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Thursday, May 31, 2012

Fallacies of Argumentation

Fallacies
An error in reasoning

For a list and summary of the major fallacies of argumentation click on 'read more' below.


Neutral in ethics

Dangerous to use


Red Herring
Definition:

A fallacy that introduces
Irrelevant issues
To divert attention from the subject under discussion

Ad Hominem
Definition:
To make human,
A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue
To divert attention through personal attack.

False Dichotomy
Either-or
A fallacy that forces listeners
To choose between two alternatives
When more than two alternatives exits.

Can divert from actual alternative or cause.

Polarizes audience
Used to solidify “right and wrong”,
“for or against.”

Bandwagon
A fallacy that assumes
that because something is popular
it is therefore good.

Group think

Mob mentality

Slippery Slope
A fallacy that assumes
that taking a first step
will lead to subsequent steps
that cannot be prevented.

False assumption that if this happens than there is a 100% certainty that a series of subsequent event will occur.



Hasty Generalization
Jumping from specific to general
On the basis of insufficient evidence

False assumption that if a specific events cause is true, than all similar events must have the same or similar causes.



Invalid Analogy
An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike

Making parallels between things that may not be parallel or alike



False Cause
Assuming that if one event follows another, there must be a cause and effect.

“Post hoc”, “Ergo proper hoc”

“After this, therefore because of this.”

Jumping to the conclusion of cause without proper evidence of a causal effect.

2 comments:

Anonymous said...

This is definitely a great help for review before the final. Thanks!

Anonymous said...

previous by
Danielle Davis Com4041
Sorry!