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Friday, April 18, 2014

Persuading Others


When you persuade others, you use language, images, and other means of communication to influence their attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions. Persuasive speeches may address questions of fact, value, or policy. Speeches on questions of fact ask whether something is true or not true. Speeches on questions of value take a position on the worth of something. And speeches on questions of policy are concerned with what should or should not be done. Speeches on questions of fact typically are organized using topical, chronological, spatial, or cause-and-effect pattern. Speeches on questions of value are best organized using a topical, chronological, or spatial pattern. Because speeches on questions of policy ask for action or passive agreement on the part of the audience, the problem-solution, problem-cause-solution, or motivated sequence are the best patterns of organization for such speeches.

In general, persuasive speakers face five types of audiences: negative, positive, divided, uninformed, and apathetic. Each type calls for different persuasive strategies. 




Negative audiences require persuasive speakers to thoroughly demonstrate their credibility, take a common-ground approach, visualize the topic in positive ways, and address audience objections. Persuasive public speakers facing positive audiences use narratives, engaging evidence, vivid language and images, and calls to action to reinforce listeners' opinions. 




When speaking to a divided audience, persuasive speakers must integrate the strategies for negative and positive audiences. Uninformed audiences require speakers to use motivational tactics, demonstrate expertise, rely on repetition and redundancy, and employ subtle persuasive strategies. 




For apathetic audiences, speakers must gain and maintain audience attention, relate the topic to the audience, display dynamism, and take a one-sided approach to the topic. Ethical public speakers must meet the National Communication Association's standards of ethical communication. Ethical persuasive speakers present their information and arguments truthfully, accurately, and honestly, and never deceive or manipulate the audience.




Click on "read more" below for additional notes, links and chapter review.

The well-constructed argument forms the foundation of persuasive speaking. An argument consists of three elements: claims, evidence, and reasoning. Claims lay the groundwork for the thesis of your speech, answering the question "What am I asserting?" Every claim includes at least one premise and a conclusion. When speakers use an enthymeme, they omit part of the claim, leaving the audience to complete the claim. Qualifiers moderate a claim, indicating where there might be exceptions to the speaker's position.

Evidence refers to the supporting materials presented to back up the claim, answering the question "What is the support for my assertion?" Speakers may use logical appeals (logos), appeals to the speaker's credibility (ethos), emotional appeals (pathos), or appeals to cultural beliefs and values (mythos). Generally the strongest arguments are those that effectively integrate all four types of appeals. In addition, evidence should be relevant to the topic, come from highly credible sources, and represent a diversity of sources.

Reasoning is how speakers connect their evidence and claims. Reasoning answers the question "How are my supporting materials and assertions linked together?" and shows the audience how the evidence you've chosen provides justification for your position on the topic. Persuasive speakers rely on four types of reasoning: deductive, inductive, causal, and analogical. Deductive reasoning refers to arguing from a general principle to a specific case. Inductive reasoning involves giving examples in support of a claim. In causal reasoning, the speaker argues that something caused something else. Speakers using analogical reasoning compare two things that share similarities.

A fallacy occurs when an error is made in constructing an argument. Although fallacies may be persuasive, they are nonetheless a deceptive and unethical approach to convincing an audience. Fallacies may stem from errors in claims, evidence, reasoning, or responding. Common fallacies in claims are false dilemma, begging the question, slippery slope, and ad ignorantiam. Fallacies in evidence include red herring, ad populum, appeal to tradition, and comparative evidence. Division, hasty generalization, post 
The well-constructed argument forms the foundation of persuasive speaking. An argument consists of three elements: claims, evidence, and reasoning. Claims lay the groundwork for the thesis of your speech, answering the question "What am I asserting?" Every claim includes at least one premise and a conclusion. When speakers use an enthymeme, they omit part of the claim, leaving the audience to complete the claim. Qualifiers moderate a claim, indicating where there might be exceptions to the speaker's position.
Click "read more" below for links, follow-up and to read more of the narrative.
Evidence refers to the supporting materials presented to back up the claim, answering the question "What is the support for my assertion?" Speakers may use logical appeals (logos), appeals to the speaker's credibility (ethos), emotional appeals (pathos), or appeals to cultural beliefs and values (mythos). Generally the strongest arguments are those that effectively integrate all four types of appeals. In addition, evidence should be relevant to the topic, come from highly credible sources, and represent a diversity of sources.

Reasoning is how speakers connect their evidence and claims. Reasoning answers the question "How are my supporting materials and assertions linked together?" and shows the audience how the evidence you've chosen provides justification for your position on the topic. Persuasive speakers rely on four types of reasoning: deductive, inductive, causal, and analogical. Deductive reasoning refers to arguing from a general principle to a specific case. Inductive reasoning involves giving examples in support of a claim. In causal reasoning, the speaker argues that something caused something else. Speakers using analogical reasoning compare two things that share similarities.

A fallacy occurs when an error is made in constructing an argument. Although fallacies may be persuasive, they are nonetheless a deceptive and unethical approach to convincing an audience. Fallacies may stem from errors in claims, evidence, reasoning, or responding. Common fallacies in claims are false dilemma, begging the question, slippery slope, and ad ignorantiam. Fallacies in evidence include red herring, ad populum, appeal to tradition, and comparative evidence. Division, hasty generalization, post hoc, and weak analogy are fallacies in reasoning. Audience members responding to persuasive arguments may also use fallacies, including ad hominem, guilt by association, caricature, and loaded words.

Why seek out opposing views?

Trust and Risk-taking.

Critical Thinking

Why learn to speak in public?


Critical Thinking Community Information
and resources about critical thinking.

Logical Fallacies: The Fallacy Files Developed
by Dr. Gary N. Curtis, the site includes definitions,
examples, quotes, and resources related to fallacies.

The Reasoning Page Developed
by Professor Bruce B. Janz
at the University of Central Florida,
this page includes links to online resources
in argumentation, critical thinking,
formal reasoning, the history of logic,
and reasoning in context.




Persuasion Commentary Example:
Keith Olberman on Health Care :

Persuasive Speech Lesson Review:

Persuasive Designs, Structures, Organizational Patterns:

Partial Topics List:

Why Seek Out Opposing Views:

International Debate Education Association
This site features an online database of information
on debate topics, as well as discussion boards
on a range of debate-related topics.

Media Education Foundation
Develops and distributes documentaries
encouraging critical thinking about media content.
The news page includes articles on a wide range
of issues that often address mass persuasion,
such as drug company advertising, the
commercialization of childhood,
and product placement in movies.

Persuasion Analysis
Dr. Hugh Rank, Professor Emeritus
of English at Governors State University,
provides information for students
and teachers on ways to analyze persuasion
in advertising and political rhetoric.

Pros and Cons of Controversial Issues
A good resource for identifying possible
persuasive speech topics, the website's goal
is to promote “education and informed
citizenship by presenting controversial issues
in a simple, nonpartisan
 primarily pro-con format."

Jillian’s Notes



14 comments:

Anonymous said...

After reading this, I got a clearer view on what a persuasive speech is and it's main points. This gives alot of information and detail..

Ashley Ramos
Com 101

Jessica Pacheco said...

Hopefully this will help me with my persuasive speech.

Anonymous said...

I'M NOT TOO GOOD AT PERSUADING PEOPLE, I JUST TELL THEM NOT WHAT THEY WANT TO HEAR BUT THE TRUTH.

-HAVASHA REED
COM 101

Mitch Yang said...

This really helped me change my view on persuading people.

Michael J. Jones said...

I didn't realize how detailed a persuasive speeches are. We persuade our children, peers, and spouses everyday, however rarely do you have to cater to them all at the same time. This should be fun...

Anonymous said...

This great piece of information just helped me pick what I wanna do my persuasive speech on. This should be fun.

Chris Jackson

Anonymous said...

This is great information for the next time I am trying to persuade someone, wish I would've read it before my speech!

Missy Brueggemeyer

Anonymous said...

We often think that when trying to persuade our idea it is putting our opinion out there and letting the audience decide for itself. But this just goes to show how much detail it really takes to properly persuade our peers and audience. This helps a lot in knowing all the steps and procedures that need to be taken..

Chantel T.
4041

Anonymous said...

I personally think that persuasive speeches are the most dificult! It is so hard to explain why you feel a certain way and make others drop their beliefs and follow you. This helps though!

Danielle Davis
Com4041

Anonymous said...

This information would have helped me so much for my persuassive. i wish i had it.
Alexis Cooper
com 6002

Anonymous said...

Thank you, Very helpful for work on the persuasive speech.



Jason Walden
com101-4044

iheartblog702 said...

This gives us helpful tips on how to pursuade others on doing something. Its a big help. Filled with lots of information.

Miguel Santiago
April 15, 2012 750 PM

Anonymous said...

I usually take the easy route and just present a whole bunch of facts with a personal story of why it will help...


Nicole Baxter COM 101-4080

Anonymous said...

persuadeing the use of language, images and other means of communication. sounds like a politicians race.

sara phoenix