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Friday, January 30, 2015

Bloom's Taxonomy: Understanding A Critical Thinking Framework


  •  Revised Blooms levels are listed below...APA revision 2001.
  • Remembering: Can we recall or remember information from long-term memory?
  • Understanding: Can we internalize, recall, and connect with other information?
  • Applying: Can we use the information in a new way?
  • Analyzing: Can we distinguish between the different parts, meaning the parts and subparts, how components work together?
  • Evaluating: Can we justify a stand or decision?
  • Creating: Can we create new product or point of view?


There are several critical thinking frameworks available for you to use, such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Bloom’s Taxonomy, and the scientific model. All work and all apply to various aspects of critical and creative thinking

We will focus on Bloom’s Taxonomy as it is one of the most widely used frameworks for understanding and enhancing human thinking. By understanding major theoretical frameworks such as Bloom’s Taxonomy, you are in a better position to model and facilitate the growth of critical thinking.

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom and a group of educational psychologists developed a framework for understanding and teaching critical thinking. This framework, which developed into the widely known Bloom’s Taxonomy, provides a method of classification for thinking behaviors that are understood to be pivotal in the learning process. This taxonomy is comprised of three domains, as defined in the following:

  • Cognitive learning is composed of remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, creating and evaluating.
  • Affective learning relates to emotion, attitude, appreciation, and value.
  • Psychomotor learning relates to physical skills, including coordination, manual dexterity, strength, and speed (Harrow, 1972).
The critical thinking skills diagram, based on recent revisions to Bloom’s theory, provides a similar, but more updated version of this theoretical framework.



The Cognitive Domain 
The cognitive learning domain emphasizes intellectual abilities and outcomes. Bloom’s cognitive learning domain describes a hierarchical progression of learning. The levels include the following:

  • Remembering: Can we recall or remember information from long-term memory?
  • Understanding: Can we internalize, recall, and connect with other information?
  • Applying: Can we use the information in a new way?
  • Analyzing: Can we distinguish between the different parts, meaning the parts and subparts, how components work together?
  • Evaluating: Can we justify a stand or decision?
  • Creating: Can we create new product or point of view?
Each level reflects a level of cognitive complexity achieved in the learning progression, with the prior levels being requisite for advancing to the next level. In other words, a person functioning at the analyzing level has also mastered the material at the remembering, understanding, and applying levels.

Additionally, the revised version of Bloom’s taxonomy provides an expanded two-dimensional perspective on learning that also considers the type of knowledge being learned. The types of knowledge are divided into four main categories: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. The Critical Thinking Framework matrix can be referenced for a more complex understanding of how the type of knowledge interplays with the stages of Bloom’s learning progression.

The more deeply a perso synthesizes information, the more critically he or she considers a topic. Not understanding a subject deeply enough may be a barrier to critical thinking.

The work of Bloom, originally relating to education, is easily transferable to most fields. The taxonomy emphasizes more of what we do with knowledge than examining the quality or nature of what we know.

The Affective Domain 
Bloom’s taxonomy, focusing on educational objectives, also examines how the affective domain of the learner is critical to the quality of the learning experience. “Cognitive objectives are satisfied when we obtain an appropriate level of knowledge, and affective objectives are satisfied when we obtain an appropriate level of internalization or value for the content” (Bolin, Khramtsova, & Saarnio, 2005, p. 154). The critical thinking process considers the five affective levels and addresses learner emotions toward learning experiences. Similar to the cognitive learning domain, affective levels are progressive, meaning one is learned before moving on to the next category:

  • Receiving is the starting point, which engages a willingness or ability to listen. The learner acknowledges, listens, and replies.

  • Responding involves actively participating in the learning process. A person contributes, questions, reacts, and gains satisfaction from active involvement.

  • Valuing is the process in which learners assign worth to specific activities. A person chooses, joins, shares, and commits to the learning experience.

  • Organizing allows us to develop an internal value system that organizes values in an order of priority. We adapt, modify, explain, and synthesize as we integrate complementary and disparate values; conflict may occur when integrating current values with new and divergent ones.

  • Internalizing values controls behaviors. A person advocates, encourages, exemplifies, influences, and discloses. Once they internalize values related to critical thinking, they have a predictable response to situations.
To become a critical thinker, you must understand the barriers that interfere in your ability to think critically about specific issues. At times, they may experience cognitive barriers, such as limited subject knowledge. At other times, they may not have the proper affective disposition to critically consider a topic because of bias or experience. Understanding barriers that limit student skills is the first step toward improving those skills.


Remember
Retrieve relevant information from long-term memory.
Understand
Construct meaning from oral, written, or graphic messages.
Apply
Carry out or use a procedure.
Analyze
Divide material into constituent parts and determine how they relate to one another and to overall structure.
Evaluate
Make judgments based on criteria and standards.
Create
Reorganize or put together elements to form a new structure or pattern.
Factual Knowledge
Basic elements needed to be acquainted with a discipline
Define, Identify, Label, Name, Order, Outline, Recall, Recognize Classify, Identify, Indicate, Recognize, Restate, Select, Summarize Complete, Fill out, Translate Organize, Arrange Rank, Grade Combine, Join, Merge
Conceptual Knowledge
Relationships among basic elements that enable them to function together
Describe, Recite Clarify, Compare, Contrast, Differentiate, Explain, Generalize, Infer, Map, Match Apply, Choose, Complete, Determine, Interpret, Modify Debate, Determine, Discriminate, Distinguish, Integrate, Interpret Assess, Detect, Rate Arrange, Assemble, Compile, Devise, Hypothesize, Plan, Predict
Procedural Knowledge
Use of methods, skills, techniques, and algorithms
Order, Recite Conclude, Demonstrate, Exemplify Calculate, Compute, Employ, Formulate, Illustrate, Implement, Perform, Produce, Use Structure, Revise Coordinate, Estimate, Measure, Score, Test Compose, Conclude, Construct, Design, Generate, Modify, Reconstruct
Metacognitive Knowledge
Knowledge and awareness of one’s own thinking
Identify, Outline, Order Compare, Differentiate, Conclude Determine, Interpret, Illustrate Organize, Discriminate, Revise Rank, Assess, Estimate Combine, Compile, Hypothesize, Predict, Modify
Examples

Remember
Retrieve relevant information from long-term memory.
Understand
Construct meaning from oral, written, or graphic messages.
Apply
Carry out or use a procedure.
Analyze
Divide material into constituent parts and determine how they relate to one another and to overall structure.
Evaluate
Make judgments based on criteria and standards.
Create
Reorganize or put together elements to form a new structure or pattern.
Factual Knowledge
Basic elements needed to be acquainted with a discipline
List the five stages in Tuckman's theory of group development. Summarize the five stages of Tuckman's theory of group development. Translate the principles of Tuckman's theory to the act of group formation. Analyze the five stages of Tuckman's theory. Evaluate Tuckman's theory based on past group experiences. Create a plan to implement learning teams using Tuckman's theory.
Conceptual Knowledge
Relationships among basic elements that enable them to function together
List challenges to online teamwork. Explain challenges to online teamwork. Determine how to overcome challenges to online teamwork. Analyze the challenges of a past online team. Evaluate the effectiveness of solutions to online team challenges. Predict the effect of solutions to online team challenges.
Procedural Knowledge
Use of methods, skills, techniques, and algorithms
List each step of the SQ3R reading technique. Explain the steps of the SQ3R method. Determine the most appropriate type of reading material for the SQ3R technique. Distinguish the steps of the SQ3R method. Assess the overall effectiveness of the SQ3R technique. Design a learning plan for a student using the SQ3R technique.
Metacognitive Knowledge
Knowledge and awareness of one’s own thinking
List personal strengths and weaknesses related to your writing process. Describe personal strengths and weaknesses related to your writing process. Compare the personal usefulness of various writing strategies. Revise your current writing process to increase its effectiveness. Assess the impact of new strategies on your writing process. Predict the effect of new strategies on personal strengths and weaknesses.


Wrap-Up 
Having a critical thinking model helps you understand your students’ current functioning and assist in improving their critical thinking skills to reach higher levels of cognitive and affective learning.

References 
Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives (Complete ed.). New York, NY: Longman.


Bolin, A. U., Khramstova, I., & Saarnio, D. (2005). Using student journals to stimulate authentic learning: Balancing Bloom’s cognitive and affective domains. Teaching of Psychology 32(3), 154–159.


Harrow, A. J. (1972). A taxonomy of the psychomotor domain. New York, NY: David McKay. 

12 comments:

Anonymous said...

critical thinking...is not easy...if your ideas and thoughts are differnt from others..and no one understands...barbara..HUM/112...1.1112

Anonymous said...

Great information. Very helpful.
Billie Turner HUM/114

Anonymous said...

Some very complex comments in this post. Taking the time to review should help me (anyone) become a better critical thinker.

Alan Kennamer
HUM114

Ana Tinta COM 101-4080 said...

I as an individual feel that I relate more to cognitive learning. I am really good at remembering long term memory as well. I am also very good at organization which I feel plays an important part in the commencement to start critical thinking.

Berenice said...

its kinda confusing.

Anonymous said...

As much information that was packed into this blog, I think the last paragraph says it best. Self awareness and understanding what it is that interferes with your ability to think critically is an important first step. Taking the time to research and educate your self on a particular subject, recognizing your own bias because of an event that you experienced and ultimately understanding those obstacles will help you develop your critical thinking. I think that may be what confuses some. Sometimes deciding where to lay the first brick in building a path is the hardest, and once you get past that each brick falls into place and it all makes sense.

Martina - Phoenix HUM/114

Anonymous said...

Another problem why people lack the ability to critical think is the fact that they may not have even been given the opportunity to. A person cannot gain this experience on their own. It has to be stimulated...




Nicole Baxter COM 101-4080

Jasmine (uop)Hum 114 said...

I find Bloom's Taxonomy interssting. It has some nice breakdowns of critical thinking. It is helpful for one to see where you are lacking in the critical thinking process. Where you can add some techniques in to make your problem solving flow with ease.

Jana said...

In accordance with Bloom’s level, we fail to think critically because we suffer the barrier of processing information upside down. We discredit information because we think we know it all or because all we know is all we want to know. Therefore, we never give certain issues a chance to process.
Jana
Hum/114

Lisa Mendez said...

I am going to study this pyramid better and try to do better with my critical thinking. I am very set in my ways. My religion plays a very important role in the way I live my life and believe. This is a very interesting subject and I like learning about it.

Anonymous said...

I am glad that this is a subject that just occurs naturally in my thought process. It seems way over-analyzed to me, but who am I to say.

S. Hayes PTA

Stephan White said...

I think the last paragraph says it best. Self awareness and understanding what it is that interferes with your ability to think critically is an important first step.

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