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Sunday, April 10, 2011

Existence-Needs-Growth Model (ERG) for motivation and needs


ERG Theory of Motivation - Clayton P. Alderfer


In 1969, Clayton Alderfer's revision of Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, called the ERG Theory appeared in Psychological Review in an article titled "An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Need." Alderfer's contribution to organizational behavior was dubbed the ERG theory (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth), and was created to align Maslow's motivation theory more closely with empirical research.

After the original formulation of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, studies had shown that the middle levels of Maslow's hierarchy overlap. Alderfer addressed this issue by reducing the number of levels to three. The letters ERG represent these three levels of needs:
  • Existence refers to our concern with basic material existence motivators.
  • Relatedness refers to the motivation we have for maintaining interpersonal relationships.
  • Growth refers to an intrinsic desire for personal development.
Like Maslow's model, the ERG motivation is hierarchical, and creates a pyramid or triangle appearance. Existence needs motivate at a more fundamental level than relatedness needs, which, in turn supercedes growth needs.






Growth



Self-Actualization



External Esteem Needs



Relatedness



Internal Esteem Needs



Social Needs



Existence



Safety Needs



Physiological Needs

Click here for further explanation, examination and application of the ERG model.

Screen Actors Guild and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists are closer to joining into one new union for all entertainment professionals


From The Hollywood Reporter (click here for the full story and other news).

Leaders of the Screen Actors Guild and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists
have been courting each other for months. They are now ready to ask for permission to marry.

In a message sent to members of both unions Wednesday night, SAG and AFTRA announced
that a joint body of union leaders had unanimously approved “draft resolutions for consideration
by the unions’ respective National Boards of Directors” to advance the process of merging the
two organizations. The resolution includes a proposed mission statement for the new successor union
and a plan to create committees tasked with forming a timeline for the merger process. The resolution
was born out of a meeting of joint Presidents’ Forum for One Union held April 2-3 in New York.
SAG will convene its next national board meeting, where it will likely consider the resolution, April 30.
AFTRA’s next national board meeting is to take place May 14.

“Each step we take together brings us closer to our crucial goal of becoming one union,
and last weekend’s meeting was no exception,” SAG president Ken Howard said in a
written statement. “I look forward to sharing our work with the SAG-AFTRA Relations
Task Force and, ultimately, the SAG National Board later this month.”

“I am very proud of the strong partnership and clear vision that AFTRA and SAG members
are forging together through this process,” added AFTRA president Roberta Reardon.
“We have come a very long way in a short period of time, and I applaud each and every
member who has participated in this exciting and important endeavor.”

From The Hollywood Reporter (click here for the full story and other news). 

So what next on the budget?


So what next on the budget?

The cuts for the remainder of the year are across the board, with everyone having some pain. The specific details will be released tomorrow. About half of the new cuts will come from defense, agriculture and non-discretionary areas. The Tea Party wanted it all to come from the domestic discretionary, which included education, cancer research, social services and areas that the Democrats find a part of their very basic core beliefs.

The battle ahead will be between tax cuts for the wealthy to increasing taxes for the top two percent of Americans. Republicans are betting on cuts to support tax cuts, which they say will stimulate the economy and therefore create jobs. Republicans are making it harder for middle class and poor Americans to have affordable access to education, focusing on those who can afford an education. Republicans want to change and lower cost on Medicare, Medicaid and to privatize social security. Democrats say the programs need more government support, not less, and that the future of the country depends on affordable education and medical access.

Republicans steadfastly oppose any raise in the national debt ceiling, while Democrats say that it should be avoided but needs to be there as a last resort or we could toss our international credit rating and the position of the US strategically in jeopardy. The result would be skyrocketing inflation, rapid decrease in exports, and the inability to buy what we need from overseas or our neighbors.

The Republican minority in government is using their majority in the house as a sledgehammer, threatening government shut down, major delays in needed legislation and defunding of programs if the rest of the government does not go their way. In other words “my way or the highway,” and it is working.

Governing two weeks at a time...

Ann Marie Bloom said...

Definition of Democratic: Base principle of political or social equality for all.
Definition of Republic: A state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote, and exercised by elected representatives.

How can we the citizens of our United, have faith that our government can get us out of our current recession predicament, when they cannot be fiscally responsible within their own house? So to speak. To spend more and get less, by means of supporting government operating costs one or two weeks at a time as our debt to income ration skyrockets, is not a practical way to fix a financial problem. It's similar to charging up debt and letting the interest accrue in hopes that it will go away if we don't think about it. Speaking of course of the threatened government shut down. For which all the back an forth arguing and indecision, goes against the very definitions by which both parties were founded. But why should that matter to us lowly drones, when the majority of us are concerned only with our immediate surroundings and daily existence, instead of our inadequate understanding of how the senate and congress run our country.

Sunday Morning News and Views


Women and men to not see eye to eye on colors. No, it is not just a matter of taste, but actual perception. Studies show that women and men perceive differences in color, especially the line between green and blue, quite differently than men. One possible reason is that women are more right brain, or creative, and use more of the connections between their right and left brains, therefore more observant. Studies of the human eye find that we perceive color different through the left and right side of each eye. The left side, or side we tend to see first due to how we read (left to right) routes to the right brain, and the right side to the left brain. Women tend to be more observant from the first reception than men, possibly based on their need to multi-task in everyday life. Another difference lies in languages. Among bilingual individuals there is a difference between how colors are perceived based on the language used to describe the color. Their native tong tends to be much closer to the scientific breakdown of the color than their secondary language.


One in seven residences in Las Vegas are vacant, according to the US Census. Unsold units, top heavy homes where owners walked away, older homes without buyers...Not a good sign for the future of Las Vegas. Yet developers keep building new homes...

62% of American homes are now home to at least one pet. We spend over 48 billion dollars on our pets each year. Most lower income households have pets. Wealthy people have pets for the same reasons…love and believe it or not, chemical dependence. Pets lower blood pressure, increase oxytosin which causes a decline in stress levels, provide companionship and the sensation or perception of, if not in fact the reality of, love. And no one can come between us and out pets. 89% of us consider out pets to be part of the family. 75% of Americans feel that their pets share physical, emotional and mental traits with their owners.

In London there is a World War I memorial to the animals who died in that war, including those who served the military. “They had no choice” is chiseled into the stone of the monument, which tells the story of the horses, dogs and other “beasts” who made it possible to fight and eventually win that very bloody war
.
On the London and Broadway stage the story of the “War Horse” comes to life in a very interesting way. Through the suspension of disbelief that is theatre, and very well engineered “living” and “breathing” puppets, the story of the war stallions is told on stage, as a central character searches amidst the carnage for his horse.

Dean Koontz, master author of fiction along a broad range, with 13 best sellers, has a non-fiction book titled “A little life” about his own dog, which his wife adopted. He says the dog was “an entrance of God into his life.” Born dirt poor, he began to write while in college. His career began after college when his high school sweetheart and wife, said she would support him and his writing for five years. 

Human Rights Watch says that forces loyal to Ivory Coast's democratically elected president have killed hundreds of civilians, raped his rival's supporters and burned villages. A report obtained by The Associated Press late yesterday calls on Alassane Ouattara to investigate and prosecute abuses by his forces and those supporting rival Laurent Gbagbo. The group also says forces loyal to Gbagbo killed more than 100 civilians to retaliate against pro-Ouattara fighters who launched a major offensive advancing toward Abidjan. Violence since elections in November has left hundreds dead and has forced up to 1 million people to flee. The U.N. this week said it was concerned about violence in the west after more than 100 bodies were found, with some victims burned alive.

A top White House political and economic adviser says President Obama will lay out new plans this week to reduce the federal deficit. Obama adviser David Plouffe, speaking Sunday on NBC's "Meet the Press," says Obama plans to offer ideas for what Plouffe calls "long-term deficit reduction" as Congress begins to debate raising the nation's debt ceiling. Plouffe is giving few specifics on what Obama will announce, but he says that the president believes taxes should go up on higher-income Americans. He also says that the Republican budget plan offered this week by congressman Paul Ryan of Wisconsin may pass the House but won't become law. Ryan's plan would repeal Obama's signature health care reform and make significant changes to Medicare and Medicaid.

Retired Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor continues to hear cases in U.S. appeals courts while also playing a role in public policy issues. Her critics say she should do one or the other, but not both. The 81-year-old O'Connor has campaigned against the election of state court judges. She says that threatens the judiciary's independence because of increasing campaign contributions. Most recently, O'Connor hosted an after-hours reception at the Supreme Court that featured speakers who oppose a proposed Alaskan copper and gold mine. They were in Washington to lobby lawmakers and regulators against the proposed mine. Arthur Hellman, an ethics expert at the University of Pittsburgh law school, says O'Connor should consider not hearing cases if she "wants to engage in this level of political or politically related
activity."

Directory on Falliacies of Argumentation