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Sunday, October 16, 2011

Chapter 7: Supporting Your Ideas

Chapter 7: Supporting Your Ideas

Chapter Summary

As you research your topic, you'll find information related to your points and ideas. These supporting materials form the substance of your speech. They bring your ideas to life, demonstrate the weight and seriousness of your topic, and help you build credibility. Supporting materials may appeal to your audience's emotions, logic, and cultural beliefs.

There are five basic types of supporting materials. Narratives dramatize a topic and help your audience identify with it. A speech might include your own stories, stories about others, organizational stories, or cultural stories. Telling a good story requires having a sense of timing and drama.

Examples make ideas less abstract and personalize a topic. General examples are broad and provide little detail. Specific examples provide greater detail. Hypothetical examples are based on supposition--the audience imagines the circumstances--and must seem plausible to be effective. Examples help listeners better understand the topic, yet an example can mislead if it doesn't accurately represent the larger class to which it belongs.

Definitions establish a common meaning between the speaker and the audience. Speakers use definitions to clarify concepts and identify the boundaries of a topic. Definitions may explain how something functions or offer analogies for a word or concept. Specialized dictionaries can provide more descriptive and technical meanings for a word than standard dictionaries can. In using definitions as supporting materials, speakers must recognize that the audience likely will associate connotations with words, no matter how those words are defined.

Experts, celebrities, and laypeople may provide testimony or their experiences about a topic. The effectiveness of testimony rests on the degree to which audience members perceive the person as a credible source of information about the topic.

Facts and statistics clearly appeal to an audience's logical thinking processes. These supporting materials show listeners the scope of a problem and can demonstrate a topic's importance. Including too many facts and statistics, especially without using presentation media to show all the numbers and figures, can overwhelm the audience. In addition, facts and statistics may be interpreted--and misinterpreted--in many ways.

The major communications media--internet, television, newspapers, news magazines, and radio--can also enhance the content and style of your presentations when used judiciously as references, illustrations, and examples. The media inspire different levels of confidence in terms of credibility. For example, local newspapers and television newscasts receive highly favorable ratings from most Americans, yet internet news outlets are increasingly viewed as a first stop for current information.

American Journalism Review
Browse and search U.S. news sources, including
newspapers, magazines, radio stations, and television networks.
Center for Digital Storytelling
Founded in the late 1990s, the Center for Digital Storytelling helps
 “people of all ages in using the tools of digital media to craft,
record, share, and value the stories of individuals and communities,
in ways that improve all our lives.” The site explains how to become
involved in digital storytelling and how the internet
helps individuals and communities create collective
memories and identities.
The entry point for finding statistics compiled by
U.S. federal government agencies. Search for statistics
by topic, subject area, federal agency, and state.
The Poynter Online—Media Credibility Bibliography
An extensive bibliography on media credibility studies
compiled by a leading institution concerned with
professional media performance.
Formerly, this is the U.S. federal government's official web portal.
The site provides a wide variety of supporting materials on
U.S.-related topics, such as the arts, the environment,
public safety, transportation, health, and technology,
just to name a few.
University of Pennsylvania Commencement 2004 Webcast Archive
View Bono's commencement speech; begins at
1 hour 56 minutes in the webcast archive.
Web Credibility Project
The members of this Stanford University research team
are gathering data to find out why individuals believe
(or don't believe) information on the web.

How to improve your public speaking

The only way to improve is to do it, but there are plenty of pages out there in the Internet and books in the library to help.

From Lauriann Bradform in the CSN Public Speaking course this fall:

Two links to help in public speaking.

Taking Stock for Fall 2011 COM Students (others welcome to comment)

Your course grades up to today have been posted. Remember we are only 250 points into a 1,000-point term and that if you look at each assignment or speech as a letter grade you will go crazy! All that matters is that you are doing the work and are up to date for the term. Look at the grade as a percentage to date...take your total points and divide them by the points you could have earned (total) to this point. Hit percent and you have your percent grade.

You are responsible for the material in every chapter assigned for the Midterm (see syllabus), plus all of the weekly notes posted by the instructor. These chapters are included on the final.

You are responsible in testing (the midterm and final) and in application (your speeches).

As we begin the informative speeches it is becoming obvious that many of you are not keeping up on the reading, unit notes or applying information I provide to you in class lecture (including the critique of other students).

Develop listening, reading and study skills if you wish to earn the grade you think you deserve in this class.
It can be done.

There are the writing center and communication lab at your disposal.
As you heard this past week, you may also go downstairs and arrange for tutoring in this course.

Librarians (the ones with the Masters Degree) can be a tremendous help in your research, organization, and other areas of study.

Angel comes with free tutoring within the system (search for it and it out), as does the CSN Library and student services.
Your student account for on-line work also has free tutoring attached to it. If you have questions ask in the computer lab.

It is all "free" as you paid for it with your student fees.

There is this blog and he links provided.

And then there is the biggest resource of all, your fellow students.
Get to know them, bounce ideas off the, rehearse speeches with them and form study groups for tests.

All of this works. Trust me, you are not alone and you are not the first. They work because students have shown they work.

Chapt 11: Presentation Aids

Chapter 11: Integrating Presentation Media

This chapter summary is written by the authors of the authors of the text, "Public Speaking, the Evolving Art (ISBN-13:978-0-534-636727-9). It is a summary and should not take the place of reading the textbook or using the other resources provided on Angel by the publisher, course instructor or school.

Chapter Summary

Speakers use presentation media to draw attention to their topic, illustrate an idea, evoke an emotional reaction, clarify points, support an argument, and assist with audience recall. General guidelines for designing effective visual media include keeping it simple, emphasizing only key ideas, showing what you can't say, using close-ups of photographs and other images, combining variety with coherence, and using large, readable lettering.

Click on "read more" below to find out more about sources, and for valuable links.

Sunday Morning News and Views, Part III

Everyone "knows" that for fine chocolate you go to Ethel M's. Well, maybe, but world wide the answer is "Swiss Chocolate."Switzerland's leading chocolate makers are trying to convince their countrymen to embrace quality over quantity. The chocolatiers from around the Alpine nation have gathered in Geneva to show off their finest wares to consumers already spoiled for chocolate choice. On Sunday, thousands lined up outside the venue in a converted hydropower station to get a taste. Tibor Luka, one of the organizers of Switzerland's first chocolate salon, says 24 master chocolatiers have been invited to explain the fine points of cocoa quality and flavoring. The aim is to teach visitors to think about chocolate the way they would about wine. Switzerland has the highest per capita consumption of chocolate in the world, with about 26.5 pounds per person each year.

California Governor Jerry Brown has issued a proclamation declaring tpday as Steve Jobs Day in California. In issuing the proclamation Saturday, the governor wrote that the products that Jobs introduced "changed the way the entire world communicates." The commemoration comes the same day Apple is planning a memorial for Jobs at Stanford University. The Wall Street Journal reports invitations have gone out to Silicon Valley luminaries and other people close to Jobs. Apple tells the newspaper that the Sunday evening event is private, despite earlier announcements. Jobs, who co-founded Apple Inc. and was the mastermind behind popular gadgets such as the iPhone and the iPad, died Oct. 5 at age 56 after struggling for years with pancreatic cancer.

Service members attending the first-ever convention for gay military personnel say they have received nothing but support or shrugs since coming out at work. Nearly four weeks after the U.S. lifted its ban on gays serving openly in the  armed forces, 200 members of a group known as OutServe have attended the conference in Las Vegas.

Lawyers for a U.S. House of Representatives group say in a federal court filing that gays and lesbians are not entitled to heightened legal protection against discrimination. Lawyers for the Bipartisan Legal Advisory Group base their argument, in part, on their contention that gays and lesbians are far from politically powerless and have ample ability to influence lawmakers. They filed the brief in U.S. District Court in San Francisco on Friday. The filing comes in a lesbian federal employee's lawsuit claiming the government wrongly denied health insurance coverage to her same-sex spouse. Karen Golinski says the law under which her spouse was denied benefits - the Defense of Marriage Act - violates the U.S. Constitution's guarantee of equal protection.

"Obamacare" has surfaced once again as a key issue for Repubicans in the 2012 presidential elections. Despite it offering affordable health care to all children and millions of Americans who have been dennied health care insurance for lack of money or preexisting conditions. If the reforms, which were congressional and not from Obama, are overtuned women will not see the savings from the loss of the pre-existing condition of being woman, seniors will not see the protection from discrimination based on nothing other than age, and children will have coverage and no longer be without health insurance just because their parents have preexisting conditions or are on hard times.

A senior political adviser to President Barack Obama is charging that the Republicans seeking the presidency don't understand the American public's pent-up anger over corporate excesses. David Axelrod tells ABC's "This Week" that the American people "want a financial system that works on the level. They want to get a fair shake." He appeared on ABC a day after scores of demonstrators protesting corporate business practices were arrested in New York's Times Square in a confrontation with police. Axelrod faulted Republicans who have been pushing in Congress to soften or repeal the landmark legislation Obama pushed through last year, tightening regulation of business practices. Axelrod said he doesn't believe "any American is impressed" when hearing GOP presidential candidates who want to "roll back Wall St. reform."

The FBI is seeking a man it has linked to 12 bank robberies all over California and has earned the nickname "The Mr. Magoo Bandit" because his balding head and thick glasses make him resemble the 1960s cartoon character. The FBI said in a statement Saturday that agents in San Diego, Los Angeles and San Francisco are seeking the man whose last two robberies were in Ventura County, most recently Oct. 8 in Thousand Oaks. Before that they say he robbed six banks in the San Diego area and four in the San Francisco Bay Area. The FBI says the man, described as white and in his 40s, stays calm and makes no attempt to disguise himself as he hands tellers a note demanding money, and thanks them politely afterward.

Iran's supreme leader is warning the United States against taking any measures against Tehran over an alleged plot to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to Washington. State TV quotes Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as saying "any unsuitable act" will be met with "a resolute response" from Iran. Two men, including a member of Iran's special foreign actions unit known as the Quds Force, have been charged in New York federal court with conspiring to kill the Saudi diplomat. Iran's president dismissed the accusations today in remarks carried by the official IRNA news agency. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said Iranians are civilized and have no need to resort to assassination.

Libyans using bulldozers have begun tearing down the walls surrounding Moammar Gadhafi's main Tripoli
compound, known as Bab al-Aziziya. Ahmad Ghargory, the commander of a revolutionary brigade, says forces had been busy with the war but now it's time "to tear down this symbol of tyranny." He says the area will be turned into a public park. The compound has long been seen as the symbolic heart of Gadhafi's rule. The sprawling, fortress-like compound was one of the main targets for NATO airstrikes during the months leading to Gadhafi's ouster in late August. Libyan fighters overran the area after days of fierce fighting for the capital.

Herman Cain NBC interview this morning

Presidential hopeful and pizza executive Herman Cain says he "won't be a flavor of the week" and his sudden climb to the top of GOP presidential polls will last. A recent spate of polls showed Cain joining Mitt Romney and Rick Perry in the top GOP tier. Cain believes that his signature 9-9-9 tax plan would lower taxes for most Americans, but conceded some poor and middle-class-Americans might pay more. The plan would scrap the current federal tax code and replace it with 9% rates for personal income and corporate taxes and add a 9% national sales tax. Many independent analysts say Cain's plan would lower taxes on the rich and raise them for many middle class Americans, but the Georgia businessman disputed those doubts on NBC's "Meet the Press."  Cain believes that a national tax structure like this would provide the funds for Federal taxes to be used to finance local, county and state needs. He dismissed a belief that a nine percent sales tax without no exemptions would be harder, and in effect a greater burdon,. on the poor than on the wealthy. He says that the average American household earns $120,000 a year (actual census data puts the mean household income at closer to $60,000).
Cain says that the Wall Street protests are unclear, and that they should be protesting the White House and the Democrats instead of critizing the rich and corporate America. Cain believes the objective of the "liberals" isto distroy this country, not to help those who need medical attention, better housing or other basic needs. "They do not belive in a stronger America."
"Stupid people are destroying America." Cain believes that political parties, people who do not think critically, who do not consider both sides and understand what business is, people who do not look at the entire picture are causing America to spyral downward.
"I prefer Black American since the roots of my experience in America come from America, not another continent." Cain says he has made to main hamburgers, clearn the parking lot of a buisness (he owns Burger Kings as well as his former position with Godfathers as CEO).
He feels that if people are loyal to their employers, find opportunity when it offers itself and empower themselves they will not need to be dependant on the government for medical and other social needs.
Cain believes life begins at conception and there are no exceptions.
He supports the Supreme Courts most conservative judge, one who admits he does not read the other side of an issue and whose wife is one of the top supporters of the Tea Party, Justice Clarence Thomas. He believes Thomas is the model for the future of the court.
He supports a balance budget but says it cannot be used as a political tool or happen overnight. For example he would "invest" in the miliary" even if there is no other place to cut funds.
Cain says "message is more powerful than money." His fundraising is picking up, and he feels that he will use it wisly enough to win. He calls Mitt Romney "a Wall Street Excutive" whereas Cain sees himself as a "main street excutive."

Sunday Morning News and Views, Part II

This is "Steve Jobs Day" in California.  Governor Jerre Brown made the proclamation to conicide with a large funder service in San Francisco for Apple's founder.

Today is World Food Day, an event intended to increase awareness of problems with global hunger. This year, lots of people are going hungry -- not because of food shortages -- but because of financial speculation. Food prices are increasing world wide, with minor increases and decreases in portion size in the US, and major price increases in Europe, Afican and Asia. For the poor the issue could be life and death, and for the world's economy,including the US, food could be the straw that broke the camel's back, launching a true depression.

Harvard economics professor Roland Fryer about current economic disparities between whites and blacks. Earlier this year, Fryer was awarded a MacArthur genius grant for his research. Fryer writes of a country with descrimination not so much by race, but by zip code. The educational quality of Amercan can be charted by individual zip codes, with uneven education, job opportunities, houseing quality and even protection from crime and desease. Despite what up until the recession was a growing middle class, and the "frontrunner"for President of the US in both politcal parties being African American, most blacks continue to live in poor rural areas and inner city areas that may be or are close to slums. He points to how once you are in those areas it is increasingly difficult to raise yourself up and achieve the higher level of education and other tools needed to "rise up by your bootstraps" in America.

The release of more than 1000 Palestinian prisoners in exchange for kidnapped Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit is being trumpeted as a major victory by the Islamist Hamas faction that has held Shalit for five years. The boost for Hamas -- which controls the Gaza Strip and advocates the end of the Jewish state -- has sidelined the Palestinian Authority and President Mahmoud Abbas, who was just recently feted for his efforts to win Palestinian statehood recognition from the UN.  The political shift leaves Palestinian supporters of a two-state solution feeling isolated.

News Corp is making news again, and not the good kind if you're its CEO, Rupert Murdoch. The Wall Street Journal Europe reportedly illegitimately inflated its inflation numbers, allowing credibility doubts to seep into one of News Corp's most respected journalistic outfits. In America, Newscorp owned FOX News, has been tracked as bias on stories about its parent company or owners. Fox News reports on the issues in far more cursuary ways, one fifth as often and one tenth of the time spent by their nearest competator on coverage of the story in the US. Unions, shareholder organizations and business groups are callling for Murdock and his son to not be relected to the corporate board. Newscorp is a British company, with  majority owners from Australia, waving the US flag on FOX News.

The Electric Daisy Carnival and other electronic music festivals have been lambasted in the press and in editorials for being "all about drugs." But this isn't the first time that criticism has been leveled at a music festival.  Remember Woodstock?  As Electronic Dance Music becomes more and more popular in the United States, its being treated in the same way that rock, and then hip hop, were treated in the media last century. The festival moved to Las Vegas this past year, following the death of a girl at  the previous years festival at the LA Colloseam. There were no major incidents in Las Vegas. LA officials are quick to say they are glad the festival moved and that "sin city" is equip for such vents. Organizers of the event announced this month that the event will return to Las Vegas next year.

Sunday Morning News and Views, Part I

Super Nova 2000 SE can be seen from our desert, the first time that armatures can see the Nova, located only 21 million light years away, with telescopes that are on the commercial market. The type 1A Supernova was formed by the explosion of a White Dwarf star, located in a pin-wheel shaped galaxy "far far away."The Martin Luther King Memorial is being dedicated on the National Mall in Washington today in a scaled down version of the large event cancelled in August by the threat of a Huricane Irene hitting Washington DC with full force. They hype and coverage planned for television in August has also been scaled back, but the event will still be on television. The Black Plague, which wiped out one out of every two people living in Europe during the Middle Ages, turns out to be the same strain of plague that we find in third world countries today. Scientist have used DNA from victims buried in formal graveyards (many were simply burned, despite a church ban against cremation) has been matched with today's strains. The reasons it is not as deadly today include better sanitation (the Middle Ages were a very odorous time in which to live), the realization that it is a disease carried by flies living on rodents and other small animals, and fast medical response. That does not make the plague any less deadly or any as likely to cause a major, hopefully localized, fatal outbreak.

Canada will spend more than 30 million dollars in celebrating the end of the War of 1912, which from the Canadian standpoint was won by Canada. Coins, stamps, events and movies are planned for the two year long celebration. In their version of history, one well documented but still not taught in many American school books, the still young US invaded Canada unprovoked and burnt their capital, the city now known as modern day Tornoto. In return Great Britian joined Canadians in invading the US, eventually burning our new capital city, Washington DC. US historians say the truths is somewhere in between, with the US launching the war as a premeptive strike against British troops that were feared to be massing to invade and take back the "colonies." One version has it that the troops were in Canada to help in quellling uprisings by "Indians" and protect their colony against attempts by the United States of America to claim portions of Canada as part of the US.

History is flexible and every changing.  It is said that the victor writes history and changes the direction of a country, or the world. The truth in that is undesputable, however the craft of historians, augmented by modern technology, is constantly rewriting history based on evidence found from what were contemorary times. The truth is that there are always multiple sides, conflicting evidence and cultural interpritions to every histric event.

There are many venues that could erupt into war, and bring the US into yet another venue in defending US interests and citizens. China is sabre rattling with Vietnam and the Philippines over ocean, oil, and disputed islands that China claims are theirs. Defense packs with the Philippines and co-agreements with Russia (which has a defense pact with Vietnam) would come into play should China use force in the region. In addition China is claiming International Shipping lanes that the US is sworn to protect. Also a potential tinderbox is China's claim on Taiwan, the home of the Republic of China (mainland China is the People's Republic of China)., and claimed as a territory of China by the "red" Chinese. US troops and "assets" are already on ongoing battles (might as well call them wars) in both the Philippines and Indonesia, the world's largest Muslim nation. In both cases we are fighting Muslim terrorist and communist militants. Iran is ignoring western interests and even the wishes of neighboring Muslim nations. They are training and equipping terrorist who attack US troops in Iraq, Afghanistan and around the world. They help finance anti-government insurgents in Iraq. Iran is a constant threat to Israel and Saudi Arabia. And this past week a plan confirmed to come from the top religious leadership of Iraq, was stopped before it could happen. The plot was to kill the United Nations Ambassador from Saudi Arabia on US soil. Iran may be within a year of  having nuclear weapons, a development Israel will not allow to occur. A war with or by Iran could interrupt oil flow from the middle east and encourage Islamic Fundamentals(religious dominated) governments in the region. A constant state of suspended war exist in two heated areas of the world, both occasionally erupted in "hidden" hot wars and both in a state of constant "cease fire" (no treaty or conclusion). India and Pakistan are in a constant state of "war", following one of the longest shooting wars in modern history, mostly at the highest altitude of any modern conflict. North Korea continues to sabre rattle and has been behind attacks on US citizens and war craft. Pirates on the high seas, pretty much in every region of the world but hottest in the Caribbean and the Indian Ocean, provide yet another military challenge which could blow up into full blown wars.

Economic unrest, including the potential of bank defaults in France (where the value of bank assets has dropped by more than half), is leading to real pain in Europe and growing numbers of large protests. American media is ethnocentric in reporting that our Wall Street protest are spilling over into Europe. In reality European banks and institutions has been under a constant seige, which is swelling as things get worse. As an example, students in England rose in protest last spring over major increases in tutition and tightening of admission rules for public colleges, university and adult training programs.