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Wednesday, April 16, 2014

Persuasion: How to present a persuasive speech

Persuasion Speech
Definition: The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people’s belief or actions and also -
The art of convincing others to give favorable attention to our point of view

Applications of Persuasion
Small steps easier to achieve
Immediate action required to show commitment to change
Listen and critically review others beliefs before you form, alter, support or change their beliefs
Identify ethics of persuasion

Persuasive Speech should:
Provide information
Use critical thinking
Use communication model
Use proofs and codes
Establish, identify and understand target audience
Persuasive Speech and Specific Purpose

For additional information click on 'read more' below.

Questions of fact

Questions of value

Questions of policy

You need to understand:
The difference between passive agreement and immediate action
Issues of need, plan, and practicality
Structures, designs, or methods of organization
Understand role of demographics and audience analysis
Marketing, advertising and other influences
Relative truth and reasonable knowledge

Forms of Dishonesty
Quoting out of context
Using only a few details as whole story
Misrepresenting or inadequate sources
Leaving out facts of other view
Hiding your bias or view
Misrepresenting your ethos

Power of Language
Respect rights of free speech
Avoid name calling and abusive language
Do not intentionally harm a listener, opponent or opposing group
Do not incite a riot!

Pathos & Emotional Appeal

Supported by Facts

Supported by Logos / Logic

Challenges & Complexity

Challenges beliefs, values, attitudes & cultures

Some will not or cannot be persuaded

Have realistic goals

Process of Persuasion
Psychological Process

Some listeners will not or can not be persuaded

Mental give and take or conversation

Listening is not passive, but active

Process of Persuasion
Ethos and source ethos as part of acceptance and rejection

Delivery, appearance, supporting material, language, situation

Tendency of listener to argue and question

Process of Persuasion
Judgments and decisions being made:
Ongoing, wide range of levels and issues
Flexible or open

Your “Mental” Dialogue
Question everything, and be reasonable
Put yourself in others place
Understand goals, motivations, cultures, noise, screen, filters, interpretation of codes, backgrounds
Anticipate objections
Answer unasked questions & objections

Target Audience
Who can be influenced, what part or portion message intended for?
Those who agree, tend toward agreement, agree on other issues
Can be influenced by ethos
Open to persuasion
Reasonable & responsible, who may initially disagree

More Target Audience
Those who disagree but will accept new information

Those who disagree but willing to listen

Critical thinkers

Adapting to Audience
Adapt speech to fit needs and answer questions of target audience
But do not exclude or ignore others
Do not attack, insult
Keep in mind ideas and feelings of every segment
Encourage audience to have open mind

More adapt to audience
Do not be afraid to challenge audience to think

Do not be afraid to confront

Questions of Fact
Certainty, easily defined, seldom disputed (earth revolves around sun)

Facts of view, not certain (old age is difficult)

Suppositions or projections can be facts of view

Questions of Value
Judgments based on beliefs:

Right or Wrong

True or False

Good or Bad

Moral or Immoral

Questions of Value
Can have a “graduated scale”:
seek to alter or move audience
show scale is not valid
Speaker needs to justify value judgment by:
Define & use clearly defined standards
Define speakers standards
Judge subject of speech against standards
Work toward audience understanding and looking at speech using those standards
Usually organized topically

Questions of Policy
Specific course or plan of action
Generally involves fact
May involve value
Always goes beyond fact and value
All plans can be altered
Be willing to adapt feedback to “sell” greater policy or goals

Policy Type 1
To gain passive agreement

Desirable, necessary or practical

Aim is to affect thinking

No immediate action necessary

Policy Type 2
Aim to take immediate action
Get audience to something specific
Make sure recommendation is specific
Make sure recommendation can be taken as soon as possible
Make sure the recommendation supports larger policy or goal

Differences with Informative “The Eye of the Beholder”
Informative seeks to be impartial
Persuasion has bias, view, stance
Speaker’s interpretation of facts, individual and cumulative is key
Facts organized topically in persuasive
Any fact can be disputed with other facts or proofs

More on Differences
Informative reveals & clarifies
Persuasive advocates choices
Persuasive provides evidence to justify conclusions or recommendations
Informative offers education
Persuasive involves commitment & belief

Yet More…
Leadership important for persuasion
Appeals to feeling (pathos) more important in persuasion
Persuasive speakers assume greater ethical responsibilities

Both can change thoughts and lives

Must Address Basic Issues
There is a plan
Plan or issue practical
Best option or action one presented by speaker
Will make a difference
Can be done in class for assignment

Patterns of Organization, Designs, Structures
Problem - Solution
Convinces audience of problem
Shows audience solution
Show how to deal effectively, a plan
Establishes problem exists, is significant
Should offer solutions - concrete, easy
Advocates a change to solve or mitigate

Problem - Cause - Solution
Establish a problem, show cause, and show how to solve the problem, given cause
Show existence of problem
Analyze probable causes
Present a solution
Solution fights cause, not just symptoms

Comparative Advantages
Most effective when audience already agrees with need for change

Devote time to show why propose plan or policy is preferable over other solutions

Another Pattern: Refutative Design
Raises doubt about competing propositions
Raises attention to competing propositions deficiences
Must understand opposing positions
May focus on oppositions faulty reasoning, poor evidence, self interest, non substantive solutions
Address weakest oppsing views first

Five Steps in Refuting and Argument
State the point to be refuted
Tell how the point will be refuted
Present credible evidence
Interpret the evidence
Explain significance of refutation

Monroe Motivated Sequence
Gain attention of the audience
Show the need for change
Satisfy the need by presenting plan
Visualize benefits and practicality of plan
Urge audience to take action in support of plan

Elaboration of sequential & problem solving design
Show reason for each step in process
Arousing attention
Demonstrate need for change
Offer a plan of action
Visualize results
Call for action
Reinforce action over time

Effective Use of Monroe’s Sequence
Consider where audience stands
Focus on appropriate steps
Make actions managable
Make actions measurable
Reinforce actions

Stock Issue Approach
Acknowledges need for change because of significant issue
“Elephant in room” or “Gorilla in closet”
Raises questions reasonable people have
Address if there is a need for change, what is best solution, and who will effect change

More on Stock Issue: Inherency
Is a harmful effect caused by problem?
Will solutions solve it?
To what extent is harm part of situation?
How much resistance to change?
Can change occur without greater damage?

Persuasion and Ethics
Ethical goals

Research, study, understand topic

Do not mislead

Learn all sides

Be factual, honest, integrity of belief

Present evidence fairly and accurately

Ethical Persuasion is Based On
Sound Reasoning

Sensitivity to others

Appeal to others better nature

Respect for others culture

Ethics also
Helps us apply received wisdom to new situations
Helps us apply reasoned knowledge to decision making
Improves the quality and humanity of our commitments
We’re Almost Done!
Can get an A - attend, notes, feedback & participation, form study groups, read
Must speak on assigned day
Focus on details: outlline, APA, narrative, tumbmail / presentation outline, presentation aids, extemporaneous delivery, points on eval sheets Still Get an

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