A. Bias – the tendency to feel one way or another about anything. Bias changes. May be positive or negative, or neutral in nature. Is a natural state of being and impossible to avoid, but it can be minimized.
1. Prejudice –
a. a subset of prejudice
b. a strong culturally entrenched bias,
c. very difficult to change
d. may be positive or negative
2. Stereotype –
a. communication shorthand that utilizes bias, often reinforced by
Media, community, others
VIII. Truth and Ethics
1. The study of human moral conduct
2. Right and wrong in human interaction
B. Absolute Truth- Platonic Truth
Complete and unqualified, truth is objective and without exception. Not open to discussion or interpretation. Black and white. Clear and final.
C. Sophists- Philosophers based loosely on Socrates but who took it to negative lengths by tailoring truth to the audience, patrons, public, paying customers, Many politicians may be Sophists…
D. Relative Truth- Truth is subjective, open to interpretation
E. Aristotelian Truth- Relative Truth, varies by situation and environment, comparative, qualified, open to discussion, not the same for everyone.
F. Dogmatism- Rigidity of Belief. Immovable. Not open to discussion. Religious beliefs are a good and strong example, however Dogmatism is not limited to religion…
G. Narrative Paradigm- Walter Fisher theory for evaluating stories.
1. Narrative Coherence- do stories make sense, do characters act consistently
2. Narrative Fidelity- do stories “ring true”, hit a responsive cord, do we identify
IX. Ethnocentrism- the belief that your cultures, beliefs, ways of doing things are somehow superior to everyone else’s. Does not mean theirs are wrong or have no value, only that yours are better, superior and should supercede all others, Example: US version of Democracy, tolerance in religious beliefs, consumer based society, we are better. We have the best. We are the best. Our way is the right way.
X. Demographics- anything you can put a number to. Identifies tendencies, trends, attitudes, make-up of a group, individual, audience, market or society.
Age- chronological actual age
Gender- Male and female tendencies or psychological (Sex is physiological)
Psychographics- anything else you can put a number to. Group affiliation, income, household income, education level, people in household, visits to fast food, own a car, own a computer, ethnic affiliation, racial identification, church attended and how often, religious affiliation, and so on…
XI. Fear of Speaking
A. Public Speaking is the number two fear of Americans.
B. 85% of Americans have some fear of speaking (others say 100%). 40% of Americans list fear of speaking as number one fear
C. State anxiety is uneasiness caused by a situation.
D. Physiological indicators- body, physical, others can see it, impacts internal
E. Psychological indicators- cognitive congestion, brain freeze, mind, thought
F. Negative Self Talk- self-defeating talk, self-defeating prophesy
G. Cognitive Restructuring- it’s only a class, changing the way you think, think positive
H. Self-fulfilling Prophecy- what you will is likely to happen…