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Friday, April 11, 2014

Preparation for Persuasion

When you persuade others, you use language, images, and other means of communication to influence their attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions. Persuasive speeches may address questions of fact, value, or policy. Speeches on questions of fact ask whether something is true or not true. Speeches on questions of value take a position on the worth of something. And speeches on questions of policy are concerned with what should or should not be done. Speeches on questions of fact typically are organized using topical, chronological, spatial, or cause-and-effect pattern. Speeches on questions of value are best organized using a topical, chronological, or spatial pattern. Because speeches on questions of policy ask for action or passive agreement on the part of the audience, the problem-solution, problem-cause-solution, or motivated sequence are the best patterns of organization for such speeches.
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In general, persuasive speakers face five types of audiences: negative, positive, divided, uninformed, and apathetic. Each type calls for different persuasive strategies. Negative audiences require persuasive speakers to thoroughly demonstrate their credibility, take a common-ground approach, visualize the topic in positive ways, and address audience objections. Persuasive public speakers facing positive audiences use narratives, engaging evidence, vivid language and images, and calls to action to reinforce listeners' opinions. When speaking to a divided audience, persuasive speakers must integrate the strategies for negative and positive audiences. Uninformed audiences require speakers to use motivational tactics, demonstrate expertise, rely on repetition and redundancy, and employ subtle persuasive strategies. For apathetic audiences, speakers must gain and maintain audience attention, relate the topic to the audience, display dynamism, and take a one-sided approach to the topic.

Ethical public speakers must meet the National Communication Association's standards of ethical communication. Ethical persuasive speakers present their information and arguments truthfully, accurately, and honestly, and never deceive or manipulate the audience.

The well-constructed argument forms the foundation of persuasive speaking. An argument consists of three elements: claims, evidence, and reasoning. Claims lay the groundwork for the thesis of your speech, answering the question "What am I asserting?" Every claim includes at least one premise and a conclusion. When speakers use an enthymeme, they omit part of the claim, leaving the audience to complete the claim. Qualifiers moderate a claim, indicating where there might be exceptions to the speaker's position.

Evidence refers to the supporting materials presented to back up the claim, answering the question "What is the support for my assertion?" Speakers may use logical appeals (logos), appeals to the speaker's credibility (ethos), emotional appeals (pathos), or appeals to cultural beliefs and values (mythos). Generally the strongest arguments are those that effectively integrate all four types of appeals. In addition, evidence should be relevant to the topic, come from highly credible sources, and represent a diversity of sources.

Reasoning is how speakers connect their evidence and claims. Reasoning answers the question "How are my supporting materials and assertions linked together?" and shows the audience how the evidence you've chosen provides justification for your position on the topic. Persuasive speakers rely on four types of reasoning: deductive, inductive, causal, and analogical. Deductive reasoning refers to arguing from a general principle to a specific case. Inductive reasoning involves giving examples in support of a claim. In causal reasoning, the speaker argues that something caused something else. Speakers using analogical reasoning compare two things that share similarities.

A fallacy occurs when an error is made in constructing an argument. Although fallacies may be persuasive, they are nonetheless a deceptive and unethical approach to convincing an audience. Fallacies may stem from errors in claims, evidence, reasoning, or responding. Common fallacies in claims are false dilemma, begging the question, slippery slope, and ad ignorantiam. Fallacies in evidence include red herring, ad populum, appeal to tradition, and comparative evidence. Division, hasty generalization, post hoc, and weak analogy are fallacies in reasoning. Audience members responding to persuasive arguments may also use fallacies, including ad hominem, guilt by association, caricature, and loaded words.


IV.           Persuasive Speaking
A.    Intro to Persuasive Speaking
                                               i.     Understand the characteristics of Persuasive Speaking
                                             ii.     The steps in the persuasive process
                                            iii.     Adapting persuasive messages to differing audiences
                                            iv.     Major persuasive functions
                                              v.     Designs for persuasive functions

B.    Root Principles of Persuasive Speaking
                                               i.     The art of convincing others to give favorable attention to our point of view.
                                             ii.     Persuasion is an integral part of our lives
                                            iii.     Can be ethical or unethical
                                            iv.     Learn how to resist bad persuasion
                                              v.     Lean how to be open to positive persuasion
                                            vi.     Our social and political systems rely on free and open persuasion
1.     Deliberation
a.     Is the central process underlying democracy and bottom up based government and decision making
b.     Is the sign of an open and intelligent mind
c.     Involves an open discussion of all sides of issues before reaching a conclusion.
d.     Requires listening and being open to compromise
e.     Requires thought and being open to ideas, points of view, opposing evidence and change.
2.     Persuasion
a.     Is more ethical than force or coercion
b.     Is practical than force or coercion
3.     The freedom to voice unpopular views produces better decisions.
                                           vii.     Persuasion can be ethical and beneficial
1.     Ethical Persuasion is based on
a.     Sound reasoning
b.     Sensitivity to others
c.     Appeals to people’s better nature
d.     Respect for other cultures
2.     Ethical persuasion
a.     Helps us apply received wisdom to new situations
b.     Helps us apply reasoned knowledge to decision making
c.     Improves the quality and humanity off our commitments
C.    Persuasive speaking differs from informative speaking
                                               i.     Informative reveals and clarifies options
                                             ii.     Persuasive speakers advocate choices among options.
                                            iii.     Informative speakers provide information to enlighten
                                            iv.     Persuasive speaking provide evidence to justify conclusions or recommendations
                                              v.     Informative speaking involves offering education
                                            vi.     Persuasive speaking requires audience committeemen and belief
                                           vii.     Leadership is an important issue in persuasion
                                         viii.     Appears to feeling (Pathos) are more appropriate in persuasion
                                            ix.     Persuasive speakers assume greater ethical responsibilities than informative
                                             x.     Both informative and persuasive can change thoughts and lives.
D.   The five major phases of the persuasive process.
                                               i.     Awareness
1.     Make audiences understand how it impacts their lives
a.     Know about
b.     Understand
c.     Attend to (take action)
2.     Convince audiences
a.     Problem does or does not exist
b.     Impacts their lives directly or indirectly
c.     Is of vital importance for action
                                             ii.     Understanding
1.     Get the point
2.     Be moved by ideas
3.     Know how to carry out ideas
4.     Call or action
5.     Be ethical
a.     Expand out knowledge
b.     Not mislead or twist the truth
c.     Demonstrate how some arguments are stronger than others
d.     Provide evidence in support of proposition
e.     Provide key points to support proposition
f.      Support key points with evidence
g.     Do not harm others or call for harm
                                            iii.     Seek Agreement
1.     Success is measured by degree,
2.     Total success may not be possible
3.     Help audiences find find and remember reasons to agree
4.     Help move compromise toward your position
5.     Present indisputable facts
6.     Present facts that will stand up to criticism and critique
7.     Present well reasoned arguments
8.     present arguments that flow smoothly, easy to follow
9.     Help audience remember the reasons for their agreement
10.  Present arguments where opposition is
i. Minimal
ii. Easy to manage
iii. Not overly resistant to change
                                            iv.     Encourage Action
1.     Call for action
2.     Measurable action is best
a.     Petitions
b.     Signatures
c.     Commitment cards
d.     Voice agreement
e.     Take other action
f.      Vote
g.     Try something new
h.     Etc.
                                              v.     Integrate new attitudes and actions into belief and value systems
1.     Make it easy to modify an existing idea or belief to make room for integrate the new idea or value
2.     Make it enforceable through daily action or commitment
3.     Follow-up (more than once)
4.     Repeat and reinforce message
5.     Help overcome risks
6.     Reinforce benefits over time
7.     New ideas are consistent with
ii.              Cherished values
iii.            Existing beliefs
iv.             Existing attitudes
v.              Etc.
8.     Anticipate and respond to objections
9.     You cannot get the results you want from a single speech, it must be reinforced, repeated, or audience must be encouraged and supported in seeking constant reinforcement
                                            vi.     Successful persuasion is rarely an all or nothing proposition
1.     It takes a series of attempts to “get through”
2.     Speaker ethos is essential
3.     Secondary ethos to support speaker and main points suggested
4.     Pathos and Mythos are powerful proofs in persuasion
5.     It takes reinforcing to set in
6.     Most of the time results need to be perceived quickly
7.     Commitment must be entrenched over time
8.     Must adapt to audience
a.     Anticipated challenges
b.     Anticipated objections
c.     Physical limitations
d.     Other limitations
e.     Needs
f.      Wants
g.     Etc.
E.    Addressing Specific Audiences
                                               i.     Where does the audience stand on the issues or actions
1.     United for or against
2.     Split- and what percentages
3.     Open or fixed
                                             ii.     How will the audience perceive the speaker
1.     Ethos
2.     Perception of motivations for speech
3.     Perception of committeemen to speech
                                            iii.     Give thoughtful consideration to opposing views
                                            iv.     Acknowledge obvious positive points on opposing side
                                              v.     Co-active approach to bridge differences
1.     Establish identification
a.     Stress common attitudes
b.     Stress common beliefs
c.     Stress common values
d.     Etc.
2.     Emphasizes common values
a.     Find things you have in common
b.     Do this prior to addressing points of opposition
3.     Emphasize explanation
a.     Inform
b.     Do this more than argument
4.     Cite authorities and secondary ethos
5.     Cite evidence that is acceptable to the audience
6.     Work to make ethos and evidence fit existing audience values
7.     Set modest goals for change
8.     Make multi-sided presentations
9.     Help those who agree to find ways to resist tendency to reverse or lean toward opposing views or arguments
                                            vi.     Challenge of a strongly opposed audience
1.     Enhance their ethos
a.     Acknowledge their value to you
b.     Acknowledge their values and beliefs
c.     Be honest
d.     Enhance their importance
e.     Request a fair hearing
f.      Etc.
2.     Avoid an overly ambitious proposal
a.     May result in a boomerang effect
3.     Avoid Great Expectations fallacy
a.     Do not hope for change from one speech or action
b.     Do not promise more than you can deliver
c.     Be honest
4.     Do not expect immediate positive response
a.     May be misleading
b.     May not reflect solid commitment
c.     There may be a sleeper effect over time
d.     Etc.
F.    Removing barriers to commitment
                                               i.     Provide all needed information
a.     Avoid overload
b.     Do provide essentials
c.     Offer additional follow-up
d.     Provide where to go for additional information
                                             ii.     Affirm and apply common values
a.     Build bridges
b.     Use values to cement change
                                            iii.     Strengthen credibility
a.     Cite experts the audience can respect and trust
b.     Cite evidence the audience will accept and trust
c.     Appear as open and non-bias as possible
d.     Provide quality information
e.     Be as multi-sided as possible
f.      Etc.
G.   Moving audience or individuals from attitude to action
                                               i.     Provide a personal connection to the problem and proposed solution
                                             ii.     Provide specific actions and follow-up actions
                                            iii.     Propose a plan for change with reinforcement
                                            iv.     Provide the opportunity and window for action
H.   With Reluctant Listeners
                                               i.     Revitalize shared beliefs and values
                                             ii.     Demonstrate the need for involvement
                                            iii.     Demonstrate the need for action
                                            iv.     Use examples and narratives
                                              v.     Use pathos, logos and mythos
                                            vi.     Present a plan of action
                                           vii.     Show the audience why on each step of the plan
                                         viii.     Show the audience how to proceed
                                            ix.     Answer “What’s in it for me?”
                                             x.     Etc.
I.      Three major forms of persuasive speaking
                                               i.     Corresponds to their relative functions
                                             ii.     Speeches addressing attitudes and values
1.     Aimed at forming, reforming or reinforcing what people believe or think they believe
2.     Aimed at forming, reforming or reinforcing how people feel or think they feel about something
3.     Paves the way for speeches urging action
4.     Need to begin with common ground
                                            iii.     Speeches seeking direct response
1.     Goes behind attitude change
2.     Seek individual or Group actions
3.     Provide good reason to overcome caution
                                            iv.     Speeches of contention
1.     May be suitable if audiences are split on a topic
2.     Should target uncommitted listeners
3.     May target reasonable opponents open to change or reform
4.     Use tactful, carefully documented arguments and counter arguments
                                              v.     Speeches that are intended to shock and undermine strongly opposed audiences
1.     Usually a poor choice for action,
2.     But good to start a process of challenge, compromise and change
3.     Use rarely and with caution
4.     Best using Pathos and Mythos
5.     Use of humor should be considered but used carefully
J.     Speeches must select appropriate designs
                                               i.     Can use some or all of the designs or structures utilized in informative speaking
                                             ii.     Categorical can be used to list reasons
                                            iii.     Sequential may be used to show steps in a plan
                                            iv.     Chronological could be used to support reasons for action
                                              v.     Comparative may work well with a speech of contention
K.   Problem-Solution
                                               i.     Convinces audience there is a problem
                                             ii.     Shows audience a probable/ recommended solution
                                            iii.     Shows how to deal with the problem effectively
                                            iv.     Establishes problem exist and is significant
                                              v.     Should offer solutions that are concrete and easy to follow
L.    The stock issue approach
                                               i.     Acknowledges a need for change because of a significant problem
                                             ii.     The elephant in the living room or gorilla in the closet
                                            iii.     Questions that reasonable people are likely to have on their mind
                                            iv.     Addresses the following questions
a.     Is there a need for change because of some significant problem
b.     What is the best solution to the problem
c.     Who will put this solution into effect
                                              v.     Focuses on inherency
a.     Is a harmful effect caused by this problem
b.     Will proposed solutions solve it
c.     To what extent is harm an inevitable part of the situation
d.     How much resistance is there to change
e.     Can change occur without greater damage
M.  Motivated Sequence
                                               i.     An elaboration of sequential and problem-solution design
                                             ii.     Shows reason for each step in the process
                                            iii.     Contains six basic steps (or a variation)
a.     Arousing attention
b.     Demonstrate a need for change
c.     Offer a plan of action
d.     Visualize results
e.     Call for action
f.      Reinforce the action over time
                                            iv.     To use motivated sequence effectively
a.     Consider where audience stands
b.     Focus on appropriate steps
c.     Make actions manageable
d.     Make actions measurable
e.     Reinforce actions
N.   Regulative or Refutive Design
                                               i.     Raises doubt about competing propositions
                                             ii.     Raises attention to competing propositions deficiencies
                                            iii.     Must understand opposing positions before refuting them
                                            iv.     May focus on oppositions
a.     Faulty reasoning
b.     Poor evidence
c.     Self interests
d.     Non substantive solutions
                                              v.     Address the weakest opposing viewpoints first
                                            vi.     Five steps in refuting and argument
a.     State the point to be refuted
b.     Tell how the point will be refuted
c.     Present credible evidence
d.     Interpret the evidence
e.     Explain the significance of the Refutation
                                           vii.     Strengthen regulative positions by supporting counter proposals


Ethical communication provides a foundation for effective public speaking and listening. Ethical speakers present accurate and balanced information, carefully researching their topics, using reliable sources, and adhering to copyright laws. Plagiarism is a particularly pressing ethical problem. By recording the sources for your information, referring to those sources in your speech, and listing each source in a written bibliography, you'll avoid plagiarism. Thoroughly preparing for your presentation, using language appropriate to your audience, and giving your speech in a manner that demonstrates respect for the audience help create a productive communication climate.

Audience members also have ethical responsibilities. Ethical listeners give speakers undivided attention, respect diverse perspectives, and listen to the entire speech before making a final judgment. In addition, both ethical speakers and listeners demonstrate genuine sensitivity to cultural differences.

Effective listening helps speakers and listeners connect comfortably with each other. Lack of commitment, jumping to conclusions, becoming distracted, poor note-taking, and asking inappropriate questions detract from the public speaking experience. When listeners become fully engaged, they create a meaningful dialogue between speaker and audience.

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