Thank you Jillian!
Speech Notes (Partial)
Semantic Noise~ any noise that disrupts the symbols being expressed (i.e. language)
(For the model used in class, and on the tests, refer to Jillian's Notes on Angel under Course Content, Resources and Study Material, 16. Reviews, Jillian's Notes. The following are alternative ways of conceptualizing and understanding the basic communication model.)
Transmitter, sender, encodes message to the Receiver, audience, who decodes the message. The message is sent along a channel (media) and is disrupted by noise, interference, and screens. Three types- internal (thoughts, how you feel inside), external (things that happen outside of the body that you can’t control), and cultural (everything else that makes you-you!) When the Receiver becomes the transmitter, they are sending feedback. Same filters, screens, and interference will/can occur.
Informant message is also known as Feedback.
Alphabet is also known as sybols or codes.
*Communication is transactional, ongoing, and constant… it is universal, dynamic & always changing*
2 Main points of an intro speech~ build enthusiasm for a speaker & the audience
Impromptu Speech~ be as specific as possible, use what you know
Prep time~ arrange thoughts & prep (for Impromptu), organize quickly & clearly
Recency~ using the most current information, facts, stats, etc., listeners deserve to know
Cognitive restructuring: change the way your brain thinks
Podding: the process of seeking out the information that you want to see/hear. Being bias and looking only for things that will support your beliefs. (won’t allow contradictions)
Cacooning: similar to podding, but shutting yourself off (out) to everything around you. (won’t allow disruptions)
Absolute Truth: (Plato) there are truths that just are & you can’t explain them (fundamental) those who don’t have absolute beliefs just don’t get it.
Relative Truth: (Socrates) truth changes over time, can be interpreted differently. There are levels to truth and gray areas. (Relativism) Lets all agree to disagree/ compromise
Semantic: lack of clarity about what your words/ symbols mean ( “I love you”)
State anxiety: uneasiness caused by a situation, such as speaking in front of an audience
Presumption~ the belief that most people, most of the time are comfortable with the way that the status quo is functioning
Demographics: numbers, collected & used to identify an individual, group, or market (collected data) 2 Most Common: Age & Sex, then Psychographic (everything else)
Verbal- words (actual)
Vocal- how words are said (singing for example to the Greeks)
Visual- anything else that you see/hear
Proofs: (why people can be convinced of things)
Ethos~ credibility, perception of power
Mythos~ culturally held beliefs
Proposition- main point, or thesis
Generalization~ An inadequate number of examples to warrant the claim
Sign~ An inadequate number of indicants to warrant the claim
Cause~ A claim that a partial cause id entirely to blame for something
Analogy~ An unwarranted comparison in which you are comparing things that are not alike.
Authority~ A belief that citing an authority decides an argument or citing testimony outside of the authority’s field of competence.
Principle~ Applying a general statement to which it was not intended to be applied
Shifting the burden of proof~ Arguing that the opponent must disprove your claim
Irrelevant Reason~ Arguing a reason that it is irrelevant to the claim
False Dichotomy~ An argument that invalidly divides the world into two parts
Slippery Slope~ Arguing that one action will inevitable lead to similar, but less desirable actions
Fallacy of Qualifier~ An argument that neglects to identify its criteria for evaluation of fails to qualify its claim.
Fact- (proposition of) statement that asserts a particular claim to be a certainty
Value- (proposition of) statement that declares a principle, standard, or moral claim
Policy- (proposition of) statement that outlines a specific course of action
Graphs ~ bar- useful in comparing and contrasting items and information
~ line- used to illustrate changes or growth over time
~ pie- shows relationships among parts
~ mountain- when you want to accentuate the differences in a line graph, you fill in the spaces in between the lines and create this
Purposes of visual aids: emphasize key points, break down complex information, help people in the audience with different learning style.
*An informative speech MAY be persuasive, but a persuasive MUST be informative*
Why do you pause during a speech? ~ emphasize a point
~ allow time for laughter
*According to the book, you shouldn’t use contradictions such as “can’t” and “don’t” during your speech, it takes away from the strength of the “NOT”*
*85% of the population have a fear (anxiety) of public speaking*
Persuasives speeches must inform
Informative speeches may persuade
Education is repetition
3 types of Informative Speeches
1. Hands stay @ sides, natural and relaxed
2. Raise hand/hands above waist level to emphasize A point.
When choosing a topic:
~ appropriate to the audience (make them want to listen-“What’s in it for me?”)
~ appropriate to the room (setting)
~ appropriate to the environment
~ Time limit (length of the speech- too much info?)
~ Something new (not boring or the same old news)
Designs for speeches:
• categorical- divided by category, grouping like things together
• causation- divided by the cause
~ problem solving solution- sales people use
~ problem cause solution- establish problem & then come up w/a solution
~ cause solution- here’s A, now here’s how we get to B
• sequential- in sequence (order)
~ motivated sequence (have to)- why it’s in a particular order
~ chronological- time
~ sequence- easy to follow
• refutative- go against (refute) the norms, shoot holes in the other side
• spatial- distance, comparing relationships by size
• stock issue- elephant in the living room, gorilla in the closet. *issues most people are most likely to be thinking about*
• comparative- comparing A to B (i.e. cell phones) this is not helpful unless you truly know what you need.
EYE Contact~ distributed, sustained for at least ½ a second, don’t stare at just one person and avoid the lighthouse affect *Don’t talk to the wall, floor, notecards, visuals, the podium or God.*
Dogmatism- rigidity of belief
Ethnocentrism- tendancy of a group (culture) to believe that its way of thinking or doing things is somehow better then anyone elses. (i.e. religions & freedoms)
Bias~ tendency to feel one way or another about something, opinion changes often
Prejudice~ PRE-judged, not always bad, you have prejudged something to the point that your opinion may never change.
Stereotype~ assuming because you look a certain way or do a certain job that you fit one mold, profile
Empathetic listening is listening to provide emotional support
Comprehensive listening required the listener to understand the message
Physiological~ Body (heart rate, sweating, dry mouth, etc)
Psychological~ Mind (losing your train of thought, unable to think clearly, etc)
Connotative meanings for words or phrases are emotional and subjective
Denotative words carry little or no emotional Impact, and simply describe solid objects or ideas, the dictionary meaning
Audience Adaptation~ ability to modify your message to meet the needs of your listeners.
Idioms or idiomatic expressions are phrases that carry peculiar or particular meanings for a particular culture or group.
Egocentrism refers to the reality that people pay closer attention to issues that affect them
Assimilation~ the tendency to feel that someone you in general agree with or who has an ethos help positive to you has views closer to your own then they actually are, and to accept those views without question as being the same as your own.
Surveys are not evidence. They are tools to use in understanding an issue, audience, and concept or to estimate response, information, and tendencies. In other words they are ways to take the temperature of a particular group or environment at a particular time. Polls are a form of surveys.
Claims- a statement that you want your audience to understand, think about, and act upon. (the points you want your audience to get)
Evidence- 5 major types, information used to clarify or support a claim
~ statistics- raw numbers, central tendencies, probabilities, trends
~ testimony- relies on the expertise of others
~examples- stories real or hypothetical, include events, people, or objects that illustrate your claim
~ principles- some kind of truth or some kind of guideline for behavior
~ emotional appeals- efforts to motivate an audience by stimulating their needs and drives.
Priming is the concept form psychology that says we are better able to receive information if we are first prepared for it
Status Quo refers to the current system or status of events or beliefs
The Burdon of proof is on the speaker or sender. The text refers to Burdon of proof as the speaker’s responsibility for creating a solid argument supported by evidence and research.
Directory~ Non academic (i.e. Encyclopedia, National Geographic)
Secondary~ school text book or other books, tv, or radio reports. Not juried or researched, typically NOT academic. Info is just being presented
Primary~ Straight from the source (the horse’s mouth), from someone or something that was “there”, documents, autobiography, BBC, .gov sites, ONLY 2 newspapers~ Wall Street Journal & New York Times
Juried~ checked for truth, scientific journals for example
Liberal- Pro change
Conservative- resistant to change
Narrative Coherence: is “it” logical, does “it” make sense?
Narrative Fidelity: does the story “ring true”?
*According to the book~ you write the body of the speech first, then the conclusion and last the introduction*
First posted 12-14-2006