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Saturday, July 21, 2012

Extra Credit, Persuasive and fallacy notes (from powerpoint slides on Angel)

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Extra Credit
Must be a written paper, 10 - 20 pages
Topic must be a critique of a speech in person or on video
Use all terms from class to show understanding of concepts
Can earn 1 to 30 extra points
Do not need other sources besides text, lecture and actual speech
Deadline day of final, prior to final
If you use testing lab, due prior to test
Persuasion Speech
Definition: The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing peoples belief or actions and also -
The art of convincing others to give favorable attention to our point of view
Click "read more" below to reveal full set of notes.
Applications of Persuasion
Small steps easier to achieve
Immediate action required to show commitment to change
Listen and critically review others beliefs before you form, alter, support or change their beliefs
Identify ethics of persuasion
Persuasive Speech should:
Provide information
Use critical thinking
Use communication model
Use proofs and codes
Establish, identify and understand target audience
Persuasive Speech and Specific Purpose
Questions of fact
Questions of value
Questions of policy
You need to understand:
The difference between passive agreement  and immediate action
Issues of need, plan, and practicality
Structures, designs, or methods of organization
Understand role of demographics and audience analysis
Marketing, advertising and other influences
Relative truth and reasonable knowledge
Forms of Dishonesty
Quoting out of context
Using only a few details as whole story
Misrepresenting or inadequate sources
Leaving out facts of other view
Hiding your bias or view
Misrepresenting your ethos
Power of Language
Respect rights of free speech
Avoid name calling and abusive language
Do not intentionally harm a listener, opponent or opposing group
Do not incite a riot!
Pathos & Emotional Appeal
Supported by Facts
Supported by Logos / Logic
Challenges & Complexity
Challenges beliefs, values, attitudes & cultures
Some will not or cannot be persuaded
Have realistic goals
Process of Persuasion
Psychological Process
Some listeners will not or can not be persuaded
Mental give and take or conversation
Listening is not passive, but active
Process of Persuasion
Ethos and source ethos as part of acceptance and rejection
Delivery, appearance, supporting material, language, situation
Tendency of listener to argue and question
Process of Persuasion
Judgments and decisions being made:
         Ongoing, wide range of levels and issues
  Flexible or open
Your Mental Dialogue
Question everything, and be reasonable
Put yourself in others place
Understand goals, motivations, cultures, noise, screen, filters, interpretation of codes, backgrounds
Anticipate objections
Answer unasked questions & objections
Target Audience
Who can be influenced, what part or portion message intended for?
Those who agree, tend toward agreement, agree on other issues
Can  be influenced by ethos
Open to persuasion
Reasonable & responsible, who may initially disagree
More Target Audience
Those who disagree but will accept new information
Those who disagree but willing to listen
Critical thinkers
Adapting to Audience
Adapt speech to fit needs and answer questions of target audience
But do not exclude or ignore others
Do not attack, insult
Keep in mind ideas and feelings of every segment
Encourage audience to have open mind
More adapt to audience
Do not be afraid to challenge audience to think
Do not be afraid to confront
Questions of Fact
Certainty, easily defined, seldom disputed (earth revolves around sun)
Facts of view, not certain (old age is difficult)
Suppositions or projections can be facts of view
Questions of Value
Judgments based on beliefs: 
  Right or Wrong
  True or False
  Good or Bad
  Moral or Immoral
Questions of Value
Can have a graduated scale:
  seek to alter or move audience
  show scale is not valid
Speaker needs to justify value judgment by:
  Define speakers standards
  Judge subject of speech against standards
  Work toward audience understanding and looking at speech using those standards
Usually organized topically
Questions of Policy
Specific course or plan of action
Generally involves fact
May involve value
Always goes beyond fact and value
All plans can be altered
Be willing to adapt feedback to sell greater policy or goals
Policy Type 1
ØTo gain passive agreement
Ø Desirable, necessary or practical
ØAim is to affect thinking
ØNo immediate action necessary
Policy Type 2
ØAim to take immediate action
ØGet audience to something specific
ØMake sure recommendation is specific
ØMake sure recommendation can be taken as soon as possible
ØMake sure the recommendation supports larger policy or goal
Differences with Informative
The Eye of the Beholder
Informative seeks to be impartial
Persuasion has bias, view, stance
Speakers interpretation of facts, individual and cumulative is key
Facts organized topically in persuasive
Any fact can be disputed with other facts or proofs
More on Differences
Informative reveals & clarifies
Persuasive advocates choices
Persuasive provides evidence to justify conclusions or recommendations
Informative offers education
Persuasive involves commitment & belief
Yet More…
Leadership important for persuasion
Appeals to feeling (pathos) more important in persuasion
Persuasive speakers assume greater ethical responsibilities
Both can change thoughts and lives
Must Address Basic Issues
There is a plan
Plan or issue practical
Best option or action one presented by speaker
Will make a difference
Can be done in class for assignment
Patterns of Organization, Designs, Structures
Problem - Solution
  Convinces audience of problem
  Shows audience solution
  Show how to deal effectively, a plan
  Establishes problem exists, is significant
  Should offer solutions - concrete, easy
  Advocates a change to solve or mitigate
Problem - Cause - Solution
Establish a problem, show cause, and show how to solve the problem, given cause
Show existence of problem
Analyze probable causes
Present a solution
Solution fights cause, not just symptoms
Comparative Advantages
Most effective when audience already agrees with need for change
Devote time to show why propose plan or policy is preferable over other solutions
Another Pattern:
Refutative Design
Raises doubt about competing propositions
Raises attention to competing propositions deficiences
Must understand opposing positions
May focus on oppositions faulty reasoning, poor evidence, self interest, non substantive solutions
Address weakest oppsing views first
Five Steps in Refuting and Argument
1)State the point to be refuted
2)Tell how the point will be refuted
3)Present credible evidence
4)Interpret the evidence
5)Explain significance of refutation
Monroe Motivated Sequence
1)Gain attention of the audience
2)Show the need for change
3)Satisfy the need by  presenting plan
4)Visualize benefits and practicality of plan
5)Urge audience to take action in support of plan
Elaboration of sequential & problem solving design
Show reason for each step in process
1.Arousing attention
2.Demonstrate need for change
3.Offer a plan of action
4.Visualize results
5.Call for action
6.Reinforce action over time
Effective Use of Monroes Sequence
Consider where audience stands
Focus on appropriate steps
Make actions managable
Make actions measurable
Reinforce actions
Stock Issue Approach
Acknowledges need for change because of significant issue
Elephant in room or Gorilla in closet
Raises questions reasonable people have
Address if there is a need for change, what is best solution, and who will effect change
More on Stock Issue:
Is a harmful effect caused by problem?
Will solutions solve it?
To what extent is harm part of situation?
How much resistance to change?
Can change occur without greater damage?
Persuasion and Ethics
Ethical goals
Research, study, understand topic
Do not mislead
Learn all sides
Be factual, honest, integrity of belief
Present evidence fairly and accurately
Ethical Persuasion
is Based On
Sound Reasoning
Sensitivity to others
Appeal to others better nature
Respect for others culture
Ethics also
Helps us apply received wisdom to new situations
Helps us apply reasoned knowledge to decision making
Improves the quality and humanity of our commitments
Were Almost Done!
Can get an A - attend, notes, feedback & participation, form study groups, read
Must speak on assigned day
Focus on details: outlline, APA, narrative, tumbmail / presentation outline, presentation aids, extemporaneous delivery, points on eval sheets Still Get an
An error in reasoning
Neutral in ethics
Dangerous to use
Red Herring
A fallacy that introduces
Irrelevant issues
To divert attention from the subject under discussion
Ad Hominem
To make human,
A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue
To divert attention through personal attack.
False Dichotomy
A fallacy that forces listeners
To choose between two alternatives
When more than two alternatives exits.
Can divert from actual alternative or cause.
Polarizes audience
Used to solidify right and wrong,
for or against.
A fallacy that assumes
   that because something is popular
   it is therefore good.
Group think
Mob mentality
Slippery Slope
A fallacy that assumes
   that taking a first step
   will lead to subsequent steps
   that cannot be prevented.
False assumption that if this happens than there is a 100% certainty that a series of subsequent event will occur.
Hasty Generalization
Jumping from specific to general
    On the basis of insufficient evidence
False assumption that if a specific events cause is true, than all similar events must have the same or similar causes.
Invalid Analogy
An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike
Making parallels between things that may not be parallel or alike
False Cause
Assuming that if one event follows another, there must be a cause and effect.
Post hoc, Ergo proper hoc
After this, therefore because  of this.
Jumping to the conclusion of cause without proper evidence of a causal effect.

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