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Wednesday, December 19, 2012

Fear, Bias and the Ethics of Communication

VI. Tolerance for dissent (how does this apply in today’s health care, war and other debates and are all sides tolerant?)

VII. Bias
A. Bias – the tendency to feel one way or another about anything. Bias changes. May be positive or negative, or neutral in nature. Is a natural state of being and impossible to avoid, but it can be minimized.
1. Prejudice –
a. a subset of prejudice
b. a strong culturally entrenched bias,
c. very difficult to change
d. may be positive or negative
2. Stereotype –
a. communication shorthand that utilizes bias, often reinforced by
Media, community, others


VIII. Truth and Ethics
A. Ethics-
1. The study of human moral conduct
2. Right and wrong in human interaction
B. Absolute Truth- Platonic Truth
Complete and unqualified, truth is objective and without exception. Not open to discussion or interpretation. Black and white. Clear and final.
C. Sophists- Philosophers based loosely on Socrates but who took it to negative lengths by tailoring truth to the audience, patrons, public, paying customers, Many politicians may be Sophists…
D. Relative Truth- Truth is subjective, open to interpretation
E. Aristotelian Truth- Relative Truth, varies by situation and environment, comparative, qualified, open to discussion, not the same for everyone.
F. Dogmatism- Rigidity of Belief. Immovable. Not open to discussion. Religious beliefs are a good and strong example, however Dogmatism is not limited to religion…
G. Narrative Paradigm- Walter Fisher theory for evaluating stories.
1. Narrative Coherence- do stories make sense, do characters act consistently
2. Narrative Fidelity- do stories “ring true”, hit a responsive cord, do we identify


IX. Ethnocentrism- the belief that your cultures, beliefs, ways of doing things are somehow superior to everyone else’s. Does not mean theirs are wrong or have no value, only that yours are better, superior and should supercede all others, Example: US version of Democracy, tolerance in religious beliefs, consumer based society, we are better. We have the best. We are the best. Our way is the right way.

X. Demographics- anything you can put a number to. Identifies tendencies, trends, attitudes, make-up of a group, individual, audience, market or society.
Age- chronological actual age
Gender- Male and female tendencies or psychological (Sex is physiological)
Psychographics
Psychographics- anything else you can put a number to. Group affiliation, income, household income, education level, people in household, visits to fast food, own a car, own a computer, ethnic affiliation, racial identification, church attended and how often, religious affiliation, and so on…


XI. Fear of Speaking
A. Public Speaking is the number two fear of Americans.
B. 85% of Americans have some fear of speaking (others say 100%). 40% of Americans list fear of speaking as number one fear
C. State anxiety is uneasiness caused by a situation.
D. Physiological indicators- body, physical, others can see it, impacts internal
E. Psychological indicators- cognitive congestion, brain freeze, mind, thought
F. Negative Self Talk- self-defeating talk, self-defeating prophesy
G. Cognitive Restructuring- it’s only a class, changing the way you think, think positive
H. Self-fulfilling Prophecy- what you will is likely to happen…

2 comments:

coastielema said...

"IX. Ethnocentrism- the belief that your cultures, beliefs, ways of doing things are somehow superior to everyone else’s. Does not mean theirs are wrong or have no value, only that yours are better, superior and should supercede all others, Example: US version of Democracy, tolerance in religious beliefs, consumer based society, we are better. We have the best. We are the best. Our way is the right way."


I wholeheartedly believe this to be true about the United States except the part about democracy.
The US is a representative Republic and "NOT" a democracy. If we were a democracy "Mob Rule", we would have crumbled years ago.

200 Plus years of being the beacon of freedom and opportunity to the "Entire World" is pretty darn good proof that our "Republic form of government and Capitalist leaning Economy" work better than any other forms known to man.

jcdaniel62 said...

I think that people who lean on the side of intolerance, bias, prejudice, ethnocentrism, dogmatism, and all the rest of it, have always been around, and they always will be around. Its when and if they can find their way into positions of real power. That's usually when really bad things start to happen. History has shown this over and over.

Still, everyone picks their sides regardless of what they think they know or don't know. I personally think everyone should be have access to health care without it destroying their lives, that's just what I believe. The opposing argument says 'We can't afford it, it'll make the current system even worse, we're all doomed if we do this'.

The truth is, I honestly don't know that they're wrong about that. No more than they honestly know they're right. I'd sure like to see irrefutable evidence going one way or the other, but as far as I've heard, the smartest economist in the world cant agree on future projections. I guess they picked their sides too. So at the end of the day it doesn't matter what's true, you just want to be on the side that's right ... but don't worry, you already know you are.