summer learning programs for support and enrichment, c) community Schools – offering comprehensive services, d) school – community networks,e) on line learning at school, home, other organizations (Little, 2009  and Stonehill, R.M. , 2009)
            The C.S. Mott Foundation has been an active supporter in expanded learning programs. The broad goal of Mott and of associated providers is to develop ongoing relationships between schools and community. The focus is on activities and relationships (Economic Policy Institute, 2007).
            A study by Lauer, Akibam, Wilkerson, Apthorp, Snow & Martin-Glenn (2006) found that expanded learning programs which include hands-on, experiential learning are most effective when they complement but do not duplicate school programs. These programs offer skill building and the opportunity to develop relationships with mentors and organizations within the community.  Non-school personal offer expertise and perspective that is valuable to teachers and students.  These programs  may:
            1. Provide a wider range of services and activities
            2. Support transitions from to middle to high school
            3. Reinforce concepts
            4. Improve school culture and community image through exhibitions
            and performance
            5. Gain access to mentors and after school staff
            6. Provide links with students most in need of services
            7. Improve school program quality and staff engagement
            8. Use programs to maximize public and private resources
            9. Foster continuing of services
            10. Combine talents of school and community personnel
            11. Share and combine information and collections.
            Community schools may offer more formalized versions of community inclusions in schools.  Blank and Pearson (2009) suggested that community schools should offer a) strong core curriculum that include community based learning opportunities, b) youth enrichment, c) encourage intense family and community engagement, d) offer comprehensive and cohesive community supports, and e) strong links between school and community. Effective community schools should encourage relevant and effective experiential pedagogy, help schools identity community resources and assets, and develop integrated program with community services. Probably the most difficult part of developing strong community schools or expanded learning opportunities is capacity building. Blank and Pearson also recommend five key areas: a) results-based planning, b) partnership development, c) evaluation, d) financing, and e) communications. Evaluation should go beyond standardized testing and include use of portfolios, culminating events and project presentations (2009).
Others have conceptualized the ideal of a Learning Society, in which learning is viewed as beneficial to overall quality of life, and is a life long proposition.  This ideal looks at learning as something that extends to homes, workplaces, libraries, art galleries, museums, and science centers. In this concept, formal schooling is viewed as foundational but is quickly outdated. Participation by community members, including individuals, businesses, and parent and civic groups is considered essential to effective education (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983).  Other theorists have suggested that educational methods and attitudes seem to put up barriers instead of opening up to new participation and ideas. School systems keep parents, teachers, and communities from playing a positive role in guiding school practice. Parents may be viewed as an annoyance, teachers are mere technicians, and schools are segregated from the community (Bastian, Frutchter, Gittel, et al, 1985).
A Harvard University review and other studies showed that expanded learning programs can have positive effects. A two-year study of afterschool programs in 14 cities showed that students in after school programs achieve higher math test stores. For example, Transition to Success Project revealed improved grades and reduced absences and improved teacher / parent communication, and Building Educated Leaders for Life program in New York and Boston area resulted in significantly better reading skills. The Massachusetts Afterschool Research Study found that afterschool programs with stronger relationships with schoolteachers and principals were more successful at improving students’ homework completion, homework effort, positive behavior, and initiative.  According to researchers, this may be because positive relationships with schools can foster high-quality, engaging, and challenging activities, and also promote staff engagement (Little, 2009 and Intercultural Center for Research in Education et al., 2005).
Museums, including art, natural, and children’s museums frequently work with schools in outreach programs and also provide onsite workshops, tours, community service, volunteer, and internships programs for youth. YouthAlive, such as at Lied Discovery Museum in Las Vegas, Nevada, and many other children’s museums is a program geared to at risk youth which provides education and work opportunities (personal communication, 2010) A study of “Museum Youth Initiatives” in California, examining ten museums, showed that these programs impacted student’s attitudes, social skills, self worth and goals but did not directly result in better grades (Horn, 2005).
There has been strong interest in last few years in improving the ties between community and school and increasing community participation in schools, in ways that impact student learning outcomes, and as an important support for democratic principles. The Kettering Foundation, which explores ways to nurture democracy and democratic institutions has studied school / community partnerships The Foundations asks two questions  a) How can “citizens, institutions, and organizations collaborate on the development and well being of youth in the community?” and b) What can communities do to embrace education beyond the classroom?” (Kettering Foundation, 2010).
Expanded Learning Community Partnership Example
            The state of New Hampshire invested in comprehensive after school programs, and a study completed in 2005 by a task force described program characteristics and results of the program. The authors of the study, Frankel, Streiburger and Goldman reported a substantial proportion of students involved, with 44 percent of elementary and middle age students from around the state, or 2,886 students participating in 16 programs. Most of the students participated in programs five days a week. The programs were divided between academic enrichment and recreational activities. Students participated in a range of active and creative endeavors in different subjects, including pop bottle science, creative movement and story book cooking in primary grades, and rock climbing, pharaohs & pyramids & mummies, threats & stitches in higher grades. As these names imply the children were participating in creative and interactive activities that were not simply duplicates of regular school classes. Other activities included TV and radio station, drama, filmmaking, quilting, knitting, woodworking, and senior center volunteering.
            Researchers found that most students benefited from program participation, with increased homework quality and completion, classroom participation and school attendance. Seventy-five students improved in at least one measure, and students with lower levels of participation benefited in some way. More broadly the program aimed to facilitate self-esteem, confidence, leadership, critical thinking, team building and communication skills, which fit in with overall goals of constructivist and progressive pedagogy. The program also facilitated greater participation by community members, making this both a pedagogical and community school partnership example. Some of the paid staff included high school and college students, as well as volunteers from the community.
            The New Hampshire program is one example of projects happening across the nation. Associations, programs and initiatives that promote community / school partnerships and afterschool programs on a national scope include the following:
a) The Kettering Foundation Afterschool Alliance b)After School Corporation, George Soros c) Community in Schools d) Collaborative for Building After School e) SystemsCoalition for Community School sf) 21st Century Community Learning Centers Programs (CCLC). After school, community schools, and partnerships are developed to resolve deficits, give l support to faculty, help with achievement gaps, and provide enrichment. The variety and flexibility of the programs mean they can be used in any school district and among any social economic group.
Pedagogical Issues and Methods
            From a pedagogical standpoint expanded learning and community partnerships have the potential to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills, encourage supplementary assessments that evaluates authentic, performance based learning, encourage diverse learning styles and discourage indoctrination and foster creative and interesting curriculum development. It also has the potential to encourage local initiatives that reflect community needs (Forum for Education and Democracy, 2010). However politics and a crisis mindset often intervenes with the application of pedagogical concepts.
            American education has been an ongoing tug of war between progressive and essentialist teaching. According to Brooks and Brooks (1999) a) teachers seek and value their students' points of view.b) classroom activities challenge students' suppositions.
c) teachers pose problems of emerging relevance.d) teachers build lessons around primary concepts and "big" ideas. e) teachers assess student learning in the context of daily teaching. These ideas are strongly connected to looking at learning as an ongoing process or results oriented. Dewey (    ) echoes a constructivist approach:
No number of object-lessons, got up as object-lessons for the sake of giving information, can afford even the shadow of a substitute for acquaintance with the plants and animals of the farm and garden acquired through actual living among them and caring for them. No training of sense-organs in school, introduced for the sake of training, can begin to compete with the alertness and fullness of sense-life that comes through daily intimacy and interest in familiar occupations  (p 201).

In other words hands on learning is practical, effective and motivational.  Dewey was writing at a time when children were increasingly removed from occupational, hands on chores, such as found on a farm or in home business. A constructivist pedagogy, from Dewey’s perspective, aims  to children keep engaged and interested, active and competent. For instance, Dewey wrote, when children learn about weaving and sewing, they are not just learning how to sew, but the historic and social concepts of the material and mechanics of the activity. They might learn about agriculture, industry, technology and commerce from the make up of fabric into a clothing article. So while children may indeed learn to be good workers, effective pedagogy leads to life-long continued learning and scholarship. Dewey argued that this type of learning is not necessarily specialized learning, but is an evolution from learning that had been the province of elites.  Dewey thought education should have both a liberal, college prep intention for those who think, and a place for those who want to make or do (Dewey, 1899). As cited by Caplan (1998) Shirkey, described a pedagogical approach in which learning is achieved through sharing, cooperation and collective action. These ideas reflect Dewey’s concept of group learning, which are adaptable to both in person / hands-on and technological assisted education.
Drama and Storytelling Methods
Drama and storytelling is an ancient and interesting pedagogical approach used in classrooms and community programs. In ancient Greece, theater was not just thought of an entertainment, but an inherent part of learning, and theater starts as play.  Greek theater-goers watched drama as vivid and entertaining lessons in morality and consequence, with narratives as something that could be applied to daily life. The point was not to learn the facts of history (in which they were well versed) but the lessons to be drawn from history to better understand the present and conceive the future (Barber, 1992). Current research demonstrates that play is a crucial part of learning, through creativity, experimenting, role play, relationships and the making of meaning. When children come to school, they bring this natural way of learning through play and storytelling. Integrating this type of learning into the curriculum brings context, and drama brings learning to life (McCaslin and Schonmann, 2006).  Heathcote surmised that learning through drama increases understanding by “isolating an event or comparing one event to another”.  Other researchers have suggested that drama, through either story telling or acting out, scripted or improvised, can give meaning and context to history and ideas. It imparts significance, cultural or temporal commonality, supports problem solving, reveals patterns, highlights similarities of concerns and needs, and overall shows the impact of events into the present day (Miller, Vanderhoof, Patterson, Clegg, 1989).
            From a pedagogical standpoint drama is an effective tool academically, socially and developmentally (Miller, et al, 1989). Dorothy Heathcote has been a strong supporter of using drama throughout the curriculum. As supported by more recent brain researchers, memory works best when learning combines thought with feeling. Moreover, neuroscientists have found that learning is specific to individuals. A standardized approach to learning runs counter to the individual ways our brains learn and retain information (Moore, 2004).
According to Richard Courtney, active learning through drama leads to empathy, identification, and external impersonation. Courtney noted that drama gives students practice in acting out thoughts in their minds, developing the capacity for more abstract, higher order thinking. Current neuroscience shows that we frequently rehearse to learn, prepare, and act.  Drama provides the opportunity to build vocabulary and understanding through sight, sound and movement, combining concrete and abstract understanding. We practice not only by doing, but by thinking. Watching how children learn, through improvised play, shows how well active, imaginative learning works, and how natural it is. This type of learning develops imagination, negotiation, critical thinking, and language use skills (McMaster, 1998 and Moore, 2004). Drama helps with all aspects of communication skills and literary such as vocabulary, understanding, and general discourse. It is particularly effective in facilitating verbal expression that is interactive and improvisational, and also helps with listening and writing. An important part of literacy is learning to understand and interpret what Vygosty’s calls symbolic representation and de-contextualized language, in which people learn to go from concrete to abstract meaning (McMaster, 1998).
Brain researchers have shown that emotion is an important component of learning and memory, providing stimulus and involvement. Art and drama provide excellent opportunities for this, so that learning becomes deeper, more sustained, and more complex.  Imagination and empathy helps to facilitate deeper understanding and a lasting impression (Moore, 2004). Drama can be used in diverse creative ways to teach and encourage further research and provide engaging learning experience. McMaster (1998) wrote that using drama offer opportunity to develop alternate endings, act out history scenes, do readings, act out pantomime and highlight particular experiences. For example, McMaster relates Cullinan’s experience as a teacher in a social studies class. The students chose a character from a Gold Rush mining town, re-enacting the character. The students realized they needed to find out more about this time in order to have their characters seem real, leading to more research and knowledge. Instead of simply memorizing a list of facts, the students were able to gain a fuller understanding of this history, learning about all of the characters and the overall story.
            Learning through drama has a two-fold imprint on students providing both motivation and  meaning. Drama encourages what children do naturally – pretending, and potentially trying on new roles, which can build self-confidence. It helps expand horizons, so children become more aware of self and others, and make new connections. This type of learning highlights the significance and patterns of events, drawing connections between present and detecting patterns and commonalities of cultures (Miller, Vanderhoof, et al, 1989 and McMaster, 1998). It is also learning by creating and doing, an important part of constructivist theory, and Dewey’s philosophy.
Role-play is often used as a type of acting out, play, and type of drama. Role-play stems from social drama and is widely used for corporate and professional skills and occupational training and in classrooms to explain literature, history, and science (Blatner, 2009).  It comes naturally to children, and can be used in all levels of education. It combines imagination with hands on practicality. Role-play stems from social drama, a specific way to help people relate to each other, and understand concepts and procedures.
            Learning can be generally divided between assimilative and accommodative learning, according to Piaget (Blatner, 2009). Assimilative learning reflects traditional direct instructional styles, in which concepts are given to students, while accommodative learning fits in with a constructionist approach. Piaget and other researchers referred to a mental map as a way to explain how we understand and remember things. A comparative list illustrates the difference:
Assimilative                                         Accommodation
  Fill in mental map                               Change mental map
                 Rote learning                                      Active learning
                   Facts                                                   Skills
            Both are important to learning. Assimilative learning offers a framework, or a foundation for learning, and puts things into context. For example, in the case of the 31ers history of building the dam, students may learn about facts of the depression, and the water shortage in the west, and then gain more in depth understanding of this history by listening to stories, watching social dramas, acting out roles, and doing hands on learning. Active hands-on learning not only helps to increase understanding, but may be more easily retained long term. Accommodative learning tends to be more flexible, creative, offers a chance to work through process and steps, builds self- awareness, and may encourage self-expression and more interactions with self-expression and feedback (Blatner, 2009).  Some may think that assimilative learning is a serious  learning needed to advance through school, but memorizing facts is not necessarily knowledge and does not guarantee understanding. Smilksten wrote that people learn through a process of observation, practice, trial and error, creativity, feedback, skill building and refinement. It begins with motivation and works toward mastery (2003).
            Against the backdrop of complaints about student achievement, and a policy movement toward “back to the basics” and “accountability” some educators believe that pedagogy and curriculum should encourage inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving. Assessment should not just be test based, but performance based and student centered. Instead of indoctrination, which is authoritarian in nature, students should be given the opportunity to make decisions and solve problems. (Rule, 2006 and Lombardi, 2008). These principles can be applied to both in personal and computer-mediated learning.  This type of learning emphasizes the instructor as facilitator rather than lecturer. It assumes that students are natural learners, and want to learn.   If students are bored in a classroom, it assumes that active learning can motivate, and help transform students from passive to active learners. It acknowledges that learning is social and purposeful.
Constructivist related Pedagogical Theories
            Drama fits in well with Dewey’s and related theories of learning. Dewey wrote that imagination helps to create and understanding, from the past and into the present. Dewey’s philosophy of education, in which students learn through hands on discovery, and respond to what is personally relevant and meaningful has influenced constructivist approaches to education. Constructivism should be viewed as a way of learning – not teaching. In order words, a student listening to a lecture can still learn in a constructivist way. Constructivism means that people construct their own meaning from reality, or as psychologists put it “mental models” (Learning, 2010).
            The concepts of constructivism were around before it became a formal theory of education (or set of theories, since there is social and cognitive constructivism).  Aside from education, these ideas can be found in philosophy, sociology and anthropology  (Hanley, 1994). Hanley refers to Cheek, who wrote that people actively seek knowledge, link this to past knowledge, and making it their own by constructing an interpretation (1994). This is a significantly different view than the classical idea that knowledge is something immutable, something to be passed down.
            Psychologist Lev Vygotsky developed a theory of learning in which social development and interpersonal communication drives learning. An important element of Vygotsyky’s theory is how culture impacts learning. A culture provides the tools through which children learn – either through imitative learning, through direct instruction, and finally through collaborative learning. The basic framework of Vygotsky is that children construct knowledge within a social context, that their development follows learning and the central role of language in learning. Another frequently referenced theorist, Piaget believed that children need to reach a particular development stage before they can learn within the environment, in other words the opposite of Vygotsky’s framework (Gallagher, 1999 and Learning, 2010). Vygosty serves as a theoretical link between Dewey and Jerome Bruner in terms of learning as a social, experiential, and contextual activity.
            According to Smith (2002) Bruner viewed culture as having an important influence in learning, and school should be considered only as a slice of learning. In this perspective, schooling should be viewed in a larger cultural context.  Bruner developed specific ideas about learning and instruction. His concepts focused on readiness (learning in context), clear, easy to understand concepts (spiral organization), and the ability to extend knowledge to new situations (extrapolation). He thought that learning is a process, not a product. He also believed that good learning is both active and intrinsic (Smith, 2002).
            Howard Gardner, a student of Bruner, was also interested in social / cultural aspects of learning. Also showing the influence of Dewey, he believed that children were naturally “active problem solvers” who learn through experience in an environmental context (Smith, 2002). Gardner, developed a theory of multiple intelligence that became popular in some education circles and fits in well with the idea that learning is active, complex and contextual.  In this theory intelligence is broken down into linguistic, logic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist categories (Armstrong, 2010). The core philosophy of Gardner is that students should be at the center of their education, that it is important to recognition differences in perception and expression, and that learning is a life long process (Gardner, 2010).
            Other educators during the Progressive era took a different route from Dewey and developed a model based on bureaucratic hierarchy and factory floor work systems. This model, termed Administrative Progressivism, is still the way most schools are run, a work based model that aims for efficiency and output, with divisions by age and ability, division of duties, classification of students, evaluations and cost effectiveness. In fact if anything in an age with less financial supports and demand for more accountability, and a consumerist mind the demand for accountability and effectiveness this type of progressivism is still popular. Another type of progressivism, vocational education, has also had surges of popularity, depending on social needs and political demands (Loss & Loss, 2010)
Examples: A better way to teach history
            There has been little change in students understanding of history or teaching methods in the last eighty years.  A lot of information comes in discrete bits and becomes conflated from multiple sources of family, school and community.  Narratives may be influenced by culture and politics. Students understanding of history is better than some may think, if put into the right context and with the right, usually concrete examples, such as clothing and transportation methods. Because of cognitive development, younger learners may not understand abstract ideals concerning the nature and purpose of government, politics or economic policies (Barton, 1997 in Hodge).
            A example of how history can be taught is that of a community volunteer at a Philadelphia elementary school telling about her experience in the civil rights movement.  Putnam (2003) offered the example of a volunteer in the Experience Corps, which used the services of seniors to teach and assist young people.  The volunteer came into the classroom and showed photographs and shared her story.  The advantages over text, or even film, were apparent – providing verbal and visual interactions, the ability to tell personal stories, being able to respond to questions. The results of the Experience Corps were impressive: the reading scores of 75 percent of the students in Philadelphia increased by one grade level. This is both a pedagogical and community interaction example. The Corps had a positive impact on student attitudes, provided valuable instruction in civic participation and community, and connected generations
            Even without using John Dewey and other scholars as foundation for this literature review it should be clear that there is a natural overlap between democratic participation, school / community participation and pedagogical principals of constructivism and active learning. In theory, and it is hoped in practice democratic institutions and civic participation are naturally strengthened by stronger partnerships between schools and the public. John Dewey noticed that schools and teaching may have authoritarian tendencies that can be counter balanced by community participation and pedagogy that encourages student interest, interactions, and input from others out in the community. A constructivist approach may be characterized by meaning, experience, multiple perspectives, and the use of active learning tools such as hands on learning and drama.
            Afterschool and outreach programs emphasize active learning and expose students to a range of expertise and points of view. A review of the literature shows that afterschool and expanded learning is a growing field that brings together diverse private and public organizations, supplemented by the scholarhsip at universities such as Harvard University.

Chapter 3: The Methodology
ART – I have revised the major purpose here to be consistent with that which was written in chapter one.
The major purpose of this study was to observe Deweyan principles of constructivist learning and democracy in action, and to examine how the goals of education and community can be met by joining forces, thus providing benefits to students, teachers, families, and the overall community. 
 ART - I have revised this section so that the specific objectives are consistent with what was written in chapter one. Specific objectives of this study were:
1.     To add to the continually evolving body of knowledge concerning Dewey’s ideas about democratic education and constructivist learning as a counterpoint to current emphasis on essentialism (standards based education) in education.
2.     To explore the link between democratic communities based learning and constructivism, and the use of informal learning to meet school curriculum and community goals.
3.     To provide a viable solution for  preserving community heritage.
4.     To add additional knowledge to the continuing the debate on constructivism versus essentialism.
5.     To construct a model for a collaborative process and curriculum development that meets specific community needs.  The study will examine specific constructivist teaching practices.
6.     The study will explore how community based constructivist program can work alongside mandated curriculum requirements. Issues such as resource development, teacher input, and community participation will be included. ART – I don’t feel this was a purpose of the study as this can be a dissertation in itself.
Description of the Method
            Eliminate this paragraphs as it is background and not part of the methodology.
A phenomenological research approach was chosen as an appropriate way to understand the experiences of children and adults participating in the 31ers Outreach Program, giving an opportunity to explore diverse experiences of school children, teachers, community experts, and the 31ers community members who actually lived the history the children are studying.  A phenomenological approach also fits with Dewey’s emphasis on experiential, contextual learning and the role of researcher as a participant observer.
The goal of phenomenological research is to understand the lived experience of a phenomenon. Nitta, Holley and Wrobel (2010) suggested a phenomenological approach is useful for understanding multiple perspectives of a phenomenon. In the case of the 31ers it is reasonable to expect that students, teachers, community experts and volunteers and finally the families of 31ers will have their own ideas on what the project means. According to Nitta, Holley & Wrobel (2010), Lester (1999) and Groenwald (2004) phenomenological research has the following characteristics:
            1. Qualitative, descriptive, contextual, and subjective
2. Explores and describes the particular experiences and perspectives of individuals as a reflection or comment on shared meanings and practices.
            3. Uses particular experiences to uncover essences.
            4. Captures rich descriptions using in-depth interviews and observations.
            5. Can be used to challenge assumptions or conventional wisdom
            6. Can develop practical theory to be applied to policy changes and action.
Design of the Study
Phenomenological research is inherently descriptive, and starts from a perspective that is free from hypothesis or preconceptions (Lester, 1999). As a participant observer, the researcher had access to primary sources during the planning and implementation activities of the program within classrooms and at special programs within the community.  In keeping with triangulation, the design used relevant sources of the diverse organizations that participate in the activities. The study provided multi-layered detail of the 31ers project, include its origins, the various participants, purpose and goals. The study explored the project from the following  perspectives of school and community participants:
1.     The details concerning subject topics, learning activities, student responses and attitudes
2.     The contributions of participants from organizations, including experts and speakers from various agencies such as, and their views and feelings about the project.
3.     The perspectives of the coordinator and active volunteers developing the projects, including purpose, aims, and goals.
4.     The perspectives of aging 31ers and their families.
5.     Perspectives included what is important and meaningful to the participants, and any barriers, problems, or unexpected occurrences along the way
Sample and Population
            The study population included the participants in program activities in school and community activities.  Participants included the leader of the project, assistants, teachers, students, school administrators, and participants from other organizations. The study population was inherently limited by the relatively small population of the town, which is under 15,000 and the small The Boulder City school system, which includes two elementary schools, one middle and a high school. Classroom participants in the Outreach Program included a class of second graders and seventh graders. Other participating organizations included the Bureau of Land Reclamation (which supervises the Dam and surrounding lands) and the City of Boulder City, specifically the Parks and Recreation Department, and the Boulder City Museum Society, which had been working closely with the project. The researcher had an existing connection to the program as a volunteer and community resident, which helped with access, trust and credibility. A primary source of contact was the coordinator for the project, Patty Sullivan, but there was also communication with school staff and government personnel. Patty Sullivan also had long-term relationships with community members who provided additional sources and information. The small size of the town and school district and Patty Sullivan’s ongoing connections made bureaucratic barriers minimal.  Contact was made by letter, telephone and through referrals.
            The study focused on the following key actors:
1.     Project founder and key volunteers
2.     A 31ers survivor (actually in Boulder City during construction of the Dam).
3.     Two or more expert community participants in 31ers events.
4.     One or more educators who participate in or experience 31ers events.
5.     Students or children who participated in class or at events.
            Verbal in-depth interviews and observation was an important part of this study. The interview questions and observations were sufficiently in-depth and appropriate for each part of the population sample to provide an accurate description, and answer the questions proposed for the study. Written interview questionnaires were used for initial contacts, particularly by e-mail, and provided a starting point for further questions. Written notes also included artifacts of participants, such as class work, lesson plans, scripts, diaries, official organizational documents and records.
Data Collection and Time Line
            The data collection included various stages of the development, design and implementation of the program, including planning, meetings, development of activities, activities, and results of the activities gained by interviewing and observing, with the researcher in the role of participant – observer. The collection included the period from 2009 through 2012. The 31ers Outreach program began in 2008 and continues developing to current day.
The data was organized using the following categories:  a) participant artifacts including lesson plans, scripts, student work, and other classroom materials along with observations and field notes derived from activities and events, b) semi-structured interviews and observation of teachers, students, community participants and contributors and audio visual records of activities and events, c) documents and plans related to the coordination and organization of the events, including time-line and d) Audio, video, print, oral and computer archives of previous 31er events and related historic data.
All data used in the study was collected and analyzed with the explicit permission from the participants and in full compliance with Institutional Review Board (IRB) Guidelines. Multiple data sources were collected. The nature of the interview and/or observations varied based on the role, position, experience or observations of the actor interviewed or surveyed. Observation, data collection and analysis occurred concurrently, with additional analysis as needed following the observational and interview stage of the study.
Interviews or observations were done at the schools when appropriate for the teachers or volunteers involved, and also at the Park and Recreation offices or at the home of those involved from Park and Recreation, the Bureau of Reclamation and other actors in the study. Additional interviews or observations were done at the events.
Data Analysis
A guiding principle of phenomenological research is to allow themes and categories to emerge during the initial research, interviews, and observation. Marshall and Rossman (1999) noted that this analysis includes the following phases: organizing, generating categories, themes, and patterns, coding, testing, alternative explanations, writing.  Miles and Hubermann (1994) recommend the use of memos to help make sense of the data, and connect data to overall concepts. Codes were used to label or tag data that relate to particular meaning or concepts to be analyzed. Overall it is important that as data is collected it is systematically organized and useful for analysis.
For this study, themes of constructivist learning may be revealed in a study of classroom learning and event activities including the role of community volunteers and contributors; the response of community members seeing their life re-enacted by students, and the responses of students to re-enacting long ago events.
. Specific concepts of John Dewey served as a framework for analysis, and ensured the analysis answered the study questions and ensured the study is cohesive and in the scope of the study. The overall research questions and the literature review, which is sectioned by the topics of Public Policy and Purpose, Community Interaction and Identity, and Pedagogical Issues provided guidance and support for the analysis.

            The findings represented in this study represent a diverse sampling of participant volunteers, including the founder coordinator, Patty Sullivan, teachers from the local school, community volunteers, various professionals, and the thoughts of a 31er participant. The findings conveyed the experience of developing and implementing the 31er Outreach program through observation of the researcher, in-depth interviews of participants, and also samples of materials used. When observing children in classroom or at special events, the research was confined to observation or talking to adults, to minimize any effect on the children.  One of the goals of those behind the outreach project is to provide inspiration and a template that can be used to preserve and inspire a sense of community elsewhere in the country. The findings are presented to illustrate the strands of the relationships of both people and organizations, the connections and different perspectives of school and community, the use of resources and knowledge, and the experiences felt by participants as they worked on and interacted with Outreach activities.  The goals, needs, and aspirations of participants are explored. For clarity the findings are presented in partial chronological order while underscoring relationships.
            This is a list of participants included in the research is as follows:
Patty Sullivan, Coordinator, 31er Education Outreach Program, 31er Family Member
Barbara Morris, Presenter, Oral History Actor
Pete Mayes, Presenter / Educator, Hoover Dam Tour Guide, Retired Teacher
Laura Hutton, Boulder City / Hoover Dam Museum Archivist, Presenter
Tim Roy, Mitchell Elementary School 2nd Grade Instructor
Rhonda Gatlin, Mitchell Elementary School, 2nd Grade Instructor
Kim Davison, Mitchell Elementary School, 2nd Grade Instructor
Josie Kachnic, Mitchell Elementary School, 2nd Grade Instructor
Shanee Williams, Mitchell Elementary School, 2nd Grade Instructor
Kathleen West, Garrett Middle School, 7th Grade Instructor
Susan Kolman, Volunteer presenter, Boulder City Resident
Laura Godbey Smith, 31er Family Member, Community Activist, Family Matriarch
Aiden Smith, 7 years old, Student Participant
Roger Shoaff, Manager, Boulder City Hotel / Hoover Dam Museum
Joan Patterson, Writer and Volunteer
Overview of the 31ers Education Outreach Program
            The 31ers Outreach Program grew out of the annual Luncheon attended by individuals and families who had a historic relationship with the building of the Dam and the beginning of the city.  The Luncheon was similar to a Founders reunion common in towns and cities across the country. Over the decades this was an opportunity for workers and their families to share stories and reminisce.  Many of these families continue to live here, and forged a close bond because of the challenging, sometimes horrific conditions in completing the dam work, and toils of everyday living.  While the work on the Dam is well documented in text and several award winning documentaries, and is part of overall Nevada history and social studies, the personal history, while meticulously collected in the form of oral recordings and archived by such Nevada historians as Dennis McBride, has not been studied in terms of education or community.   
An article in the Las Vegas Sun (West, June 19, 2009)  quoted Patty Sullivan describing the civic role of teaching history, as done by the 31er Outreach program:
By retelling stories, looking at old photographs and, in general, celebrating Boulder City’s past, the town’s history will be preserved. By recognizing your history and how you got where you are, as an individual you grow deep roots. You understand why certain decisions are made; you understand why the city is laid out a certain way, what this park means and why it’s important, and why we’re remembering these people.” (par. 14 & 15).

The findings are presented through observation of events, in-depth interviews of diverse participants, and examples of materials used for publicizing, presentations, and teaching. This study presented the 31ers Education Outreach program from the perception or experiences of the participants, with the aim of providing a rich and meaningful portrait, and explored what themes might arise, in relationship to John Dewey, constructivism and the connection between school and community.
The Initial Development of the 31ers Education Concept
            Laura Godbey Smith came to Boulder City as a young child. Her parents, similar to other families coming to Boulder City during the Great Depression, were seeking work opportunities related to the construction of the Dam. . She has been a resident of Boulder City ever since. Laura explained the origin of the term 31ers:
The 31ers was originally included only the workers and families who came to the desert in 1931 to begin work on the dam, before there was a Boulder City to live in and when Las Vegas was primarily a railroad water stop and military reserve. 
Laura explained that the term for the 31ers soon expanded to include men who worked on the dam during all phases of its construction.  Later the 31ers included their wives and children. Eventually, as original 31ers moved away (or passed away) the 31ers Reunion meeting expanded to include the families of the children and all of those who were in Boulder City during any portion of the construction of the Boulder Dam. Today it includes anyone who has lived in Boulder City for at least 31 years and is open to the entire community for participation and involvement.
Patty Sullivan, the niece of Laura Godbey Smith, grew up with these stories as part of a 31er family and admitted that like most children she did not always fully appreciate the oft-repeated stories heard around the table.  However in more recent years, she began attending the Luncheon, and realized that these stories would be lost, or at least left unused, in the audio recordings and newspaper archives of the Boulder City Historic Museum and  the Library. While not a professional educator, Patty realized that the best way to keep these stories alive was to pass them down to a new generation before the 31er Reunion Luncheon became a thing of the past.  As someone with some theater background, she also realized that interactive presentations might be an effective way to keep the stories going. Theater in the schools, in “living” presentations, and the potential of a local 31ers project base theater company were all considered. , She also realized that the schools in Boulder City might benefit from an education program that would join community experts and 31er families with the curriculum in the schools. 
As a native and a 31er, an active community member with a multitude of local friends and associations, and experience as an organizer and administrator with the City’s Park and Recreation Department she had some strengths to bring to the project.  She also did not necessarily feel constrained, as schoolteachers or education administrators might, by lengthy bureaucratic steps. Patty’s overall attitude wass to ask for, and accept help from an array of people whohad the knowledge, skill set, appreciation, and enthusiasm for helping with the 31ers Outreach Program. Being a 31er descendant was not a requirement to volunteer or participate. Patty Sullivan’s leadership style was as a catalyst than dictorial.  Her vision of the mission was clear, her approach collaborative. input and took a collaborative approach. Her understanding of the history was both personal, and comprehensive.
Interview One – Patty Sullivan
Patty described the history of the 31ers and its transition to an Outreach program:
The term 31ers was coined for the people who came here in 1931 who camped on the river before the dam was built and before homes were built that they could live in. The city of Boulder City was planned from the start, but the work force and their families began arriving long before the government anticipated. So it was the people who actually worked on the dam that came here in 1931. Over the years it became know that anybody who worked on the construction of the dam, regardless if they came here in 1931 or not, was considered a 31er. When talking about the Hoover Dam, you have got to expand that into the Black Rock Canyon Dam Act because that encompassed everything from the surveying to the installation of the power generators, all the way to electrical and water disruption today, including the building of Boulder City itself, which was the primary support for the dam.

Patty discussed the formation of the annual 31er Luncheon and its connection to the wider community:
So taking all of that into consideration, there was a group of people who started meeting in the forties to have an annual reunion type luncheon where
they got together and just told stories and rehashed old memories and stuff like that. It was a very exclusive group that was invited. That went on for many years and that became known as the 31ers. It was all done within that nucleus of the 31ers families. Then as time went on and as people recognized that those stories were truly the history of the area and of the nation they wanted to incorporate other people. Family members and community members were invited to come to the reunion luncheons. It kinda struggled along that way because people still had the mentality that they couldn’t come, that it was an exclusive group. It was a hard mentality to break that other people were welcome to come to the luncheon.
Patty shared the transition of the annual Luncheon to an Outreach program and the motivation for this change:
As years progressed I went and in 2008 or 2009, it happened to be the last year that one of our 31ers locally who attended the reunions could attend. Their stories were going to be lost, I mean you could just see it. People were dying or dropping off right and left. I kinda made a pledge that I would find a way to conserve these storied in a way that would transcend the generations so it would go on after any of us were gone. So we started writing monologues, researching the achieves, reviewing the interviews of 31ers taped over the years. We gave the teachers a little bit of tidbits of history and they would write plays and lessons. We got props and things that would explain part of the history, and it just kinda took its own life from there.

Discussion and Analysis
            The beginning of the Education Outreach took place in 2008 at the Boulder City campus of College of Southern Nevada, which is often used as site for community events.  The Luncheon included displays of historic photos and artifacts, a lecture on an early settlement by the River, and a monologue based on the memories of Patty’s family. While historic documents examined the building of the Dam and a general overview of the early development of the town, the monologue recounted the experience of Erma Godbey, Patty’s grandmother, and the hardships faced by families, culminating n the Godbey family constructing the building of the first privately owned home.  The monologue was titled “First House” (see Appendix A). Several Godbey family members were in attendance, and so had the unusual experience of observing one of the lives of their own family members presented to them, as a living history performed by an actor. This Luncheon was the transitional event for the 31ers Education Outreach Program, providing a foundation and direction for the development of the 31ers program as it was linked with the school system, various government agencies, and individual volunteers.
            While Patty Sullivan had a trove of family history to draw on, she also relied on
expertise of others. The Boulder City/Hoover Dam Museum and the Boulder City Library, in addition to the Bureau of Reclamation provided much of the material. Historian Dennis McBride had collected and archived many oral recordings, which had been transferred from VHS to VDVDs. These materials provide original source material for developing the curriculum, writing scripts, and creating educational activities.
The positive reception of 2008 attendees inspired Patty to further develop and
expand her vision to conserve and share this history. After many months of planning and research, program development, and recruitment of community participants, the first full-fledged event was presented in the Fall of 2008.
The Seeds of the 31er Outreach Program
Interview Two – Laura Godbey Smith
Laura Godbey Smith shared her perspective as a 31er, recounting Boulder City history and her throughts about the Educational Outreach. She had arrived in the area in 1931 at the age of 2 ½ from Colorado when her father took a job opportunity related to the construction of the Dam. As Laura explained, the first year they lived in what was termed “Rag Town” in tents. She  has continued to play a role an oral historian; with details of both Boulder City and Las Vegas history that cannot necessarily be found in textbooks, and she has been instrumental in ensuring oral history has been recorded. She also had been a long time leader and participant in the annual 31er Luncheon. Her family experience has been re-enacted in a monologue “First House” created for 31er Outreach events and classroom activities.
Laura explained that the 31er Luncheons, which began in the early1940’s, grew out of Boulder City civic activism that grew rapidly as families arrived.   Boulder City had strong social capital ties from the very beginning, perhaps because hardships necessitated coming together not only through work and friendship but through the support of formal organizations. The first 31er Luncheons, she explained, included “Members of the American Legion [founded in Boulder City in 1931], various fraternal organization members, business and community members, and everybody who worked on the Dam.” She also noted that Boulder City had the first Girl Scout Troop in the State, started in 1932, and residents joined together to construct church buildings.
Laura shared some interesting history that may partly explain why the city has a long history of residents who are active and engaged in the community, and tend to be protective of the community. She explained that many men who lost their livelihood during the Depression were Veterans of World War I. These Veterans marched on Washington in 1932 demanding promised bonus compensation for their service and were met with fierce resistance by the Army under orders of President Hoover.  This became a political liability for Hoover. Laura explained that the Army “dispersed the Veterans. ” but subsequently and quietly, Hoover designed the Dam construction site as a designated job program for veterans.  Laura continued, “So Boulder City had the two largest Legion Posts in the world.” Laura also explained that the Legion Posts provided a social outlet for residents, with gatherings and dances.
The 31ers, Laura explained, became a place for people to gather and exchange stories about their individual history and the settling of the town. She described that a lot of local history is “word of mouth” but she also suggested that people sharing their story in writing if they could not attend, or if they preferred to share in writing rather than orally. She said that the Luncheon eventually grew large enough to need a larger hall in Las Vegas, but then began to shrink in attendance as people moved away or aged. She recalls that a surviving 31er who has worked on the Dam had come to the Luncheon several years ago, along with a man who had worked on the railroad that came to the dam. She explained, “We had people come from out of state, most of them lived in Western States, but in the last ten years most of them had passed away”. Because of this, she began to invite other community members who wanted to participate.
Laura explained the transition to an Outreach program as a natural outgrowth from feeling like she no longer had the energy to keep it going and wanting someone else to take charge. Her niece, Patty, had volunteered to do this.  Patty’s initial inspiration grew out of learning about an outreach programs where community members brought
trunks with historic artifacts and memorabilia to the schools. Laura explained,  “They decided that the history of Boulder City and Southern Nevada needed to be presented to children because they (Patty and other volunteers) did not get enough history, particularly local history, in classes.”
Laura was optimistic that the Outreach Program will continue, with the participation of teachers and the Museum. She said that classes from Las Vegas and Henderson are coming to the Museum and participating in the 31er exhibit.  She expressed the feeling that will be a resurgence of interest, based on need, in outreach education, and the PTA will be interested in these efforts. She recounted an early version of an after school outreach program during the first year of living in the tent. “Everyday my dad would read to the children [of various families] in the tent, while my mom made lemonade to serve during the reading”. She explained that given the 24 hour shifts, the night shift fathers in particular needed the quiet time so they could rest.
Discussion and Analysis
Laura Godbey Smith is a vigorous keeper and distributor of personal and community history. Much of the history was passed down orally, some have been lost, and a substantial amount has been recorded. One of the problems in education is ensuring that information is both factual and truthful. She has actively insured the record is kept straight, and has s a richness and detail that is characteristic of oral history but often lacking in school based curriculum and teaching. Her sharing of this history also has kept alive the attitudes and values of this period. For example, the fact that the Dam is called Hoover Dam is not just an incidental historic fact but has a strong emotional and meaningful resonance to the 31ers, given the role of Hoover in encouraging the building of the Dam, but rejecting their initial claims for benefits. Her voice was full of passion and certainty when she talks about this history, not a dry recitation of facts.  Laura is an example of personal stories and identity contributing to overall community identity and collective stories. History can be parsed as list of facts and figures, but it is also a collection of stories, that then becomes codified and refined in the formal curriculum of education. The themes reflected in the interview with Laura included meaning, learning, community / civic mindedness, with a sense of identity.
Volunteer Recruitment and Interview Three with Pete Mayes
Patty Sullivan quickly went to work recruiting volunteers who she felt would be valuable to the program. One of the first volunteers was Pete Mayes, a long time resident of Boulder City, 70 years old, a retired teacher with 26 years experience teaching 5th grade, long time Hoover Dam Tour Guide, and also former worker for the Dam. His experience and perception served an example of how Outreach Program was developed, and reflected Patty Sullivan’s deep connections within the community and loose, grassroots, organic style of recruiting. The interview with Pete Mayes follows:
Interviewer:  How did you get involved with the 31ers?
Pete Mayes: I was walking my Rockweiler; I do five miles a day around Boulder City. Patty was driving by library and stopped me and asked ‘do you want to do some volunteer work for the city? I said I haven’t got anything else to do. She said come on and join us here.
Interviewer: Did you have any idea what you were going to be doing?
Mayes: No, I had no idea, I just went with it and it kept getting larger and larger.
Interviewer: When was that?
Mayes: I don’t know, five six years ago. You have to ask Patty, I don’t remember.
Interviewer: So what did you do initially?
Pete: I was involved in the 31ers event, when we had the 31ers anniversary in October we would have all the old workers and their families and I would help. It was at the college campus. We would have the kids come in for two days then the 31ers and community the last day. I did talks on the dam over every day. I also brought in my Model A period car to display. I loved teaching for the kids.
Interviewer: But the 31er luncheons happened before the events at the college and Boulder Dam Hotel?
Mayes: I was involved when I was a guide, because they would invite us, so I was doing that for two or three years before. I was aware of what was going on and what it was for.
Interviewer: So what next?
Pete: I will continue on just as like I was guide. I have got so much information, nobody seems to want it.
Interviewer: How do you adjust to first and second graders?
Pete: I just do. I see age and kinda change your vocabulary and just do it a different way that’s all. I taught school, slightly older then second graders, but the feel and needs are the same.
Interviewer: What year did you retire from being schoolteacher?
Pete: I retired in 1992, and became a guide at the dam in 1994. I could not stay retired, I have to do things. I applied in 1993 but veterans got five points more than I got so they gave the job to veterans. In 1994 they called me and said ‘come on down’.
Interviewer: I understand you wrote the script that guides at the dam are required to use. When was that?
Pete: Oh gosh, four or five years later…a new visitors center was build in 1995, they brought in new guides, an in 1996 they started the hard hat tours. I started to train them in 1998.
Interviewer: Did you ever work at the dam other than as a tour guide?
Pete: I worked at the dam from 1966 to 1969 and an operator for Water and Power before I started teaching. So I had a little bit of background at it before I ever started teaching school.
Interviewer: Where do you see the 31ers going?
Pete: I have no idea.

Discussion and Analysis
            Pete Maye’s story is illustrative of several aspects of the 31e program, and illuminates both community relationships and pedagogical issues.  Patty’s casual recruitment style did not follow institutional protocols, but reflected her deep-seated community roots and civic activism. She was already acquainted with Pete and knew of his prior experience. Community interaction and relationships can be either formal or informal, and both can be effective under the right circumstances.  However, what seems most striking about this encounter is that Patty and Pete had a shared passionate interest in the history of the town, and bringing this education to children.  Note in his description how he mentioned, “he loved teaching the kids”. The fact that he had prior professional teaching experience explains his interest and value to the Program. He also had experience actually working at the Dam and being a tour guide at the Dam. Pete’s experience reflects themes of community participation and volunteerism, constructivist learning, and meaning borne out of interest and passion.
The 2009 & 2010 Education Outreach Activities
Patty Sullivan had determined that Educational Outreach should be volunteer- based and reflect a diverse range of expertise and knowledge. Once the 2008 event was completed, Patty set to work recruiting individual community members, teachers from the local schools, participants from relevant public agencies, local historians, and community groups or businesses that couple provide expertise, supplies, or financial support. Patty also created an ongoing list of volunteers with their background, skill set, and ongoing or potential role in the Outreach. Patty matched the needs of the programs with volunteers’ interests and skills. She also gained the material or financial support of diverse community organization. She also recruited the American Society of Civil Engineers and the Far Western Anthropological Research Group.
Participants included storytellers / actors, and expert presenters. Once again an actor, in this case, Barbara Morris, presented the real life “character” Erma Godbey.  Speakers from the Bureau of Reclamation-Colorado River Water Allocation and the Lake Mead National Park Service conducted seminars. Second graders from Mitchell Elementary and King 4th Grade, along with private school students from Grace Community Christian Church and homeschooled children participated in experiential activities, such as hauling water from the river, washing clothes and hanging them on the line, 1931 toys and games, and diverting the river to build the dam.  Exhibits included historic photos and explanatory displays about building the Dam.  Teachers incorporated these lessons into classroom activities and assignments. Patty Sullivan used the 2009 event to as a blueprint to further develop and improve the activities for the 2010 event.
A key challenge was continuing the tradition of the annual Luncheon, while incorporating the needs of educators and students. In other words, incorporating new activities and appealing to the educational and wider community, while honoring the older 31er who had a living memory and narrative of the history.  Figure 1 illustrates the 2009 Luncheon as a transition:
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Figure 1 31ers Educational Outreach brochure, 2009

            The brochure is an illustration of how the 31er Luncheon went through its phase of a  transition from a historic, civic minded traditional luncheon to a full-fledged community education program.. Elderly luncheon attendees had the opportunity to see some of their memories presented in the monologue and skits, and give feedback to presenters. From an organizing standpoint, the brochure served as an effective way to announce the ongoing mission of the Outreach Education program as an outgrowth of the annual Luncheon.  The brochure represents community interaction and identity and brings to mind themes of meaning and collaboration.
Interview Three – Barbara Morris
            Participant Barbara Morris, a retired senior, and relatively new Boulder City resident, explained her role in the Outreach:
Interviewer: What is it you do with the 31ers?
Barbara: I portray Erma Godbey, Patty Sullivan’s grandmother, who came here in 1931 and lived in the homemade tent town of Ringtown with her family. While there is a script, I change the portrayal every time based on interviews, readings and the needs of the audience. I do it for second graders, fourth graders, and seventh graders and for community groups. I also help out in other areas as best I can, working with the kids and volunteering. I am a volunteer in many groups, and an actress.
Interviewer: How do you go about your presentation?
Barbara: I need to get the student students to understand that a quarter or a dollar bill may not be a big deal to you today, but was a very big deal back then in the 1930’s. I put it into perspective. I put on a hat and become Mrs. Erma Godbey, starting with a script based on Grandma Godbey’s memoir and interviews Laura Lynch did, or that I have done since. They learn how kids played with sticks, stones, and small pieces of string and even made pets of Tarantulas and other desert dwellers. How an air-conditioned swamp cooled movie theatre was the best thing to come to town so people could stay cool. I explain how children then had to have creativity and a can take anything attitude. The story begins in June 1931.
Interviewer: How did you get involved with the 31ers?
Patty Sullivan saw me at the Dam Short Film Festival after watching a film and she said “Oh Barbara, would you like to be involved in this educational outreach and being Erma Godbey, I am not sure she gave me name at that time, and that’s how I got involved.
Interviewer: What year did you become involved?
Barbara: What year? I am not certain. Three, four years ago. Probably three years ago that we first went to a school.  I had volunteered for Patty before for different things, working with the kid in the park and recreation programs, and that’s how I think it started. And now I do it for service organizations for adults. It didn’t start out that way.  You know Rotary club, community club, church, AAUW and things like that. But I enjoy it so much!
Interviewer:  Did you use a written script?
Barbara: Yes, a script had already been written. And I embellish it a bit for the different audiences, I change it a little. I love doing it for the little tiny ones because I can take my tarantula and I can scare them with it and different things. I have a child’s mind. I relate to them.
Interviewer: What do the kids remember?
Barbara: They remember honestly the props, and things. You know words go in one ear and out the other, honestly, but props give them something to hold on to. I loved it today when I said, “pet” and a boy said “pet rock”, but he’s too young. Pet Rocks were the things in the seventies, sixties or seventies, which is the same as the 1930’ s to them, ancient history.

            Barbara brought a different perspective, as a senior, actor, and a relative newcomer to the community. Her activism was based on what is personally interesting and meaningful her.. From an organizing and recruitment standpoint, Patty did not have a litmus test of only wanting participants with a direct relationship to the 31ers. Barbara’s participation reflected themes of civic mindedness and meaningful activity.
Expansion of Education Outreach into Diverse Community Programs
            The programs in 2010 and 2011 included more immersive, curriculum based participation by the teachers and students and further expansion of the Educational Outreach into other annual community events.  In this way Patty Sullivan and the volunteers managed to bring the program deeper into the school system while simultaneously reaching out to the overall community. In an effort to strengthen and embed the program into the community general presentations and monologue narratives about Erma Godbey and Frank Crowe (the engineer in charge of the Dam) was conducted at Rotary functions, a community hospital fundraiser, the Boulder City Friends of the Arts, and the American Public Works Association Conference and also the annual Chautauqua. The diversity of the audience reflected the range of the curriculum application, including history, sociology, science and the arts.
            The 31ers Outreach also constructed educational and interactive booths at the Spring Jamboree, The Best Dam Barbeque, Art in the Park, the annual hospital fundraiser. The Outreach also participated in community holiday parades, which are important community functions. The participation included building elaborate floats and recruiting 31er families, 31er volunteers, children, parents, and teachers to be on the floats. This served as a combination of publicity for the Outreach program and as another opportunity to teach residents about local history. In addition to these activities and presentations, an education “in service” was presented at ta convention of Nevada Park and Recreation leaders. The 31ers was also used as a theme for one of of the monthly “sculpture and art” walks put on by the Boulder City Arts League.
The Art in the Park event provides an example of an interactive educational activity. The activity included a  demonstration showing how the “Dam Powder Monkeys” blew up the canyon walls, and also experiential activities washing clothes with a clothes board, and making peg dolls. Participant Aiden Smith, seven years old, attended with his family. He was immediately attracted to the Power Monkey activity. The presenter, dressed as a dam worker, gave Aiden the opportunity to experience blowing up the walls in an interactive mockup with noise and dust. While it made sense that a boy would be interested in this activity, he also participated in the laundry activity. With the quick instruction of a volunteer he kneeled down and washed an article of clothing in a metal wash tub filled with water, and learned how to use a washboard. He was then directed to the clothesline, hanging up his wash with old-fashioned wooden pins. After this he participated in creating a doll out of part of a clothespin, making hair, putting on clothing and drawing a face. While Aiden could have learned about these activities from a book, he was able to experience some elements of Boulder City History using his own senses and movement.
The Outreach program has also had an ongoing activity with planting Hollyhock seeds at the community events and schools. Hollyhock seeds were brought by families from their yards in the Midwest, and are still here today. The overall aim of the Hollyhock activity was to have it be fun, experiential, and meaningful but still viable for the setting and the participants.  A brochure was created to explain the Hollyhock project. An interview by volunteer participant Joan Patterson, who has been conducting interviews with surviving 31ers as part of ongoing collection of primary resource information, is included in the brochure. (See Appendix B).
Boulder City resident Susan Kohlman provided another perspective of the 31er Outreach activities. She said she became interested in volunteering after reading about the program in a Boulder City newspaper article. She participated in school and community related activities, including the 31er Luncheon and  the annual Spring Jamboree in 2009 and 2010. She helped with a Hollyhocks planting booth and also helping students haul water at the week-long event at the Community College site. She noted that she knew very little  about the history of Boulder City prior to these activities.  She was especially interested in the monologue narration conducted by Barbara Morris.  In her view, she thought that the children were “eager to learn about Boulder City and Hoover Dam history, and enjoyed playing 1930’s children’s games. She suggested that children be given a booklet about Boulder City and Hoover Dam history as an additional resource.
Development of Curriculum and Education Based Activities
Fall 2010 Activities
The teachers worked with Patty and other volunteers on planning assignments and activities around the week-long program for several grade levels. At this point not only did the week-long program include presentations  and interactive activities, but also skits presented by second grade students at the Luncheon.  The 2010 Luncheon had the students present a series of short vignettes, such as buying supplies. The vignettes included simple stage backdrops and appropriate clothing. For the sake of authencity, a one year sibling of one of the students was included a vignette, sitting in a cradle. During the rest of the week the children participated in various interactive activities watched presentations at the school, and completed related assignments.  Ellen Anderson, the Education Outreach Program Manager with the National Park Service and SNV Agency Partnership participated in an outreach activity for the students, presenting information and volunteering with activities. She was most impressed by the living history elements of the presentation, and the children’s enthusiastic response to the program. She stated that the National Park Service will continue to participate in the program.  Mitchell Elementary second grade teacher Tim Roy explained his ongoing participation:
Towards the beginning of the year, second grade classes start teaching students about local history, related to the building of Boulder/Hoover Dam. I show videos of the building, discussing the living conditions of the workers, with special emphasis on how children just like them had to contribute to the family, the lack of air conditioning, the Internet, video games, etc., and what they did for fun. I also have students write paragraphs on what they learned. The culminating event for this local/national history unit is a field trip to the Boulder Dam Hotel where Patty Sullivan and a host of other very knowledgeable historians relate information, show pictures, tell stories, discuss how the families lived, jobs the children had to do, games they played, and helped the kids make toys appropriate to the time period of the 31ers, personally, I've been a part of keeping the televised interviews of 31ers preserved to hard drive and actually participated in an interview of one in preparation/doing research for 2 skits I wrote for the annual 31er Event, which honors living 31ers and their history. Around 8 children from Andrew J. Mitchell Elementary volunteered to be in the skits, learning their parts, practicing after school on there own time, helping with props, and performing on the day of the Event. Parents of my students also donated time helped make props for the skits.

            The 31ers Outreach effort had drawn in diverse community volunteers with different levels of expertise and motivations.  This created a range of stakeholders that included public institutions such as schools and federal agencies and individuals within the community. What seemed striking is that participants are not only contribute freely, but also seemed to get something in return.  Programs with such common purpose, such as education, may be more inclined to collaborate. This is a natural synergy that is not forced.  For example, it makes sense that the Outreach coordinator of National Park Service, Ellen Anderson, would be supportive of another Outreach program. Conceivably both would be strengthened in their mission. For second grade teacher Tim Roy, the program  additional additional instructional resources and served as an outlet for his creativity. As he mentioned, he not only welcomed the Outreach activities, but took an active part in creating activities and going out into the community to interview people. A The learning activities were not only meaningful, but appeared to be geared to second graders interests and abilities, and made learning more enjoyable.
Student Activity: Participation in a Skit
As Tim Roy discussed, skits were written based on a 31er narrative and customized for the second grade curriculum.. The following is an example of a skit created for second grade level. The skit is based on a true story drawn from oral records. It was chosen because it vividly illustrated experiences of the workers, and also because it a story that second studednts could understand, enjoy and easily act. For this grade level, a child read  the narration while children acted out the scenes. It also included fun visual effects and was entertaining for the Luncheon audience.
The Refrigerator Salesman
Scene 1
It was about 5:00, shift change, and the other engineers and I had stripped down to our birthday suits and were heading to the rail depot to get a quick shower from the water tank cars.   You see this was a time when Boulder City had no running water, no DVD’s, no microwave popcorn and no Wii. 
In fact our usual entertainment was a game of bridge.  Even that had gotten quite boring until one day Danny showed up.  Danny was demonstrating a brand new product called the home refrigerator.  Seeing as it was usually over 115 degrees, he figured we would love a refrigerator.  We needed a laugh and some good company more than anything so we invited Danny to join our bridge game.
After the game had gone on for some time, Danny asked where the restroom was.  The boys and I told him that there was no restroom except for the outhouse about 100 yards behind the dorm. We warned Danny, IT IS PITCH DARK OUTSIDE, DO NOT SIT ON A SCORPION!!!
              Scene 2
I guess we forgot to warn Danny how explosive the methane gas in the outhouse could be.  Luckily, our city boy was perfectly fine just a little shook up. 
             Scene 3
 A year later we were getting more settled and many of us were able to rent houses from the 6 Companies for $35.00 a month.  It was nice to have our wives and children with us.  The first thing we bought for our home was a new invention called the home refrigerator for $250.00.---which of course we all bought from our dear salesman buddy, Danny.

Interview Five – James Campbell
The Outreach events included animatronic characters (mannequins that are electronically mobile and vocally interactive) provided by a local company, Characters Unlimited. These characters provided interactive variety for the children, giving them an opportunity to ask their own questions. James Campbell, 32 years old, was a volunteer at the 2009 and 2010 Outreach Event at the Community College site, voicing a animatronic character representing a typical dam worker. He has a background as a toy designer, and has an interest in a career as a voice over actor. He has lived in Boulder City. James provided interactive voice over for a typical Dam worker living in a tent, with the goal of responding to students’ questions in the voice of the character. The students had been studying the history of the Dam and the town as part of the curriculum developed for the Outreach. James shared his role in the event, technological considerations, his observations about students interactions and attitudes, his impressions of other educational activities at the Educational Outreach, and his thoughts about the importance of learning history and what it means for the community. James also included some comments on “politically correct” problems that can arise in an interactive educational setting, particularly when covering history.
Interviewer: What did you do at the 31ers?
James: I was the voice of a 31ers pioneer. It was set up in a way that the microphone was in the chest [of an animatronic character) and I would respond to questions of what a 31er would have done back then. They would ask why he was living in a tent. We had to buy what we could find, or we could find what we could salvage, that’s what we made our home out of.  The thing I had to tell them at the time there was no BC per se, the way we think of it now, a lot of it was tents at the beginning of the dam.  As progress went on, and the project became more complex, eventually a lot of the old homes, which a lot of kids live in now, were built for the workers by the workers. They would ask also what we would drink. We couldn’t tell them bootleg liquor. So we would say Saprisrella.
Interviewer: What other questions were asked?
James: It may surprise people with the vocabulary of small kids, between ages of 7 and 9, one kid was asking if he was gay. Interesting thing was I had to think how to respond to that.  That’s not a question you want to talk about in front of a whole class. said, I would kind of they would lean in and ask for the question again, I would stall for some time, the teacher would grab the kid and realize what was going, if that didn’t work I switch to a different topic, if that didn’t work, my answer would be of course I am happy, I am always happy. The kids didn’t know what that meant, of course a lot of kids didn’t know what that means, it kind of diluted away from the question. Of course in the time period in which the character was at, that was basically a word for being happy, and not what it would be considered now, the answer would be correct [in the context of the character], but students would not understand the difference in the use of the word in relation to he time period.
Interviewer: So this was at the college when they had groups of kids come through?
James: Yes they brought in several groups of kids…the problem is I wanted to hide from the kids. The kids are pretty smart, they looked around to see wanted to see where the voice was coming from. The younger you could fool easily, but with the older ones it gets difficult. So I used to hide inside a room, a closet. I had a door, I just had to open it slightly, so I could see the Mannequin, and respond to the kid’s questions. The kids would ask me why are looking this way or that way, because the animatronic character would look left or right. I would say I have a problem with my eyes. In one case a kid, six, he wasn’t taking it too seriously, so he was asking why I was looking left and right, I said I see dead people, and he laughed at that. Then another kid came along and asked me a serious question. She said her great grandmother was a 31er. She asked do you know Grandma Josephine. I would say she was in Boulder City with my grandfather.
Interviewer: Were there were other mannequins?
James: They were other mannequins that were the fun part. They were not animatronic. There was a dog, and two non-gender specific mannequins, one dressed as a female and one dressed as and male. The kids would say “but that looks like a girl and that’s looks like a girl!” The kids would ask why was one dressed as a girl and one as a boy. They love the animatronic dog which wasn’t plugged in, it was still in they would always ask what its name was, I think I gave them to name Brownie.

            [Note: This is a reference to a dog, a Back Lab that had been adopted as a sort of mascot by Dam workers, whose name caused controversy decades later, but whose story as an active working dog exemplifies life during construction of the dam. This dog’s story had been included in many historic narratives. He is buried at the Dam site.].
It’s a shame. They covered up the name of the dog, now a days the name is bad, but it’s a historic thing.  History, for example, you have the Civil War, you have the slavery issue, a lot of people have a problem with that, my simple thing is, and you have to bring the truth.. What happened, so you they know this is where we came from, we evolved from it, covering the poor dogs name, it’s a shame.
Interviewer: What do you think the 31ers is about?
James: Its there to teach children about the past, its there to teach children the founding of Boulder City, which is actually a foundation of what Nevada is today. Without Hoover Dam or Boulder Dam, as the 31’ers call it, (because they don’t like President Hoover), the thing is without the Dam you wouldn’t have farm land, you wouldn’t have electricity, and work; remember the Depression was going, its important for children to learn the past, so that they can understand what we have now is because of hard work and dedication from individuals who had a lot of foresight, or maybe some who didn’t have foresight, but came to survive, to get a job and make money. I think it’s very important that they know the past, because with out that dedication, without hard work, without knowing how it was built, we may never achieve such great accomplishment again.
Interviewer: How did Patty get you involved?
James: I was recruited through another volunteer, because of my interest in acting, and because of my love of history.
Interviewer: Have you studied that part of history?
James: Before I started the project I didn’t know much about it. But I really got into the books and learned a lot from Patty, because her family goes back into that time, so I learned a lot more from her than history books could tell me. For example, the first place they originally had the cemetery had muddy water in a grassy area; the infrastructure was still being built. There was a family who would spend their time protecting the cemetery, to keep people from camping on it. This is not something you read about in books.
Interviewer: Did you talk to any 31ers?
James: We didn’t have anyone who worked on the Dam directly, but we did have someone that stood up and told us they were the kid in the photograph hanging up laundry, she was embarrassed that the photograph still existed. After a volunteer worked with the children doing the laundry activity, the lady in the photograph who had done this as a child provided some slight corrections to the volunteer, showing what they actually did. There was another lady who showed how to take care of your clothes, how to stich, she did it on an old foot pedal old sewing machine dating from that same time period.
Interviewer: What other things went on there?
James: We showed kids what it was like living in that time period. We had kids carry water, that was important you ran down to the river and come back up to the house, help family get water for the house without spilling it so we had contests doing that. The kids also learned how to play jacks, they made wooden clothes pins dolls and dressed them up, because children at the time, that’s what you did, there wasn’t much around so you made their own toys..…There was also sandbox. There was a gentleman out there who had experience as a tour guide for the Dam. We had a model of Hoover Dam, made out of molded aluminum, a highly detailed model, he told them all the details he would as a tour guide, how it was built, how long it took them to build it, tell them about the run off, and some of the facts that people don’t know about. Surprisingly enough I found out a lot of people in Boulder City don’t get up there, maybe because of traffic, or it’s a tourist thing, they think. They don’t realize the importance of it.
I got a chance to go the Hoover Dam recently. It’s interesting how much misinformation people carry. We were walking and taking photographs. A lady walked past us, in her 50’s, she said its hard to believe they built this dam because they didn’t have any power tools or heavy lifters.
Interviewer: Did you take part in the 31er Luncheon?
James: Yes I did. I listened to individuals who did research on the Dam, including an author who was researching and writing about the Dam for a book. He called it Hoover Dam, and people stood up and protested that, they were raised here and said it Boulder Dam. The reason for that it was Boulder Dam when it was first built. There were a percentage of people that claimed Boulder City as their own, they lived here, they built that thing.
Interviewer:  Did you get a chance to see kids do skits?
James: Yes, it was cute, that was interesting, a few of them were a little nervous.
Interviewer: What do you think this about as a learner?
James: When I was growing up a lot of kids read a lot, now with technology the way it is a lot of kids are visual learners, a lot of kids learn from what they see; also you have to get their attention away from iPods or tablets, the best way to do that is hands on. When I was a kid we had books, and that was how we learned. But I had a learning disability, so I learned by using my hands.  Now with the current technology, and the way kids are disassociated, I think it important to grab their attention with activity, as long as its historically accurate and something that ties it in. You could have board came with historical elements in it, it tells them the history as they move along across the board, as long as they see it, and they are able to associate, that is vital.

Discussion and Analysis
            The comments of James are a good example of how someone who is not professionally credentialed, but does have talents, interest, and relevant experience can be included in Outreach activities. His own learning experience as a child also provided an interesting perspective.  His comments on current technology and the benefits of hands on learning show how beneficial personal learning experiences can be in teaching.  Teaching through a character makes the subject come alive, particularly in how second graders perceive ideas. At that age, second graders are just beginning to understand concepts and benefit from interactive, experiential learning. James also pointed out that learning from primary sources can give you information that may get lost, and are not included in a formal, textbook based curriculum.  This discussion reflects theme of experience (that of James and the students) and how constructivist learning can bring in both the experience of the teachers and students, and its characteristics of interactivity, enjoyment, and sometimes the unexpected input of children, who have their own questions and perceptions to bring to the matter.
Fall 2011 Outreach Activities

            In fall of 2011 the Outreach was moved to another location, the Boulder City Hotel, which was built during construction of the Dam, and is listed on the National Registry of Historic Places. The Boulder City/Hoover Dam Museum is on the premises. The 2011 Luncheon included a presentation of skits by second graders in a courtyard area. The audience included members of 31er families, long time community members who had made their own mark in local and state history, educators, and family members of the student participants. The audience sat at tables surrounding a simple, hand done staging area, with the teacher / director providing guidance and encouragement. In this presentation, similar to the Refrigerator Salesmen skit, student acted out vignettes that illustrated personal episodes created from written collections and oral archives. The children enjoyed the experience, with some nervous excitement and pride.  The students participated voluntarily. Perhaps the most striking thing about this is realizing that the children are presenting history to an audience that includes those with an intimate memory of this history. Since a number of the children are descendants of the 31er’s, they are learning not only community but by extension their family history. Similar to the prior year, activities were weeklong, within the classroom, and included interactive events for children to gain hands-on learning.
Spring 2012 31er Event
Patty Sullivan, with the assistance of Museum archivist Laura Hutton, facilitated a presentation at Garrett Junior High School. Volunteers Barbara Morris and Pete Mayes did 31er presentations to the seventh graders taught by history teacher Kathleen West, who at this point had 17 years experience in the classroom, and a degree in history. The library was used as the space for the presentations. Barbara Morris presented the First House Monologue (see Appendix A). A large photograph of the Godbey family was included, taken in the 1930’s in front of the house featured in the Monologue. During the narrative she took the time to pause and ask students questions, providing an interactive feel to the presentation. For example, she asked students what would children have used for toys.. Some students responded with one of the right answers (a stick] and she pulled a stick out of her pocket. This portion of the presentation covered history as social studies. Pete Mayes shared his expertise on the building of the dam, using large illustrations and diagrams as an illustration. Pete made liberal use of questions to encourage interactivity among the students.  This portion of the presentation included science and technology.  Kathleen West had incorporated the lessons into her curriculum. During the week prior to the presentations the students had viewed a documentary on the Dam. See Figures 1 and 2 for an illustration of the student handout:

Figure 2 7th Grade Student Worksheet, First House Monologue
Figure 3 7th Grade Student Worksheet, Hoover Dam Presentation
Interview Six: Kathleen West
Kathleen West was interviewed about her participation in the 31ers, and the experience of incorporating the presentations and information in the 7th grade history curriculum:
Interviewer: How did you get involved in 31ers?
Kathleen West: Patty approached me and wanted to know if I would be interested in a presentation about the first house in Boulder City. Initially just a Chautauqua performance.  It was about Patty’s mothers being home the first privately built home in Boulder City.  Sent me the script ahead of time about the building of the first home in Nevada with part time actress. They sent me script in advance. We exchanged worksheets back and forth about the script. It was first time they that was the only part of the performance they did, there were family photos brought along and it was just about the families that lived in Boulder City not about the construction of the Dam. And then later on it became a split performance basically the first part was the Chautauqua about the building of the home and the second part about the building of the dam The first time they came it was Later on the second part was about the building of the dam by a tour guide at the Dam and a teacher prior to that.  The kids got both end of it. Generally speaking when you talk about those things the boys are far more interested in the actual construction of the dam, they don’t really care about how the families lived and they don’t really think about that.  And the girls are far more interested in the homes and how they would have lived they would have certainly not been high scalers. They came in with six performances a day, at the school Library four years ago.  It comes here every year in March and April. It coincides with the Great Depression Unit that we do in Seventh Grade History. We will have hit every kid in Boulder City within eight years.
Interviewer: How did you prepare the first lesson?
Kathleen:  The sent me a script of the Chautauqua and I went through and did a check list. I wanted to make it simple as possible because the first year was not just my students but Miss Evans students, who are far lower level than my kids so they would have a simple checklist.  She is ‘very special ed’, mine are a mixed group. The kids would have a script in front of them because a lot of times with junior high kids if they were not actively listening activities they are not actively listening. They were answering questions during the presentations.  Later on once we included the Hoover Dam presentations, that went along with vocabulary words like High Scaler and Powder Monkeys so they would get a gist of what it is. A lot of them had grandparents or great grandparents who had helped build the Dam.
Interviewer: Where did the vocabulary words come from, did you generate them?
Kathleen: No absolutely not! The 31ers did it all, I just plugged it into worksheets.  The 31ers have been absolutely fantastic. The wealth of knowledge they have clearly about this subject matter and how its affected not just Boulder city but the building of the entire West is absolutely vast. Kids don’t think about Las Vegas wouldn’t be a major city without the  water provide by the Lake and Phoenix wouldn’t not have developed into as large a city because there is simply no water out here LA would have been much smaller. Truly miraculous that we provide so much power and water to the entire West. After the Presentation there is a Pair Share.  They get together. Once of them writes down everything they remember about the presentation. And then they pass the paper off to the next one, and the next one has to go through and check yes I remember this No I don’t remember this and add things at the bottom, and then that paper gets traded off to another group together and they go through OH I REMEMBER THIS and it helps to hammer things home. Our Syllabus has Native American tribes in the early part, then we talk about Hoover Dam in the middle, for Nevada History you talk about during the Civil War but not necessarily about Boulder City necessarily. They have 7th grade history and they don’t take it again until 11th grade year, a gap of four years.  I like 7th grade kids because they usually know nothing about history except for kids who have special interests. Here in Boulder we do have 5th grade Great American program but all just memorization based but there is not a call for do you know the presidents in order, or do you know the states in alpha order there is not a lot of call for that in the real world. And they can recite the Gettysburg Address but have know idea what any of the words means, and know the Pledge the Allegiance but don’t know what it means, you break it all down for them here, and do it again in the 11th grade and then they don’t take history again until they go to college.
Interviewer: What about a follow up curriculum?
Kathleen: I created the questions, my kids also do an essay about the 31ers presentation. They do an essay based as if they were a 31er, either one of the people who worked on building the Dam or people building the house. It’s a creative writing assignment and its extra credit. Last year I gave it as an assignment, but… essay writing skills they need a lot of work. And creative writing work is not something their usually required to do from this point ever again so I don’t want to spend a lot of time on it. Here’s a creative writing essay when they are never going to do it academically again. 
Interviewer: So regular English high school classes do not require creative writing?
Kathleen: Not creative writing at all, its all just fact based writing because that’s what’s on the proficiency exam.
Interviewer: How much time for the students.
Kathleen: Four days total class time, plus extra days for tests.
Interviewer: What has changed in last 4 years?
A lot more information, as the collection grows, more pictures, more diagrams, more family history, the more visual the presentation is the more engaged the kids are.
Interviewer: How many students?
Kathleen: 185 students.  30 – 35 kids in class.
Interviewer: Have you gotten anything out of it?
Kathleen: It’s a very unique perspective.  When you think about the first homes in Boulder City they were taking wood off of orange crates to paste together their walls. As a fire fighters wife is that old rotten orange crate still there underneath and how
completely flammable are these homes. And how they jacked up the homes to build the basement. 

Discussion and Analysis
            Kathleen West’s responses show the collaborative work that characterizes the outreach program. She worked with the 31er volunteers in using materials, and also encouraged students to collaborate, as she mentions in Pair Share learning activity.  From a curriculum standpoint, the 31er information seemed to meld well with the Nevada History curriculum. The presenters provided interactive opportunities with students, who can learn by listening, observing, questioning and writing.,. A documentary viewed prior the presentation provided students context.  Kathleen West’s discussion of rote learning versus meaningful learning is particularly relevant to the benefits of an outreach program.  From the perspective of a student, having a presenter who actually worked on the Dam, and being able to explain the Dam with expertise, is likely more interesting than reading it out of a book or watching a film, particularly because they can engage in a conversation.  Watching a theater performance (a short version of Chautauqua) creates more interest also.  As she said “The more visual the presentation the more engaged the kids are”.
            Some of the themes found in these comments include collaboration, meaning, and experience (experiential learning). For some students who are descended from 31er families, as mentioned by Kathleen West, local history is their personal history, so it helps to encourage a sense of identity.  In the case of Boulder City, children are literally surrounded by their history. including the imposing engineering feat of the Dam, and the buildings and homes built in the early days of town development.
Curriculum Examples
            Teachers and a volunteer educator have worked to develop curriculum activities built around 31er Outreach activities. Replicas of Worksheets are shown in Figures 3 and 4:
What is Hoover Dam?
A dam is a structure that controls the flow of water in a river.  Scientists studied the Colorado River and knew that building a dam could control its dangerous floods.  It could bring water to farmers to grow their crops.  It could also provide water for people to drink in nearby cities.  When the water moved through the dam, its power could be used to make electricity.  There were many great reasons to build the Hoover Dam.  Today we still use the power from the dam to turn on our lights.  We drink the water from Lake Mead.  We water our grass with that water too.  The dam has helped to make the desert a place where we can live.
          What is the name of the river that goes into Hoover Dam?
          List things that need electricity to run.
          List three things the dam helps us with.
          How are floods dangerous?
Figure 3 Instructional Worksheet What is Hoover Dam?

Bugs and Babies
Black Canyon is home to some of the most evil creatures on the planet.  There are spiders, rattlers, coyotes and scorpions.  In the shanty towns, the people were living in cars, tents, under tarps, and sometimes on the dirt behind rocks.  It got quite interesting when the creatures and the people tried to make their homes in exactly the same spot.  One tale tells of how a mother put the legs of the baby crib in mason jars just to keep the scorpions from crawling up to the baby.  Another story tells of how they put ropes in the sand around their campsite to keep the snakes from crawling into the tents.  Life in the shanty towns must have been hard.

Questions for discussion
1.             What creatures lived in the desert?
2.             Where does the story take place?
3.             Compare camping for the weekend to living in the desert for months.
4.             What other creatures might live in the desert of Black Canyon?
Figure 4: Instructional Worksheet Bugs & Babies
A Conversation with Second Grade Teachers

            The researcher  / interviewer joined Mitchell Elementary second grade teachers in a meeting to share thoughts and ideas about the 31er Outreach program and their overall educational experiences. Teachers included the following:
Rhonda Gatlin, 34 years as a teacher, at Mitchell for 22
Tim Roy, 13th year as teacher, 7th at Mitchell
Kim Davision 25 years, 22 years at Mitchell
Shenee Williams, 21 years, 1 years at /Mitchell
Cindy Rivock, 19 years teaching experience
Excerpts from interview /conversation among 2nd grade teachers at Mitchell Elementary:
Tim Roy:  The 31ers have activities for children several times a year. They plant Hollyhocks grown from the original stock brought here to the desert in 1930. Kids get the seedlings, plant and watch them grow.
Interviewer:  So 31ers related activities are in the fall and it’s before the 31ers Luncheon Event?
Tim:  We have the field trip events and the 31ers Luncheon. It’s two separate things during the week, the field trip and 31ers luncheon afterwards. They have the field trip event, with schools from down in valley among those that attend, and then they have the 31ers luncheon after that.
Interviewer: Your kids performed at the event?
Tim: Yes, we just take some of the kids; next year will probably take a couple from each class. It’s just harder to control. Maybe, hopefully have [more] teachers involved, get volunteers. It’s harder, on a Saturday. Plus the teachers have to be involved too, plus it’s after school.
Interviewer: The kids are volunteers that do the skit or they will be?
Tim: They always are.
Rhonda: They always are because you have to have permission of the parents.
Interviewer: How many years has Mitchell been involved?
Kim Davison: Ever since it got started. Four years? Whenever it got really started I was there. We were there. I was on the planning committee. Patty got us really involved.
Tim: We didn’t do skits the first year.
[Other teachers discuss and agree they did.]
Rhonda Gatlin: …because Jose’s baby was a baby in a crib the first year in the skit. Josie wrote two sets of scripts.
Tim: I wrote two sets of two scripts. Parents helped build costumes and props and the kids worked hard on their play. They were so proud.
Interviewer: Since you are all teachers, its fairly unusual for something to from the community [into the school], don’t the teachers have to build or generate ideas?
Rhonda: We have a real involved parent group, and I think that has a lot to do with it.
Interviewer: So you put the curriculum together then what – the beginning of the fall term or the end of spring? When do you work on planning the curriculum?
Kim: After we get there in the fall, after the years has started and we have gotten out ducts in a row. After we have our ducks in a row, then pull together, decide when is and who is going.
Interviewer: Do you put together the class materials?
Tim: Not a lot to put together, we get a lot of stuff we can get is from the video streaming service.
Rhonda: Our curriculum is pretty full. Personally I do not spend a lot of time on it. So I do a little bit about a week before. I do a lot of mapping skills, talking about community and that kind of thing prior.
Roy: Because Nevada history is not the biggest part of our curriculum.
Rhonda: Fourth grade is Nevada history. That’s when they really get into it.
Roy: That’s right. That is when we really get into it.
Kim: But we talk about Boulder City and the Dam. I have pictures and I have little booklets that I share with them and we talk about it.
Interviewer: Do you do group activities in class?
Kim: Actually no. We just kind of talk about it. She [other teacher] does a map of the city. I did the map the year before last, but I didn’t do that this year.
Tim: We do writings.
Interviewer: Creative writing?
Roy: No they take notes on the videos. Then they write their own paragraphs.
Interviewer: I know 2d graders are extremely creative.
Roy: Yes. I have creative writing everyday. But we will add a non-fiction component to our literature.
Interviewer: And this (31ers activities] meets the nonfiction requirement.
Roy: Absolutely. It also meets the research requirements we have.
Interviewer: Are there written materials for the 2nd grade level [in relation to this project]?
Tim: I don’t think so.
Rhonda: We kind of just put together what we have.
Kim: And there are books about the building of the dam, and I might add some add-ons of my own.
Shenee Williams:  It would be good to have something.  It would be nice to have this, do this, and this, and here’s the material to do it with, that would be great! But its very fascinating for them to go and see it, and somebody walks around with them and tells them about it, it really works. But if they were just to go there and we just kind of observed exhibits it would not make as much sense.
Kim: Some of the kids had parents had walked from this school to that school, but their grandparents may have walked from the recreation center down to here, and so we talk about how the city had changed, how it was when people first came out and how some kids have evaporative coolers in their home now, and how they used a wet sheet with the wind blowing, and talk about how things have evolved over the years.
Roy: In one event they do laundry with a wash bucket and clothes-line. Even boys like doing laundry. It’s one of their favorites.
Rhonda: Yes they do. They like playing in the water and scrunching that little thing up, yes they do. In fact it is hard to get them away from that. The first year when it was the college there were a couple of activities that were too time consuming. So much of the kids didn’t get to do it. So I was glad that last year, actually this year that they modified it so that is was things could be done in an amount of time and be done with it.
Kim: Also they didn’t let the kids sit forever, whereas last year they sat forever. Only a handful got to do it, where this year they fed a line.
Tim: They are squirrely at this age. Their (31er] getting better every year.
Rhonda: It really was much better.
Interviewer: In what ways?
Rhonda: We really loved having some of the ladies that just happened to be in town that came and spoke to them that had been babies and children.
Roy: We interviewed Laura [resident participant] for one of the skits. It was pretty interesting. She knows everything and tells it in such a wonderful way.
Kim: But the lady who had come to just to visit, who had been the baby who lived in a box, she was very interesting, and the kids were able to keep their attention.
Shenee: Her dad was a foreman. Her dad was something big to do with the dam.
Interviewer: So the kids enjoyed listening to the older people talk.
Shenee: Yes. So long as its short, it’s a specific theme and…To keep their attention. They get a rush out of the fact that they were there.
Interviewer: So what else is interesting for the kids?
Cindy Rivock: …The older people are very interesting but some times go on and on. Patty’s very good when she’s there at curtailing it. She lets them get the point out but when they start moving on she says ‘OK I think we move on’, you know, very courteous and respectful and she just gets it to move on so that it does not drag on…but get is move on.
Interviewer: Do you get assistance from the district or the museum?
Williams: We don’t actually work with anyone but Patty. Patty is the only one that we have had that king of direct contact with.
Tim:  Except for when I went to interview for the skits this year. I did an interview with Laura, which was very useful. She is at the events.
Interviewer: What did they really learn?
Kim: I was going to say that through Patty and through her aunt we get to hear little interesting things that you do not get out of a textbook that we can share with our students. Like how when Patty’s family had moved out and they had a baby they put the legs of the crib in glass jars with water so that the scorpions could not climb up and get into the baby’s crib and stuff like that. Our kids go out and they see the scorpions and the tarantulas and all the wildlife out there and they are really fascinated. You hear there are ways to stay away from the critters, and those little things are interesting and I think it is really beneficial for the kids for hearing some of those stories.
Rhonda: I think this next year one of the things that I was going to recommend is that the skits be done for the school, and we do more. I think that very few of the kids actually see it.
Shenee: A could of years ago Jesse wrote up some papers about Boulder City. Prior to going I would run through a few things so that when they go there the students were a little more knowledgeable about everything.
Kim: And Patty’s stories were helpful. You know what I think would be nice, some sort of coloring book or something that they can do, that historically features something like when the dam was built what were the living conditions of the families, of the workers, maybe a little picture of Ragtown.
Tim: A picture of what the kids had to do, chores, the work details, its really a personal connection what they learn when they go on that field trip.

Discussion and Analysis
            This discussion exemplifies the participation and particular experiences of students and teachers, and the overall experience of integrating the Outreach program in classroom activities, field trips, and links to parents and 31er participants. It showed that teachers are able to be flexible, and pro-active in their pedagogical approaches. The teachers appeared to respond well to Patty’s somewhat ad hoc, organic approach. Perhaps this open-ended, evolving nature of the program fosters creativity. Several things were striking in this interview. The teachers and students were exposed to a primary source of information, Laura Godbey, providing details and correctives you cannot get from a book. The program also encouraged learning and activities that was voluntary, such as participation in the skits. This likely made for a better learning experience. There is a strong sense of community interaction and parental involvement.  The experience of children acting out skits in the community provided them with an early experience in civic engagement. Overall the themes that arise from this include meaning, civic engagement, experience, and collaboration. The pedagogical experience is enlarged and enlivened, taking on a different experience than sitting in a classroom and participating in different blocks of learning activities.
The ongoing evolution of a community education program:
The 31ers Outreach and the Museum
            The loss of the college as an annual activity site, and the natural use of the Museum as a source of expertise and archives led to Patty Sullivan forging a closer association with the Museum in 2010 and 2011. The Museum made space for displays and experiential activities developed by 31er expert volunteers.  A separate room was made available at the Museum to install these hands-on activities. The 31er Room extended and complemented the rest of the Museum exhibits, which show the Building of the Dam and the Town. The partnership was mutually beneficial, given the ongoing financial struggle of the small Museum, also provided the Museum an opportunity to strengthen its education outreach and relationships. See Appendix C for a photographic example of an exhibit used in the space.        
Interview Six – Laura Dutton
Museum Coordinator Laura Dutton, at time of this interview a young college student starting a career in Museum work, explained the Museum and Outreach relationship, her role, some of the activities, and the goals of the Outreach program:
Interviewer: How and when did you get involved in this?
Laura: I started volunteering at the museum in February of 2011. I just walked in one day and it happened to be a day when one of the school groups were in our 31ers Educational Outreach Room and our then manager was in the hallway. I went up to him and asked what are you doing, can I help you with this, can I volunteer, and he said ‘sure’.  Then a couple months into it I decided that I actually wanted to change my career path completely and decided that this was going to be my thing to do, and I asked him for a job and he said yah, we will figure out what we can have you do. I started running the museum officially by myself in January of this year. So that’s how I got involved.
Interviewer: How did Patty Sullivan get involved with working with you?
Laura: Patty just appeared one day. I was interested in what she was doing. I had to be involved because I was getting calls at the museum for tours to be booked. I
wanted to be involved in making our 31es room more permanent because I was now the museum coordinator.
Interviewer: Is the 31ers room a fixed exhibit of the museum?
Laura: As it stands now you can kinda pick up the whole thing and take it out to a school with you, leaving it empty. We want it to be a more permanent place so that it looks more realistic and more structured. It would remain interactive and host to the type of groups it gets now, only more like an interactive fixed museum exhibition.
Interviewer: How do you feel about the role of museums in education?
Laura:  I think that is really important. I don’t think that was one of the initial goals, far from it, with our museum, but this story is so important that it needs to be told and it needs to be taught not only to the children who live here in Boulder City, but to children who live in Las Vegas or the country. It was a really important project and part of history. We do not want it to be lost in time.
Interviewer: Wasn’t this started for Boulder City students?
Laura: For children that live here in Boulder City it is the story of their own personal history of their house, of the hills around them, of the dam and of what
makes Boulder City different. The museum is a non-profit with no local or state tax income and exists to preserve the history of Boulder City.
Interview: Has this given the museum a closer relationship to the community?
Hutton: Definitely, I do believe that. I think that everyone should be involved. There are some people who haven’t even been in the museum who have lived here fifteen or twenty years. That’s sad and we want to change that. We want to get them in to be involved in it. Our archives are primarily the history of the people that have lived here from early construction workers into even the eighties and the nineties. We need to keep their history alive, add to it and keep going.
Interviewer: Do you help with transportation on field trips?
Laura: We do not have the resources. The thing museums and associations have to deal with is the liability with field trips. So if a school or group can’t come to us then we need to bring the museum to them.
Interviewer: How do the local schools interact with the museum?
Laura: They walk down the street.  Private schools, some of them, are allowed to come in cars, which the school district does not allow.
Interviewer: How did the 31rs become a part of the museum?
Laura: The board realized that it was never officially over the 31ers. I was not
personally here when the educational outreach portion got started. It happened. It started at the Boulder City campus of CSN and they did it as an extension of the 31ers luncheon and reunion for the dam workers and their families. We realized within the last few months or so when we changed management and changed some financials around within our historical association and the museum that the 31ers were never officially adopted by the museum. That was in January. That is when we started putting the Boulder City Hoover Dam Museum 31ers Educational Outreach as one big long title on it.  
Interviewer: Is there a person in charge of educational outreach?
Laura: They haven’t really gotten there yet. It was not a part of the mission before. Right now I handle and oversee everything so I guess I am. I oversee everything we do through the museum.

The transition from a Grassroots Organization to Institutional Organization
Interview with Patty Sullivan, Laura Hutton and Roger Shoaf
            The researcher met with Patty Sullivan, Laura Hutton and Roger Shoaf, the manager of the Boulder City Hotel, to discuss the transition to the Museum. Roger had been managing the Museum prior to Laura’s transition into this position and continues to work on Grant Writing with the support of the Board of Trustees. The discussion covered the development of the Outreach program, the overall organization of the Boulder City Hotel and Museum, the Museum’s adoption of the Outreach program, and role of Museum as a community archive  and educator,  the curriculum and activities within the Outreach program, and future growth and development. The discussion began with the relationship of the Museum and the Hotel:
Roger: Well actually the unifying force is the museum. The Boulder City Museum and Historical Association owns the Museum, the hotel and the restaurant and any programs that arises from those holdings, which would be something like taking on the 31ers. That is recent. We are kinda in the process of taking the 31ers in here and taking it off of Patty’s back. It has been a lot for one person to do and we have a lot of the resources and staff to help her, so that now has come under out umbrella.
The hotel is the museum’s largest artifact of dam project era. It was here for presidents and executives and dignitaries. It is where the public gets to know us from coming into the hotel and learning about the building, and that gives us an opportunity to teach them other things about the era. The museum is at the back of the first floor, along a corridor of exhibits, shops and historic or regional materials, but in a way the entire building is the museum.
A discussion ensued on incorporating the exhibits and lessons into the community, and further development of the program as a part of the Museum. Patty recalled her original vision for the Outreach program, and her initial understanding of traveling exhibits:
Patty: That was something the City of Henderson had visit their location one time. When I was telling them what I was doing and what my dreams and aspirations were for the program it came up that it fit the same criteria as what they were utilizing. The term traveling trunks I guess is fairly common in the museum world. But I am not in the museum world, so I just described it and they gave it the name.
Interviewer: Have traveling trunks become a reality?
Roger: Partially. We accompany them now, so they are not a reality yet. We need to get where we can send a trunk out unaccompanied and we have everything that a teacher might need to do the entire thing. We are not there yet.
Patty explained thought of expanding the Outreach Program to the School District as a whole, beyond the Boulder City community and into the curriculum:
If we are successful with the school board and we can get them on board we may be able to use their interoffice mail and have them send the props, so they do not have to remake them each time. One of the things we are looking for are graphic artist and people who have a background in that are, eventually.
Roger: If I might add something in addition to that. We are also researching where these kits of these traveling kids can fit into the standards and helping teachers understand where these lessons fit into those standards, what standards they meet by teaching these lessons. We are also anticipating and providing some anticipatory stats.
Interviewer: Has the 31ers been incorporated into the curriculum?
Patty: The lessons so far have not been incorporated yet, at least officially, because we are trying to those into either National Historic Preservation week or the week before the 31ers event so that they are aware of them and they are willing to work with us. When we went to Garrett Junior High they had their set of questions and stuff like that. I think it is primarily people recognizing in Boulder City, we have not ventured that far out of Boulder City, that it is a no brainer. The connections are there. If you have any insight into how to educate children and how to make it more pertinent to what is going on and how to connect the dots. I do not think it is something we really need to sell, other than it sells itself.

Patty shared that she will continue to promote and develop the 31ers program
during this transitional period with Museum. Her approach will be similar to what she has done in the past, which is developing connections, and using community events as a platform the both market the program to organizations and individuals:
Patty: So, what we are going this year that is going to be pretty interesting, is that for the Fourth of July Damboree, our Grand Marshall is our Superintendent of the Clark County School District and we will have different key people from the school district and our four principals. They will be on that 4th of July Damboree float. It’s the largest parade in the state and we can make our point there. We will permeate the float with this historical set, the old school desk and stuff like that. We are hoping to ingratiate them into who we are, our history and what we are doing. That should open some more doors for us. Plus we have avenues other than that. The Bureau of Reclamation already has a history and connections with the school district, so we may be able to slip in that back door, or link to what they have got going on too.
Interviewer: That brings us to life beyond Patty. Are these organizations going to be able to still coordinate the 31ers?
Patty: Our theme this year for the Damboree is preserving our past to educate the future. It is also our theme for the 31ers and will be the theme come July first for the Chamber of Commerce. So it is a huge year to kinda draw that attention and show that continuity. I have presented to the Damboree committee to take a more historical flavor overall.
Interviewer:   How does the museum board and the museum integrate with the community, Boulder City, Clark County and the State?
Laura: Me.
Roger: We have the staff to do it and that certainly helps, in fact almost everything that Patty told you she has done on her own time as a volunteer. We will be able to staff for it. We have some connections as well. We have a volunteer base that will be able to join with Patty’s volunteer base to fill in when we need it. We believe that as long as she stays on with us during the transition and as long as she wants, over time we will come to know what she knows, we will be able to bring some of our own resources to the table, and we are as committed to it as she is.

Patty shared some insights into how a grassroots organization can bring
public policy into fruition:
Patty: What I think is important to know too, is that working as a city employee, when I get the city documents and I am looking at the city Master Plan, one of the initial mission statements is to preserve the history and maintain the small town charm of Boulder City. Then you go through the strategic plan that has all those ideas of how to do it, within that strategic plan is to make the connections as the primary goal of what you are doing working with like the Bureau of Reclamation, the Park Service, all your schools, community organizations. So it is literally written right into the city plan and the strategic plan, but it doesn’t always identify who is the one who is suppose to do that. If they just hand it of to somebody that does not mean that that person will step to the plate and take it on. So it is interesting that I have these things in my mind, connecting those dots, so that we have leverage to get on board. The city has been great in letting me pursue this because it doesn’t necessarily fall under out recreation umbrella. In many communities you have a separate cultural department. Boulder City is small so we wear a lot of hats. If I am involved in doing concerts down at the amphitheater, in coordinating classes and all, why shouldn’t I be able to be involved in preserving our history when it is built right into our master plan.

Patty explained her feelings about developing the Outreach Program:
Patty: It is too much for one person because I could do it 24/7 and still not be where I want to be. I have been given permission to oversee a group of volunteers and idea is that I not have to be at every thing that takes place. But somehow that is hard to do (chuckling). Bringing on the volunteers and coordinating them, in the limited time that I have to put toward it, we have come a long way.
Roger: By bringing on the museum there are addition paid and volunteer resources that are reliable. Bringing Laura on board, she is paid to do it, and Patty has help that she can rely on.
Patty: I kinda look at myself as a kinda springboard or incubator or whatever, you now, getting the right people on board and the right people to the table so it can go to the next level. Because I do not have all the expertise that these guys have, you know, in their respective areas, so I just sort of baby it as best I can until somebody else could take the ball and take it to the next level. Nobody has every turned me down. When Dennis  [Dennis McBride, historian and archivist], was here Dennis was very supportive of everything I ever did. I think part of that is the benefit of my family being involved, so ingratiating to the community. If Joe Blow came in off the street, they probably would not have gotten away with it!

The group discussed how a Museum transitions from archival responsibilities to expansion into an educational outreach program and improved connections with the community, and its continuation of the outreach efforts of the 31er Education Outreach:
Roger: As a museum is building itself, collections become the priority and collecting, archiving, cataloging, preserving, and protecting are the priority of the museum. When you have a limited historical scope, like the beginning of the Black Canyon Project through World War II, eventually you have a solid collection for that era, in particular the dam, the city and things like that. For a museum to mature and grow it has to recognize that that collection has cultural and educational value.
Interviewer: In the past where has your community outreach been focused?
Roger: We were not very good at reaching out to the community. Once that was done, in 2009 we held a board seminar, restated our mission, and set to go out and start to develop ways to go out and reach into the community with programs and community outreach. We started the Third Thursday program where we invited a speaker in the third Thursday of every month to speak to the community about topics without our scope. We got with Patty and wanted to take the 31ers on board. We bought software so that we can have research access off site, and also do some web exhibits so that people can access our collections from the outside. So we are really starting just not to reach out into the community with the archives and collections that we have.
Interviewer: What about the standing exhibits in what people perceive as the museum itself?
Roger: We are a unique museum that highlights a unique event in our history and based on the people who come through and what they learn from it, it is the right type of museum for what we are trying to do. We are trying to accurately portray the issues in the lives of the people who came here for the construction of the dam. We are not trying to be a technological museum or things like that. It’s almost like a folk museum but we take it more seriously then that. We believe that there are universal lessons that can be learned from what happened here.  We do have a collection of primary source material that is important to researchers. We have a few hundred different manuscript collections down there of primary source material. We want to continue our growth at a pace that assures that the growth is positive and that it is proper for this community.
            Interviewer: But the generation that comes and plants the flowers is growing up in the interactive Internet age. Any plans in that direction with the 31ers?
Roger: We have had funded the necessary soft ware and the necessary hard ware to do that. Past Perfect is our software, with the full package. We have to get everything digitized, designed and we are currently taking classes as they come up, We do have a program with the National Park Service that they put on hold for a little while but they hope to start up again to digitize things for us, and add their own to our collection access.

            The group discussed some of the activities that go on when students visit the Museum space dedicated to the 31er program:
Patty: We have an area where kids mimic hauling water from the river, with a big wash tub and a scoop, to get the feel of how it would hurt their hands to haul the water and how to avoid spilling and imagine hot sand. You know ‘hot feet, hot feet, hot feet’. Then they wash the cloths on a washboard, and they are doing a towel or little something but we have them imagine if they were doing their fathers heavy overall and stuff like that, big and heavy. They hang it up on a clothesline.
We have a little vignette for the powder monkeys, the men who prep the dynamite. We have boxes that look like dynamite and rocks made of Styrofoam, all authentic in look to the Hercules Company. We explain that the term powder monkey is centuries old and that anybody who worked with gunpowder was called a powder monkey. I usually relate to the movie the “Little Mermaid” where they load the cannons or “Pirates” or something age appropriate to them. Then they get to blow up stuff, put on hard hats, all simulated of course. We do experiential learning.
We have the still, photographs to talk about, a table to make cloths pin dolls, areas to play with jacks, string, hopscotch and jump rope, and a container of sand and dirt to build and play with tableware and other tools that kids used to build make believe worlds outside their homes or in their backyards.
We have a model of the Canyon, which shows the diversion tunnels, and it kinda splits so you can see the river, with the upper and lower cofferdams to show how they diverted the river, and you explain all that depending on the age of the children and their questions. You would be surprised how much they know and the questions they ask. And then we have other things. We harvest seeds from people who were here in the 1930’s, from houses that were here. People who were here brought their plants here from where they were and one that flourished in the desert was Hollyhocks.

The group discussed how students often leave excited about their activities during field trips, wanting to bring family members later. Parents have shared that students have re-enacted activities at home, wanting to recruit neighborhood friends into activities and their own skits at home. Patty and the group discussed ideas for mobile exhibits and incorporation into school curriculums:
Patty: The College is closing our campus in July, but the museum has worked well. In fact we will have a mannequin to put in here, and we will be able to program it so that you can push a button and the interactive character will tell you about the powder monkeys, will tell you about the high scalars and whatever. You can record 8 to 10 different recordings for that mannequin. I am trying to design it in a way that it can be transported to different locations, so that if you want to take it to Art in the Park it could go to Art in the Park, or if you wanted it to go to a classroom it could go to a classroom. Say someone was willing to pay $5,000 to stage a vignette at a conference we could have it at a conference, so there would be multiple ways you could utilize it.
Interviewer:  How do you foresee the traveling exhibits changing as museum resources become available?
Patty: That’s the part of the technology is that if we put the packages together in a way that they can download whatever they need off the web site or wherever they are going to get their information, who knows it might be Scholastic for all we know, that they can have all they need right there. Anyway they have ‘here’s your play’, ‘here’s your script’, ‘here’s your music’, here’s the patterns, here’s the lesson plan, and whatever else they are gonna need. You know, here is your music you will need to support it, and so you know making it so user friendly and so easy to get to they can’t help but want to incorporate it into their classroom because all the work is done for them. They just have to incorporate it into their classroom.
Roger: Then we would perfect it and draw on resources, and keep improving it and just keeping improving it by perfecting our resources, by drawing in other disciplines, by attracting talent and ideas.
Patty: And I think one of the keys to be successful in all of this, that is gonna be successful in all of this, is to get some of our kids to really do a good job of taping, video taping the end product so that people can see the end product and see how that’s going to work in their classroom or in off site presentations. It is almost like when you go to a mall and you go to some store and they have a window that is done specifically they way they want it to and you go to another store in say California or someplace and it is done the exact same way. You know that that consistency is gonna be there so that you have the end result.
Interviewer: But some of the joy is the inconsistency of it.
Patty: It is to some degree, but at the same time if you give them the tools I mean it does not matter if the photograph goes on the left side of the stage or the right or even if they do not use it, that’s not what is important, but those components that they need to make that end result what you want, that’s what is important. When they set it up they can know that this goes in stage A and this goes into stage B. Theatre people known that certain things are impactful for where here are located, so that if you have that mentality put into it you have a better out come for what your efforts are. If we do out homework right and we have the right people on board we can get the maximized outcome that we want.
Interviewer: So what about the traveling trunks?
Laura: Everything that was in this room up until we put the carpet in last week was transportable. When we would go out to do events outside of the museum we would actually take it all with us, and the room would be empty with only a few pictures on the wall. What we are trying to do now is to make this room as permanent as possible, an exhibit in itself. So the items we have in the room right now can be brought to the schools. The middle schools for example, it is difficult for those teachers to come here because the kids change classrooms all day, so we would just bring the things to them rather then them coming to us. Everything in here can be traveled, or trunked, in designated traveling pieces. Everything in here now would be designate traveling pieces and kept in another area, and everything in this room in the future would be completely permanent and stay in here in the future.
Patty: We have to package it so that it can go anywhere, since people are not aware of the term traveling trunk necessarily, so for instance if I say we are packaging what we have and making it available for any classroom they understand. We can accompany it or incorporate maybe the photography that support what was going on, maybe a narrative or monologue to bring people on board and then plays that the children could participate in. That might include these type of props. For instance we have an outhouse somewhere around here, so it might be you need a number 4B Wardrobe box from You Haul and here is the pattern to make it, or it might be here is the type of car they drove in with and here is the pattern you need and you will need at least a 4 by 9 piece of cardboard to make this work. Roger: Duplication so the room can always be used or seen. Travel things would go but a school or group could still come here, at the same time.
Patty:   I can totally see that at some point, like when the AFC when they had their big conference here, you can go down and stage an whole exhibit, vignette, where people can step in and have their photo taken and they learn the history, do some of the tasks as a part of it and take home a souvenir with the props or hands on things they do. Even adults like to learn hands on.

            The group discussed concepts and ideas that might be implemented into the program over the next few years, the overall vision for the program, and some specific activities and events that will build on the program:
Roger: Our vision is to expand out of educational space and resources as people financially support the education programs growing out of Patty’s ideas. We can expand our outreach to include the achieve in greater detail, to integrate with other museums and facilities, to tie into local, regional, nation and international events or discussions. We are one of the few historic buildings still operating in its original function and form. We are an operational hotel, restaurant and museum, with room of original or period furnishings, we have to whitewash the building with original pigment, replace windows with the original type of glass and, well it goes on and on. We are authentic.
Patty: We had Joan Patterson doing the interviews with the 31ers that were kids when they came here. She is turning all of those into what we are calling ‘a snapshot in history.’ She will take one little snippet of information and she is putting them into written format. We will add historical photos and illustrations to become a collection of little stories from their personal recollections. We can go back to the 31ers tapes and to manuscripts and do similar thing with them.
Roger: Snapshots out of the oral history.
Patty:  We can produce brochures or booklets like the 4 page hollyhock, and get those out around town and available over the Internet.
Patty: You know Southwest Diner has an outhouse set up in the back. He says when he has things the way he wants them we can use it for people to see, maybe have a guy sitting on the toilet and push buttons to hear stories…He is on board with it.

The group discussed the possibility of designating a 31ers Day:
Patty: I wanted to launch it this fall.
Roger: Boulder City’s event calendar is pretty full.
Patty: We can do it next year. The Historical Preservation Committee wants to do something like that and we can work together and do a day where the historical preservation tours and the museum and the 31ers all work together on a common theme. It could turn into a big deal. It is just about how we want to go about doing it, who comes on board and the biggest issue of picking the date.
The schools did a carnival out here in the parking lot and they did it based on a Halloween theme and I tried to convince them to do it on an historical theme, so the games they were doing could have been based on hauling water from the river, hop scotch, jump rope, games that kids pretty much do not do anymore because they are so engrained in the electronic world. But I you make it fun and make a contest out of it then it become engaging for them. The problem with that is that their people are transitioning each year so bringing them on and training them would mean we would have been stuck with 90% of it anyway.
Interviewer: Can you tell me more about the theater element of the 31ers?
Patty: There are people who are interested in doing a full-blown musical play, but that’s a lot of effort and a lot of time put into it, so it hasn’t got off the ground. There is interest. Living Theatre is a possibility based on the videos and written material. The kids do the skits and we have actors do reenactments or monologues. Getting the kids to do more, as part of parks and rec, or the library or outside school is also a possibility.
Laura: We will be doing some theater with the library next summer.
Patty: We had a man who was going to launch a theater group but he passed away. Others have been interested but so far no strong leader or facility to rehearse and produce in. The high school is just too locked into their curriculum. There is an unused theater program open through the park district if enough people show an interests.
Interviewer: Why do you feel the interests is not there?
Patty: It is there, but the same people who you want to do it are also the busiest, with other sports and arts commitments, school, jobs, travel and on other parts of our project. It will happen when the time is right. They are welcome to volunteer.
Interviewer: Is there an effort to record audio or video presentations?
Patty: I would love to set up a recording studio in an education room because there are people who walk into this museum with all kinds of stories from family members and stuff like that. It’s not something that’s planned; they just come here and boom. So train someone to do the basics and capture that information would be very important.  We had Foothills High School recording interviews with 31ers during out 31ers luncheon event the past two years. There have been other programs in the past to capture the history. Dennis did some in the 80’s.
Interviewer: What is going on this coming year?
Patty: It is going to be a special year, but then they all are. The 31ers and Santa parades, our planned main luncheon, school visits in the fall and next spring, a presence at as many community events as we can. I need for others to be there, because I do have a job with the city to do and cannot be there as much as I might like.
Laura: We have plans with the library for next year. Roger came up with this idea and I backed it. I originally wanted to be a librarian. We were trying to do with reading loss prevention over the summer. I had known from working at a library in the past that they had summer reading programs. I went to them to see how we could form a partnership tying in historical aspects starting with the dust bowl, the Great Depression, Boulder City and Hoover Dam history and then into what will happen next. It just so happens that next summers theme is “dig into reading” so we thought we would do ‘dig into reading’ as our partnership. The library would put together reading list and their other programs planned for us and the theatrical history of it. I told them that Patty was already doing this with out 31ers program and the 2nd graders with their skits. For a theatrical element to the reading program. They thought tying in with the oral histories was great. They have an amphitheater and area in the children’s area that can be used. We can put on shows and expand on that. Also there is an author who writes juvenile books about the Great Depression who we would like to see come out at the end of the summer for an author visit and possible fundraiser.
Roger: We have many other ideas and we have kicked other things around. It is going to be a natural marriage with the 31ers outreach and museum mission. We want to do one thing well, one at a time and move on to the next thing. We have short term and long term plans.
Laura: On the 31ers Hollyhocks on May 8th at the city council meeting the Historic Preservation Committee of Boulder City will be presenting a proclamation to the City Council to have the hollyhock names Boulder City’s official flower under the term Boulder City Heirloom Hollyhocks.

The group discussed elements of public policy, community identity and collaboration among public and private organizations as factors in continued growth of the program:
Interviewer: Who is the Historic Preservation Committee?
Patty: The Historic Preservation Committee typically you think of as bricks and mortar, like building codes and how to keep the historic feel. We went to them and we said we know that there is this mentality of bricks and mortar but we do not know why we shouldn’t be working together since we have the common goal of preserving local history. We need to find out what our common goals are and then work together on our efforts. They did not really have a good answer as to why they felt they were only bricks and mortar and they shouldn’t necessarily have to be bricks and mortar. And so when we told them about the Hollyhocks Project, and it was not I, it came from the community kinda channeled through me, that we should make the 31ers Hollyhocks our city official plant or flower. So I mentioned that at the meeting and they said ‘do you think we should be conduit to take that to city council’, and I said ‘I think that you would be a fabulous conduit to take it to city council.’ They offered to do that. That way it shows cooperation, that there is a collaborated effort to kind of take it to the next level. I guess the museum board could have gone and done it.
Roger: I like the fact that the three different entities are working together and it can sort of set the stage for the future.
Patty: It has turned out that the 31ers stuff is a common thread that everyone can come on board on, because we all have a vested interest in it. Like our community gardens, I mean they have offered that once we get this Hollyhock started they will help nurture them along and help get them naturalized within the environment in which they have been planted, and they will have a better chance of being successful wherever they do. So everybody kind of finds that common thread to work with.
Interviewer: Is there any working with the National Park Service museum of at the dam or what serves as a Forest Service Visitors Center?
Roger: There is nothing formal except for the potential of the formal digitizing program. But there is very informal and good relationships with the Bureau of Reclamation, the National Parks and other agencies.
Patty: And when I took the interviews that Dennis did from VHS to DVD they made that initial transition for me. I did not go through the front door channels as I remember on this.
Roger: You don’t now where the front door is.
Patty: That front door is locked, I like the back door. Their PR persons are on board now and there is a common dialogue.
Roger: We have park service employees on our board. We have city staff on our board.

Discussion and Analysis
      The evolution of the 31ers Outreach Program from a grassroots program to being under the management of the Museum was not necessarily foreseen by Patty Sullivan, but could be seen as one of the probable outcomes of the progression of the program. There could have been various derailments of the program, but the underlying motivations, attitude and aims of Patty Sullivan and individual and organizational participants, characterized by energy, openness and committment  helped to keep the program going. Never-the-less, during the initial stages of the program development in 2008 there was no set blueprint or strategic plan that spelled out having the program absorbed by the Boulder City Hotel / Hoover Dam Museum. 
In some respects, the organic nature of the development of the program may have made this happen more quickly, with an emphasis on action over meetings. On a practical level of economics and organization, it was mutually beneficial to the Museum and the Outreach Program. The transition of the Outreach program to the Museum provided an opportunity for the Museum to develop new avenues of development and purpose, while allowing Patty to relinquish some unsustainable responsibilities in her volunteer role. This next phase may allow the 31er Educational Outreach program to achieve permanence, financial support and future growth.  The discussion highlighted the themes of collaboration  and community identity and civic engagement. It revealed the importance of gaining buy-in and cooperation of community while developing a tie in with public policy and creating an educational outreach program that is meaningful, relevant and engaging to all participants. The interview also reflects the dynamic potential of Outreach programs if a sense of vision, passion and purpose is retained, even within the confines of limited resources and a dependence on volunteers. As the discussion reflects, there is a tremendous amount of planning and detail in carrying out activities, and there also needs to be a willingness to move forward into unknown territory.

Summary Discussion of Findings
            A discussion of findings will necessarily include a both a macro, chronological examination of the evolution of the 31ers while examining some of the experience of the participants at the micro level. In other words, the Outreach program can be viewed at the community level, looking at the developments of relationships over time, and at he individual level, the perceptions and experiences of various participants. The findings not only included the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of the participants, but also the materials used by participants as tools for various activities, from organizational development to teaching. A summary of themes that were found is discussed, and a graph showing the growth of the program, development of relationships, and these themes will serve to illustrate this experience. See Appendix for an additional example, a handout summarizing the development and implementation of Outreach activities and meticulously recorded.The 31ers Educational Outreach of the Boulder Canyon Project Act first years had a gradual, but steady and productive pace of activities beginning with the transition from is original purpose, as an annual, traditional reunion luncheon for members of the 31ers to the culmination of a more formal structure supervised by the Boulder City / Hoover Dam Museum.
            Grassroots programs often reflect the characteristics and dynamics of their environment, and the people that start these programs. Different leadership styles would necessarily lead to different results. Patty did have meetings, and quickly developed a list of potential volunteers.  It followed logically that an outreach effort would require participation of schools. The history of Boulder City naturally led to the inclusion of Bureau of Reclamation and National Park Service. The Museum and Library were sources of information and support.  The 31ers, including family members, and other community members with requisite backgrounds, talents, and interests were quickly included. The recruitment and development cast a wide, but purposeful net to potential community participants.
            The collaborative, organic nature of the effort could be seen as a necessary function of growing a workable program, but is also reflected in the pedagogical approach. If the Outreach Program reflected the 31ers’ sense of identity, experience, meaning, and civic engagement, forged in the building of the Dam and the city, these same themes, of collaboration, organic growth, meaning, identity and civic engagement permeated the teaching and learning activities of the program, whether in the classrooms facilitated by credentialed professionals, or out at community activities, facilitated by community volunteers who had a range of knowledge and experiences. The overall theme of the Outreach program is “Preserving the Past to Educate the Future”, and this preservation philosophy was also a part of the overall mission of Boulder City.
            The pedagogical activities of the teachers and the volunteers out in the field made use of primary sources, going out to interview 31er members such as Laura Godbey Smith. The activities recreated experiences of the children and families of 31er workers and settlers, giving children hands-on, experiential learning activities that made history (and other disciplines) understandable.  The fact that Boulder City history has some national importance, and a focus on the historic engineering feat of the Dam, and its ongoing influence on the settling of the West  gave the program some additional meaning and pedagogical emphasis.  The self-evident proof of the program’s effectiveness and potential lies in the willingness of teachers, and now the Museum, to continue participating in the program. There is a buy-in to the program that is crucial to its success. Teachers quickly developed their own activities and materials, went out into the community to do their own research, and were able to gain the support of parents. The interdisciplinary nature of the program means that many different types of activities could be developed, and this makes it adaptable at different grade levels. The use of theater, including participation by children, and observing and interacting with adult actors, gives the program energy and entertainment value. The hands on activities makes learning fun, and these activities are easily replicated in the more traditional lessons.
            This does not mean that every child is going to be enamored with the topic or that older kids won’t prefer learning on computers, but it does offer a way to expand horizons and present different areas of knowledge and expertise that cannot be found in a book, computers, or a traditional classroom experience.  It  offers hands on, experiential learning opportunities for children who do less well with traditional learning styles. It also may be difficult to correlate the program’s learning experiences to test outcomes. But the program does not detract from traditional curriculum or learning,  but instead provides support, variety, and enrichment
            The success of outreach programs should not be viewed as inevitable as school teachers may not necessarily be receptive to community outsiders or additional instructional opportunities. In this instance, the particular characteristics of this community, which is slow growing, but still flourishing, appears to be a potentially good match for the Outreach program. The members of the Boulder City community remains fairly active with a high level of civic engagement and community events, with a fairly high voter turnout. The community has a range of social classes, including a small transient, poverty stricken segment of the population, working class residents, and highly educated and prosperous community members. The Outreach program has the potential to benefit and serve the diverse residents of the community.. An additional advantage for the Outreach program stemmed from Patty Sullivan’s employment in the City and her awareness that the public policy of the city that appeared to support the mission of the Outreach program. Realistically, as the Museum takes over the program, there is no guarantee that the program won’t falter or fade, becoming simply a Museum exhibit, although the comments of Roger Shoaff and Laura Sutton indicate that they understand Patty’s vision and want to continue the goals of the program.
            The overall themes found in this research included collaboration, meaning, experience, identity, and civic engagement. These themes are part of the overall organization and growth of the program, and embedded in the program’s pedagogical approach. A discussion of the themes follows.
Collaboration: Collaboration implies cooperation and coming together, and working as a team. Often it implies people taking up roles based on their individual interests and talents. Collaboration can be used at the organizational level, but also in terms of education, is part of student centered, teacher facilitated learning. Teachers work to encourage collaboration among students. Learning and presenting a skit is an example of a collaborative effort among volunteers, teachers, students and parents, and even the community audience, who receive the knowledge. Collaboration allows teachers to take on learning roles, and students to take on teaching roles, as they do research, help each other and engage in hands on activities, do writing, or act in scripts.
Meaning: According to the dictionary the word meaning denotes message, substance, implication, spirit, intention, interpretation and explanation (Reader’s Digest Oxford, 1996). The 31ers Education Outreach Program has been suffused with meaning from its initiation to learning activities. Patty Sullivan would not have initiated this if did not have strong personal meaning. The Outreach also reflects what has been meaningful to the community. It also encourages learning activities that provide clear meaning to children.
Experience: This is strongly related to the theme of meaning, as meaning and experience help us make sense of the world. The 31ers Outreach Program wanted to keep alive the experiences of the 31ers.. The experiences of the 31ers, expressed in narrative and activities, had some personal coloration that are less formal, but sometimes more enriching than what can be found in a text book. Teaching history and other disciplines through experiential learning can give it a flavor and meaning that is missing in other pedagogical approaches. Hands-on learning may be more easily remembered, and depending on the activity, more interesting to students. Integrating with actors, and acting out in skits create learning opportunities and memories that are different from reading or writing. Experiential learning is also easily brought out to the community in the form of special events, such as the crafts, the Hollyhock planting, and other interactive activities. It allows parents to work along side children, and children and family members to participate who may not be in the participating classes.
Identity: This theme closely correlates with meaning and experience, and overall learning. The 31ers Outreach Program is closely tied to the identity of Boulder City. The annual 31er Luncheon was founded and kept going by the sense of identity of Dam workers and their family. Part of this identity was an acknowledgment of hardship that was overcome, and the close ties of community that came out of this hardship.  The history of Boulder City shows early and active engagement in community groups and clubs. The handing down of this history through learning activities may help to shape a sense of identity in school children, as they begin to realize they are a part of a larger community. Learning naturally shapes children’ sense of their own skills and encourages agency. Learning is an ongoing synthesis of children’s understanding of their world, and their role in it.  For some Boulder City children, the overall community history and identity is closely tied to their individual and family identity, and experiential activities make this identity more meaningful and understandable. Identity helps to provide a sense of place and perspective.
Civic Engagement: Learning starts out as individual effort, but civic engagement can help to activate it, giving learning perspective and purpose. The 31ers Outreach program springs from the Boulder City traditions of civic engagement, and in its collaborative, networking development, encourages civic engagement. Civic engagement was always a part of Boulder City history, in fact coming together in formal groups gave early residents both practical and emotional support that made it possible for the town to keep growing and thrive through the building of the Dam and the growth of the town. The benefits of encouraging civic engagement among students should be obvious, but is not always emphasized in learning goals. While children may not be aware of the concept, children performing skits in front of community members (some of them leaders and 31ers) are participating in a level of civil engagement, in fact it puts students in the role of being “teachers” or at least “presenters” to community members. Figure 5 summarizes the development of the Education Outreach up to the next transition to developing closer ties with the Museum, and the Museum’s take over its mission. This model highlights some of the themes at each stage, and shows a general chronology of the development and implementation of activities:

Figure 5 Time Line and Themes Summary (2008 – 2012)

Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
            This study examined the 31ers Education Outreach program, exploring the experience of participants through the initiation, development, and transitions of this program.  From the perspective of some community members, there was a sense that local history and with that a sense of community identity was not being sufficiently addressed by the school system or within the community.  There was also a feeling that traditional, textbook based curriculum (with some periodic field trips, film viewing, and internet resources) was not sufficient to expose the rich detail of this history. The factual, narrow, test orientation of present curriculums, in adherence to “No Child Left Behind” policies was not geared to these goals.
            Outreach programs such as the 31ers are often geared to constructivist learning and community collaborations, simply because of the nature of the activities incorporated into the program. However, since the program was developed outside the realm of the school system, educational theory was not discussed. Instead, the focus was “How can we best teach children and families in the communities about Boulder City History, and keep the memories alive?”, or in the motto of the 31ers Education Outreach “Preserving the Past to Educate the Future.”  The 31ers Outreach was conceived as a program not only to go into the classroom, but also out into the wider community.  It was determined that the best way to do this was an interactive approach that would give children actual experiences that would allow them to re-live and re-enact this history.  While it was possible that oral recordings and written narratives could have given the same information, Patty’s own sense was that monologue presentations (or oral history) and skits would be a stimulating and engaging way for children to learn community history.
The purpose of this study was to observe and record the experiences of the participants, and see if Deweyan principles of constructivist learning (learning that is active, student centered, experiential, and meaningful) and democracy (collaborative, grassroots, civic engagement) would be expressed in the process, development, and implementation of the program.  The sense of community and individual identity, a concept that can be difficult to explain, might be found at the cross section of democracy and constructivism as a member of the community and within the process of individual learning.
A phenomenological study was deemed the most appropriate method, as this allowed the researcher to explore and understand the experience of participants through their words, actions and materials. It seems particularly workable for studying such a varied group, which included teachers, students, organizational professionals, community volunteers and members. The varied background, motives, and expertise of participants improved understanding of the program and what it meant to participants. It was also an interesting way to find out people’s views on constructivist learning, particularly if they had never heard of the term. Putting the study into a chronological and relational framework provided context and perspective. The study, took a Deweyian approach in exploreing and describing the particular experiences and perspectives of individuals as a reflection or comment on shared meaning and practices. Using this method also contributed to the analysis, which used particular themes as a way to uncover Deweyian principles.  The themes can be viewed through the multiple perspectives, relationships and experiences of participants, and through the broader lens of public policy and purpose, community interaction and identity, and pedagogical issues.
John Dewey’s principles provided the theoretical framework for this study. Dewey believed that a learning environment should be relevant, interesting, and meaningful to the student, and the way to achieve that could often be found in interactive, discovery-based learning.  The progressive, constructivist nature of this learning was strongly ingrained in a sense of relationships and identity. He believed that education should encourage expression and individuality, include free activity, offer experiential learning, and provide opportunities to learn skills that are important to students.  
Discussion of the Findings in Relation to the Literature
            It should be said that while the intent of this study was to explore Deweyian principles of constructivism and democracy within the 31er Outreach Program, there was no foregone conclusion that these principles would be uncovered in the course of the study. The 31er Outreach Program does not include “carrying out constructivist or democratic, or Deweyian principles” as a stated mission. There was a supposition that this study would potentially find some of these principles in the implementation of the activities, given the stated goals of the program. . The organic style of developing and implementing the program and reliance on volunteers and community cooperation, within the resource depleted economic conditions of this period added a level of uncertainty to the outcome of the program and the findings of the study.
            This analysis and the conclusions was based on the over arching categories of public policy and purpose, community interaction and identity, and pedagogical issues, and the themes of collaboration, identity, meaning, experience, and civic engagement.  This study’s research questions will provide a framework for the analysis and conclusions:
1. To what degree does this outreach program illustrate principles of John Dewey and other theorists in terms of constructivism and community based education? If so, how are these principles demonstrated, and if so, to what effect?
The 31ers Education Outreach Program exemplified, at least up to this point, the constructivist and community based education to a surprising degree. The reasons why constructivist principles had been used were likely because interactive, experiential activities fit in well with the Outreach plans. A pedagogical approach as inspired by Dewey should emphasize sharing, cooperation and learning (Caplan, 1998). Dewey said, when children learn about weaving and sewing, they are not just learning how to sew, but the historic and social concepts of the material and commerce from the make up of the fabric into a clothing article (Dewey, 1899). Several theorists believe that drama, through story telling or acting, provides meaning and context, encourages creativity and empathy and therefore encourages a higher order of thinking (McCaslin and Schonmann, 2006, Miller, Vanderhoof, Patterson, Clegg, 1989, McMaster, 1989, Moore, 1989).  To summarize, the Outreach Program used constructivist principles because they wanted participants, and they wanted a program that could be flexible, fun, meaningful, and informative in a wide variety of venues with volunteers of different abilities and expertise. The Outreach activities provided children with the following benefits, a)  Hands-on Experience (carrying water, making things, planting etc.) b)  Concepts expressed in meaningful terms (the building of a house, the discussion of  outdoor living, (desert flora & fauna, climate), watching an actor bring a historic person to life. c)  Interactive, group learning (acting in skits, working together on activities asking questions to presenters).
e)  Collaborative development of learning activities among teachers, working with volunteers, students, and parents.
2. How does this statement and question relate to John Dewey and other education philosophers and theorists? The community itself is an educational institution. Should there be a community strategy, based on the local needs, instead of larger school based strategy, to coordinate and make relevant a student’s education?
School districts and universities are large, bureaucratic institutions with long held practices of curriculum. Policies are influenced by economics, culture, and politics.
In turn, communities shape economics, culture and politics.  The answer may not necessarily be either / or, but complementary.  Community organizations and members can help to keep and share educational lessons that support schools. Museums and libraries often play this role, offering a multitude of resources and perspectives.  The 31ers Educational Outreach brought education to schools and the wider community through collaboration with other organizations. The volunteers brought various levels of expertise and experience, expanding traditional classroom pedagogy. Communities may develop a variety of strategies for different reasons (economics, cultural, and overall community building) so it seems reasonable that a community might consider an overall educational strategy. Usually this is done in a piecemeal fashion, such as taxation policy, trying to attract or develop post secondary learning institutions, or research institutions. Patty was able to identify elements of Boulder City public policy that supported the goals of the Outreach program. The partnership and collaboration of public and private institutions, such as the Museum with schools and other organizations, may provide a way to create community based strategies that serve the overall educational needs of a community. Theorists suggested the following:
a) Dewey suggested school is a form of community life (1916).  By bringing community into the schools, and working closer together, the Educational Outreach may encourage this aspect of formal schooling.  Schools and community should not in such separate spheres, although the bureaucratic structure of school systems and modern life may lead to this. It could be argued that collaborative programs such as 31ers Educational Outreach are bringing much needed collaboration at a time when with technology individuals may be less likely to interact in person. It should be said that the Internet can offer similar collaborative engagement).  But people are still biologically wired for interpersonal communication, and teaching and learning can and should be relationship based. Programs such as the Outreach can encourage this type of community learning.
b) The community provides a wider and more in-depth perspective from which schools can draw and enrich instruction.   The community as a whole offers a connection to the past, with collective stories shaping identity, connection to one another, and bringing context to education (Barber, 1992). This result may not be the automatic outcome of Outreach efforts, but it seems to be something that is self-evidentially beneficial.
c) Life long learning is considered to be increasingly important in a fast changing world.  Schools can inspire and start the process, but community institutions and groups are important contributors to life long learning, especially in bringing families together (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983). Outreach programs such as the 31ers, which bring together old and young, professionals and those with personal and practical experience can provide important collaborative support for life long learning. The commitment of the Hoover Dam / Boulder City Museum to outreach provides a stronger resource to the community to encourage life long learning.
3. To what extent do the issues, views, values, goals of various groups within the community interact with one another?  
 The 31ers Education Outreach was initiated because of Patty Sullivan’s and 31er values of community history and identity, and a sense that working in common cause with educational organizations could help preserve these values.  Patty sought the input and collaboration of other organizations which may in turn help support and implement these values.  While offering multiple perspectives and skill sets, all of these organizations had some responsibilities or interest in keeping alive the history and identity of the town.  The Museum and Library had a built in purpose of offering adjunct educational resources to the school and larger community. The National Park Service and Bureau of Reclamation offered tours and some public education outreach because of the Hoover Dam. The collaboration had the potential to build on and strengthen each organization’s outreach efforts.
            American democracy has been shaped by ideals (sometimes in tension) of individuality, freedom, community, and civic engagement. Schools and programs such as 31ers may not overtly state these values, and sometimes the ideals of democracy may appear to be under assault (especially with the rise of consumerist, capitalist culture which has also invaded education) but never the less these values are still with us and continue to have some influence.   Schools were traditionally seen as upholders of these values, with community values shaping individual character. American education had an ongoing twofold purpose of providing practical vocational learning and civic minded, and character building education. Educational Outreach programs can support both agendas, but seem particularly adept at encouraging civic engagement.
Several theorists expressed the benefits of these values of civic engagement  and community interactions. Some theorists have suggested that these interactions may help encourage education as a public social good (Dewey, 1916, Barber, 2002 and Arnowitz, 2008), Dewey believed that school and community collaborations are essential to strengthening democracy (1916).  Putnam and Fedstein (2003) suggested that early participation in community life leads to life long civic engagement, and is most effective when it is meaningful, contextual, and interpersonal, and exposes children to people of different backgrounds and perspectives. Civic participation is considered a form of active, experiential learning). The outreach program gave children the opportunity to be engaged in their community, and perhaps put them in the role of teacher, .Some researchers believe that the inclusion of families and communities is essential for improving schools. Accountability is often stated as an important publicly stated goal or value. (Shields, 1994).
4. To what extent were the pedagogical and community organization elements of the program initiated and implemented?
Collaboration and co-production was the over arching characteristic in the pedagogical and community organization elements of the program. Patty Sullivan knew what knowledge she wanted conveyed; with her theater background and the experience with past community events as coordinator for the city’s park and recreation program she knew that successful community efforts require the interest and participation of the community.  She wanted the oral recordings she had collected from archives at the Museum and to be kept as pure and unfiltered as possible; the voices of the 31ers needed to be heard in a way that was meaningful, accurate, and most of all interesting; so using some form of theater seemed natural and essential.  A study, outlined in the literature review (Lauer, Akibam, Wikersow, Apthorp, Snow, and Martin-Glenn, 2006), provides a useful template for how these pedagogical and community elements were implemented:
Provides a wider range of services and activities. The 31er Outreach program offered an expansion of the curriculum, with many different activities and events, within the school and out in the wider community.
Supports transition from middle to high school. The 31er Outreach helped to fill in some gaps or deficits in the teaching of social studies and history. As the teachers mentioned, social studies and history is emphasized in a few grades. Outreach activities in the 7th grade provided substantial improvements to the teaching of history (and related disciplines), with an emphasis on active learning.
Reinforces concepts. The 31er Outreach program provided complementary lessons and activities that built on the general teaching of Nevada history. It did this in a way that provided hands on, meaningful experience that cannot be gained from texts or film. The program not only reinforced concepts but also provided additional details that enriched the curriculum. Interactive activities also helped students retain information that are less likely in traditional pedagogy.
Improves school culture and community image through exhibitions and performance. The 31er Educational Outreach Program brought variety and increased opportunities to participate within the classroom and out in the community. The Outreach allowed diverse interactive activities to students and families. It also encouraged greater sense of community identity, and in some cases allowed students to share their own personal family history as descendants of 31er workers. School activities became more interesting for many students.
Gains access to mentors and after school staff. The Outreach activities put volunteer participants with students and parents, and encouraged exposure to different levels of expertise, and different ways to facilitate lessons.
Ability to link with students most in need of services. The 31er program was not devised as an at-risk project,  but instead worked with students of diverse abilities and backgrounds. The schools in Boulder City tend to be more cohesive and have lower than average at risk students (Andrew Mitchell Elementary School, 2012). However, the program was inclusive, encouraged students to volunteer, and offered activities to a range of families at community events. Potentially, with its emphasis on constructivist, hands-on learning experiences, it was beneficial to children who may have learning problems in reading and writing.
Improves school program quality and staff engagement. The schools in Boulder City already have a record of average to excellent school quality with fairly stable school and teacher population. But the opportunities to bring volunteers into the school, and participate in interactive activities and present skits to the community provided valuable enrichment. It also led to some teachers creating new activities and going out into the community to interview 31er family members.
Uses program to maximize public and private resources. Collaboration among people with diverse skills and talents, and the use of organizational and personal resources was a key reason why the program was successful. The program’s use of voluntary participation, and no use of additional public funding, as well as well targeted use of resources (such as the Museum archives), and the use of materials and information for multiple venues (mobility and flexibility) made this possible. Well-organized grass roots programs, without substantial funding, are more likely to maximize resources.
Fosters continuing of services. The program did this by the judicious addition of community activities, and using the input of teachers, other organizations, and a core, consistent set of volunteers.  The program had stable and steady growth, and most of all made sure there was buy in from schools and other organizations. Collaboration and delegation is an important aspect of this. The Museum’s take over of the program cements the continuation of services, so  that it does not rely on the energy of one person.
Combines talents of school and community personnel. Teachers offered professional educational experience, and insights into children’s interests and skill levels. Community volunteers offered a range of skills, talents and knowledge, from those who understood the engineering of the Dam to volunteers who could perform roles.  Some community volunteers offered writing and craft skills, or knowledge of building and staging exhibits. Patty Sullivan made it a point to identity skill sets and talents and incorporate these into the activities.
Share and combine information and collections. Every organization, and different community members had information that could be added to the program. Thus, the Bureau of Reclamation and National Park Service could offer areas of specialized knowledge, the Museum and Library had archived written, audio, film, and photograph collections, and historians and individuals within the community offered their own stories and contributions to archives.  The combination of information and collections provided a broad array of general and personal history that gave the events both depth and breadth.
5. How is this program similar to other community programs?  The 31ers Educational Outreach Program is similar to other community programs in the following ways, including a) providing for a perceived need within a community, b) providing enrichment, entertainment or educational opportunities, c) providing opportunities for community members to collaborate and meet, d) transforming informal networks into formal networks, e) placing an emphasis on programming that is active and relationship based (Economic Policy Institute, 2007), f) Continuing work on capacity building and results based planning (Blank and Pearson, 2009).
            An important characteristic of successful community programs, no matter the cultural or socioeconomic status of the community, is that it should make use of community members talents and skills, reflect the values of that community in a meaningful way, and come from the community itself, and also make an effort to offer positive improvement, growth, and change. It should encourage a sense of community identity and provide another vehicle for civic engagement. It should be noted that national based programs such as Boys and Girls Club or the Scouts can still exhibit many of these attributes of an effective community program by adopting particular features of a community.
            At the conclusion of this study, the 31ers Program had entered into a new phase with the Hoover Dam / Boulder City Museum taking over the reigns of the program. While the Museum has committed itself to continuing and expanding the program, it is unknown if this will be possible or will actually happen. The next few years may   provide an interesting opportunity to look at its transformation from a grass roots organization guided by the personal vision and passion of one person into an organization that takes on the more formal structure of an institution under the governing power of a board of directors. The program grew fairly rapidly, and was quite dynamic in its development. The Museum had the intention of continuing the same collaborations and initiatives out in the community, but will likely do this in a more deliberate way. The newly developed commitment to an Outreach program may also serve to strengthen the Museum’s place in the community.
            Overall the 31ers Outreach program appeared to exemplify many of the characteristics and potential benefits of constructivist learning and democratic values of civic engagement and community relationships.  It is difficult to determine if the initial success of the program can be solely attributed to the values and personality of one person, and her position and connections within the city as a member of a 31er family and city employee, and the particular characteristics of Boulder City, but a case could be made that its collaborative, organic, and open growth nature helped to propel its success.  However, the ad hoc nature of the program did leave it open to set backs and some vulnerability to the quality of support by volunteers and organizations.  Better-funded, professional organizations may seem to have more advantages, but also may be unduly focused on fund raising, and may be more insular in community relationships.  The ideal might be community organizations that have the best of these characteristics (funds, but also highly collaborative and dynamic.). In some cases, some organizations may become vulnerable to the whims of major funders or certain segments of the community.
            Public policy is subject to a range of pressures, particularly economic and politics, and policy may favor certain educational philosophies over time.   There has long been a tension between standardization and local control, and top down leadership and teacher autonomy. Programs such as the 31ers can play an important role in addressing what is important to a community, and provide much needed resources to a school. The fact that the Boulder City Master and Strategic plan implicitly matched or complemented the goals of the 31ers Education Outreach probably made it easier to implement.
The themes found during the observation of the program might serve as a useful template for other programs, including civic engagement (both organizational, macro level and individual, micro level), meaning (to learners, teachers, and volunteers), experience (experiential learning, experience of participants) hands-on learning, sharing of memories and experience, community relationships), and a sense of identity (in the passing down of memory, teaching of history, and with the individual learning activities of students, as learning is closely connected with identity. These themes provide the fundamentals for how we learn, and participate and grow in our individual and community life.

            The observations and findings in this study may provide some insight for educators or those contemplating developing community programs with educational aims. At the conclusion of the study, the program was growing through a major transition, which would be worth studying as a follow-up.  A study that took a closer look at public policy and relationship to outreach programs would be useful. Another worthy study would be finding out if the themes in this study were applicable to educational outreach programs in different social economic conditions. One might ask, is the Educational Outreach Program uniquely suitable to conditions in Boulder City, and dependent on the vision of particular person, or could its mission of community history and identification be worthy of emulation?

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Appendix A
First House Monologue

Our First House in Boulder City
1. In 1931, Like so many of you Mr. Godbey and I came to start over, with the mining and ranching work becoming so scarce in Colorado. But while the men looked to the dam, we looked to build a community. They already had a post office and some mess halls built, and American Legion was organized. There were some nice government houses being built on Denver and Colorado. Some streets and sewers were in. But with all this, most of us still lived in tents.
2. That first night we had no tent.  We had our spring and our mattress and we made a bed on the ground. Mind you, we had five little ones by now.  That first morning, we got up, my husband’s shoes were filled with dirt. We had pitched our tent over a kangaroo rat’s nest. Mr. Godbey was mad.
3. We lived in a tent in the river bottom. We bought this tent from a widow whose husband had been killed by a mind blast. We also had to get another tent. That tent was the one I cooked in and ate in. Then we had another tent to sleep in. Between the tents, we spread blankets fastened to clothesline ropes with horse blanket pins so as to make a little shade for the children.  I remember it was so hot down there.
4.We bathed in the river.  Of course we had to wear some kind of apron or a little shift or something. With the water so silty, we got water from the mess halls, which was transported from Las Vegas. We cooked over campfires.  A bout of illness finally forced a move to Cowboys Bill’s camp at a ranch in Las Vegas for a while.
5. So we were set on a building a house in the Spring of 1932. Up to then, the only homes were Six Companies and Bureau homes built for the bosses.  It was in the paper there would be a few blocks set aside for people who wished to build their own homes. You understand, with the state of things, having to burn garbage, and no indoor toilets, it was time to get into a civilized way of living as quickly as we could.
6. We had them survey a lot third down from the corner on L Street. The specifications were this: We had to build a house that cost at least $250, had inside plumbing, and didn’t have a boxcar or tarpaper roof. Can you imagine?
We went back to the tent and we told some of our neighbors what we going to do. Some thought it was a good idea and some thought we were crazy.  They asked, how ya going to finance it? We had to some tall and fancy thinking on that score, but we happened to have an insurance policy we could borrow for materials.
7. We got hold of a carpenter who was out of a job. We hired him to build a little four room house. I just took the back of a tablet and drew a picture and said how big I wanted it so he started it that way.  It was built by guess and by God. We contracted with the lumber company for the plasterboard. We had the carpenter put up the structure, the clapboards and the roof. The rest we did ourselves.
8. We moved into our house in April. We had no glass in the windows, just screens and canvas, and screen doors.  We were getting past a cold and wet winter, and in April it was still cold and wet. We had our bed against the window space, we had plasterboard on the inside up against it, but still the wind pushed the plasterboard and our bed right out, a foot away, with us in it. We kept putting up plasterboard, and tried to make one room as warm as we could. All we had was a little Coleman camp stove, which we fashioned into a sort of heater with a five gallon oil can.
9. We built and finished our home with whatever material we could find. When I built my draining board upstairs, it was built from what had been the counter in the original police station in Boulder City.  Inside my kitchen cabinet was a map of how to find a still down on the Dry Lake! It had been drawn on the counter of the police station to show the police how to go down there and raid it. Eventually I painted it over.
11. We had a kind of house warming one night. It was extra cold . The McDonalds spent the night with us. I cooked stew and wrapped the kids in blankets.
12. Soon more homes went up on our street.  Soon we would be working on the first school, churches, cemetery, and hospital, and a blessedly cool theater. We made sure to have celebrations and events to bring us together.  Those first years were a struggle. But Mr. Godbey and I were blessed to have built the very first private home in Boulder City.

Appendix B
Hollyhock Project Brochure

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Appendix C
Exhibit in 31ers Room at Museum, still / washer

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Appendix D
Activities and Participation Overview Brochure 2009 – 2010

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Appendix E
Interview Questionnaire Guide

The following is a general questionnaire to use as a guide. Most interviews will be open ended, with referrals, observations, suggestions and reflections on the experiences of the person being interviewed. These particular questions are geared to teachers participating in the program. Other questionnaires can be adapted to other community participants.

1. What is a 31er?

2. Have you heard of the Boulder Dam 31ers Outreach project?

3. Have you participated in any event involving this project?

4. What is your experience in community educational outreach?

5. Do you have any particular views on educational policy in terms of curriculum, expectations, standards, and mandates?

6. Why did you choose to participate in this project? What has been your expectations of it?

7. Do you have any particular views on the role and connection of community and school, and how this makes a difference or not in your instruction and how students learn?

8. How do you feel about the input of outside expertise or community participants in the classroom, and student participation in community activities.

9. Does input contribute or create more problems? Has there been any benefits or unexpected outcomes?

10.  What grades, course and/or ages do you teach or administer as part of your educational mission?

11.  What are your views on and experience with the teaching of community history and social studies? Is there a best practice in teaching history or social studies?

12.  How long have you taught or worked in Boulder City?

13.  How have you applied the 31ers Outreach topics to your classroom lessons, and how has this been connected to the curriculum expectations?

14.  How have the children responded to the activities within the classroom and in the community?

15.  What specific activities have you accomplished in the classroom and in the community? 

16.  How have the children responded to the particular activities, such as watching performers in the classroom, preparation and performance of scripts, and participating in active demonstrations (such as doing laundry or carrying water to household buckets)?

17.  Did you notice any difference in student motivation, interest and attitude?

18. Have the children gained a better understanding of the concepts and topics?

19. In what way do you feel they better understand topics?

20.  Do you think active learning makes a difference as opposed to reading or writing, or focusing on tests?

21. Do you have any general views on active or constructivist learning, and theorists such as John Dewey?

22. Have the students been required to any other class work in connection to the project? Have parents been supportive?

23. Are you planning on continuing with the project and adding additional activities? Do you have any ideas on how this project could relate to other subjects aside from social studies or history?

The following are optional questions that may help in analysis for my study:

24. Where do you live?

25. How many years have you been teaching?

26. Age:

27. Gender:

28. Highest level of Education:

29. Degree(s) held:

30. Ethnicity or race:

31. Income level:

32. Any other information you care to volunteer?

33. Other.

34. Would you like a copy of your portion of the final presentation?

35. Address or e-mail

Thank you for your time and cooperation.

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