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Friday, April 24, 2009

Unit 15: Final Review Continued

Unit 15 Final Review continued

Art Lynch, Com 101
Spring 2010

Time
Informative and Persuasive Speech Preparation Review
Final Review Part III
General Success in the final stretch of the term
Listening and Critical Thinking (reviewed for persusive speeches)
Ceremonial and Special Event Speaking
Informative Speech Review (from week 9 notes)
Informative Speech Requirements (from week 10)
Persuasive Speech Review (from week 11 notes)

Make Goods
Extra Credit
Final Exam Study Review



I.               Time is tight.
A.   No cross talk and side conversations
B.    Keep noise/ interefereance / screens / filters to a minimum
C.    No guarentee of make-good
1.     Make goods come only when time is available after scheduled speeches
2.     You must be ready when called, even on make-goods
3.     Be ready every day for your make-good
D.   Class starts at the start time of the class. Do not enter late.
E.    Attendance for the term does count for and against you (see syllabus
1.     Some of you will be surprised with your final grade if you missed too many classes
2.     Others will see their grade ease higher if you did attend
3.     Extra credit is encouraged
F.    Use Web CT e-mail to request more detailed feedback than given in class
G.   There will be no W’s unless you already arranged it (week after taking midterm) so you will all receive the grade you earn based on the points you earned for the term.
H.   Missed work is a zero.

II.             As you prepare your Informative and Persuasive Speeches be sure to:
A.   Reread the chapters on each type of speech
B.    Review the Speech Evaluation Forms (on home page of your Web CT)
C.    Review notes from previous weeks concerning each type of speech
D.   Review notes from prevsious weeks concerning expectations for each speech
E.    Review your syllabus
F.    Remember academic requirements are key to your grade
1.     Scholary, juried, academic sources
2.     Proper outline notation format
3.     Proper use of APA inside the outline
4.     Proper use of APA in the References
5.     Show all references you used inside the outline
6.     Proper presentation or thumbnail
7.     Proper narrative or abstract
8.     Notecards limited to your key point presentation outline
9.     Proper use of visual aids (and proper quality)
a.     Check aids prior to class
b.     Wing it and have backup if your aids do not work
c.     Visual, Sound, Smell, other aids may be used
10.  Proper structure or design used (and used well)
11.  Make it interesting
12.  Make it fun!

III.           Final Exam Review- Part III: General Success for final stretch of term
A.   Attendance is now crucial, for your success and the success of your fellow students
B.    Being ready on the day you signed up for, or were “volunteered” for is essential, as there is no guarantee of make-good time
C.    Extra Credit is suggested as insurance on your grade (see notes in previous weeks and syllabus)
D.   Review all previous notes to date
E.    Reread the textbook in full
F.    Rehearse all speeches until fully prepared
G.   Follow the syllabus
H.   Follow suggestions in weekly review notes
I.      Follow suggestions in lecture
J.     Learn from the positive and negative feedback to your previous presentations
K.   Learn from the presentations of others
L.    Be sure to read the questions carefully
M.  Look for answers in other questions
N.   Be sure to review your midterm notes
O.   Ask questions in class
P.    Read or review the Discussion postings on Web CT
Q.   Review the Handouts on Web CT

IV.            Listening and Critical Thinking (Review for persuasion)
A.   Improving your listening skills
1.     Be conscious of your own listening behavior and problems
2.     Motivate yourself to listen constructively
3.     Motivate yourself to listen for longer periods of time
4.     Be prepared to listen by paying attention
5.     Put your problems and bias aside
6.     Control your reactions
a.     Recognize and control inattention
b.     Identify your own trigger words
c.     Postpone critical evaluations and judgment until after the message has been heard
d.     Be open to change or at least acknowledging disagreement as positive and a part of society
7.     Expand your attention span
8.     Listen for main ideas, information
9.     Understand and find the structure and organization of the speaker
10.  Understand the background and motivations of the speaker
11.  Focus on the message and not on extraneous factors
B.    Using Constructive listening Skills
1.     Consider whether and how the speech draws you closer to the speaker
2.     Consider whether and how the speech draws you closer to other members of the audience
3.     Consider whether and how the speech challenges your belief structure
4.     Consider whether and how the speech recommends or supports change
5.     Consider the impact of the message on other people
6.     Does the message stimulate you to think?
7.     How might the speech relate to your life?
8.     What ideas or possibilities does the speech raise in your mind that the speaker may not have considered?
9.     How can you put the information in the speech to use in your own life?
10.  Is it worth follow-up?
C.    Using Critical Thinking Skills
1.     Are the speakers claims supported by
a.     Facts
b.     Statistics
c.     Testimony
d.     Examples
e.     Narratives
2.     How does the speaker use
a.     Ethos
b.     Logos
c.     Mythos
d.     Pathos
3.     How effectively does the speaker use the codes
a.     Verbal
b.     Vocal
c.     Visual
4.     Are the supporting materials
a.     Relevant
b.     Recent
c.     Reliable
d.     Believable
5.     Are the sources of information cited credible?
6.     Does the speaker distinguish among facts, inferences, and opinions?
7.     Is the language clear and concrete?
8.     Does the language seem purposely
a.     Vague
b.     Incomprehensible
c.     Manipulative
d.     Incomplete
9.     Does the message ask you to ignore reason
10.  Does the message appeal primarily to your
a.     Ethos
b.     Pathos
c.     Logos
d.     Mythos
11.  Does the speaker’s conclusion follow logically from the information that precedes it?
12.  Does the speaker make outlandish promises or claims?
13.  Does the message fit with what you already know about the topic?
14.  Does the message help you answer “what’s in it for me?

V.             Ceremonial and Special Event Speaking
A.   Celebrates the sharing of identifies, values and aspirations that unite people into communities.
B.    Answers four basic questions
1.     Who are we
2.     Why are we
3.     What have we accomplished
4.     What can we become together
C.    Spotlights the speaker
D.   Allows leadership qualities to be put on display
E.    Affirms values
F.    Comforts, celebrates, acknowledges, affirms and unifies.
G.   Relies heavily on identification and magnification
1.     Identification
a.     Invokes narratives related to group activities or traditions
b.     Recognizes group heroes
c.     Renews group identity
2.     Magnification amplifies
a.     Overcoming obstacles
b.     Superior or unusual accomplishments
c.     Pure and unselfish motives
d.     Benefits to society
H.   Ceremonial includes tribute, ac acceptance, introduction, inspiration, and after-dinner
I.      Speeches of Tribute
1.     Includes Eulogies, Wedding toast and other items discussed separately in this outline (for detailing purposes only).
2.     Should be honest and sincere
3.     Should be accurate (fact check or get copy approval in advance).
4.     Should be appropriate to the event or context of the speech
5.     Should not embarrass honoree
6.     Should not exaggerate accomplishments
7.     Should focus on the honoree not the speaker or anyone else
8.     May create vivid images of accomplishment through narratives and examples
9.     May reflect sincerity, warmth, pride and appreciation.
J.     Award Presentations
1.     Explain the nature of the award
2.     Explain how the recipient earned it
3.     Passing award (general rule, may be altered)
a.     May hold in left hand
b.     Pass to recipients left hand
c.     Shake hands with your right hand
K.   Eulogies
1.     Tributes delivered upon the death of an individual
2.     Honor the individual in positive ways
3.     Use pathos, ethos and mythos
4.     Should be appropriate for the family or audience
L.    Toast
1.     The main speech of a tribute
2.     Should be eloquent
3.     Must be planned in advance
4.     Should be practiced
5.     May be memorized or extemporaneous
6.     Should be kept short or manageable
7.     Best if kept brief.
M.  Speech of Commemoration
1.     Usually for a holiday, important event, memorial or historic tribute
2.     Remind the audience of the background of the day or event
3.     Draw conclusions about the significance of the event
4.     Inspire the audience
5.     Use Pathos, Mythos and Ethos (usually in that order)
6.     Be appropriate to the tone and environment of the event
7.     Be well rehearsed, memorized or extemporaneous
N.   Speeches of Acceptance
1.     Are presented by recipients of awards or honors
2.     Should be modest
3.     Should express gratitude
4.     Should thank those who gave you the award
5.     Should thank fellow nominees or other finalist
6.     Should acknowledge those who made it possible
7.     Should recognize the values the award or honor represents
8.     Should match the dignity and formality of the occasion
9.     Should keep the audience and event in mind
10.  Brief is preferred, however the contest of the ceremony will dictate if longer is requested or suggested
O.   Speeches of Introduction
1.     Structure suggested by text
a.     Use and attention getting device
b.     Address the audience
c.     Identify accomplishments
d.     Introduce the speaker
2.     Welcome the speaker
3.     Draw attention to the main speaker
4.     Build enthusiasm for the speaker
5.     Should be brief, or as short as appropriate to the event
6.     Strengthen the speakers ethos
7.     Should not embarrass primary speaker
8.     Should not exaggerate accomplishments
9.     Should orient the audience          to the subject or speaker
10.  Should create anticipation
11.  Should build enthusiasm and anticipation for the topic
12.  Should not preview the speech
13.  Should focus on the speaker
14.  May create vivid images of accomplishment through narratives and examples
15.  May reflect sincerity, warmth, pride and appreciation.
P.    Speeches of Inspiration
1.     Help audiences pursue a goal, purpose, or set of values and beliefs
2.     Help audiences to appreciate subject
3.     Help audiences to committee to action or ideas
4.     Help audiences to pursue what they believe in
5.     Other
Q.   After Dinner Speaker
1.     May be referred to as a speech to entertain
2.     Should not be a stand-up comedy routine
3.     May use your natural speaking voice / tone
4.     Consider using multiple types of humor, including
a.     Irony
b.     Exaggeration
c.     Sarcasm (within limits)
d.     Puns
e.     Props
f.      Attacking authority
g.     Use of “them” and “we” or “us”
h.     Self deprecation
i.      Or a humors presentation tone
j.      All with moderation and restraint (as needed)
5.     Should be non-controversial
6.     Should be positive in tone
7.     In most cases should use humor
8.     Should not attack, embarrass or insult individuals or groups
9.     Should be carefully planned, developed and presented
R.    The role of a Master of Ceremonies
1.     Introduces participants
2.     May present Awards
3.     Sets the tone for the event
4.     Should keep the program moving
5.     Should be entertaining
6.     Should plan a good opener for the program
7.     Should be prepared to handle unexpected change or occurrences
8.     Should be prepared to introduce the participants
9.     Should know and follow the time table
10.  Should plan comments ahead of time
11.  Should practiced their presentations
12.  Should be open to change
13.  May be primarily extemporaneous
14.  Should end the program on a positive note

VI.           Informative Speaking Review (from Week 9 notes)
A.   Goal to share or convey knowledge and/or information
B.    Can be persuasive in that it provides new information
1.     Goal is not to persuade
2.     But any knowledge can shift a persons perspectives
3.     Should educate but not advocate
4.     Avoid words such as “should” or “ought” or “need”
C.    Is about sharing knowledge and ideas
1.     For mutual understanding
2.     Social or Political purpose
a.     Why is its importance for your audience
b.     What will be gained through this information
c.     How does it effect or interact with human priorities
d.     How does it effect or interact with the human condition
3.     Education and Enrichment
a.     How will audience benefit
b.     Will it improve understanding
c.     Will it result in a better life or world
d.     How does it interface with other information
4.     Present reasonable knowledge
5.     Present responsible knowledge
6.     Present balances information
7.     Persuasive only in
a.     Advancing information base
b.     No strong point of view
c.     No call for action
d.     Balanced and as unbiased as possible
D.   Sharing ideas and information is an integral part of the human condition
1.     Only human being have the linguistic and cognitive ability to accumulate, transmit and utilize complex information
2.     Shared information is essential to human progress and survival
3.     Information is a powerful commodity for individual success

E.    Speeches that are primarily informative perform four basic functions
1.     Share information and ideas to teach and enhance understanding
2.     Reasonable knowledge to share information effectively
3.     Value can be considered on how new information is to audience
a.     Is topic significant enough for audience to care
b.     How much does audience already know about topic
c.     What more does the audience need to know
d.     Does speaker have significant enough understanding to communicate accurately with the audience
e.     Why should the audience listen
f.      How does it relate to other issues of importance to listeners
g.     Informative function to adapt information to the listeners
4.     Informative speeches can persuade
a.     By providing information that may shape perspectives or decisions
b.     By being selective in what is presented
c.     Though the bias of the speaker or editor
d.     By favoring or suggesting on interpretation over others
e.     By distorting information
f.      By interpreting the information for the listener
g.     By adding to the information library of the listener
h.     By providing new ideas and perspectives to the listener
i.      By properly navigating the Nose/filters of the receiver
j.      Information can shape the agenda or priority of decision makers
k.     Information can shape agendas or perspectives by preparing or laying the groundwork for future efforts to persuade.
l.      Information can clarify options
F.    Ethical speaking involves
1.     Responsible knowledge
2.     Reasonable knowledge
3.     Covers all major reasonable options
4.     Covers all responsible options
5.     Is fair
6.     Is objective
7.     Keeps in mind the effect on the listeners
8.     Takes responsibility for the effect and response of listeners
G.   Learning principles can enhance the effectiveness of informative speaking
1.     Motivate to learn
a.     Relate topic to the needs and interests of the listeners
b.     Use direct examples and narratives
2.     Techniques to attract and sustain audience interest
a.     Intensity of language
b.     Artful repetition of key words, phrases, sounds, phrases
c.     Acronyms
d.     Novelty
e.     Physical activity
f.      Verbal activity
g.     Strong presentation aids (well used)
h.     Contrast (works because opposites attract attention)
i.      Vocal changes
j.      Stress relevance
k.     Invoke ideas and interests
3.     Information is useless unless the audience retains it
4.     Techniques for retention
a.     Repetition
b.     Key points
c.     Relevance (what’s in it for me: WIIFM)
d.     Well organized
e.     Use of visuals
f.      Use of acronyms
g.     Humor
H.   Four major types of informative speaking
1.     Description
a.     Paint a clear picture of activities, objects, people, places
b.     Rely heavily on artful language use
c.     Commonly use special, categorical, comparative designs
d.     A mental picture of a topic, person, place, activity, etc.
e.     Drawing or creating a picture with words
2.     Demonstration
a.     Aim for understanding or Application
b.     Usually use sequential design
c.     Visual aids are usually required or desirable
d.     Show how it is done and often why
e.     An explanation of a specific process
f.      Actually shows how to do something
3.     Explanation
a.     Appropriate for complex or abstract applications
b.     Define critical terms
c.     Offer Examples and/or non-examples
d.     Seek the understanding of the audience
e.     May show how something works
f.      May show why something works
4.     Briefings
a.     Short explanations or descriptions
b.     Presented in an organized setting
c.     Brief and to the point
d.     Organized with audience in mind
e.     Organized with situational need in mind
f.      Organized with need to know in mind
g.     Rely on verified facts, figures, testimony
h.     Use short examples
i.      Presented with confidence
j.      Deal with questions forthrightly and honestly
k.     Be as informed as possible with questions in mind
I.      Designs/ Organization structures
1.     See previous week’s note postings
2.     See textbook (as always)
3.     Use appropriate and best design for your topic / goals
4.     All designs may be used but the four best for informative are
a.     Spatial
b.     Sequential
c.     Categorical
d.     Comparative
e.     Causation
5.     Spatial Design
a.     Effective for describing places, locations or locating subjects within a physical setting
b.     Ordered by physical location or size, or special relationship or connection
c.     Determine a starting point and proceed in an orderly manner
d.     Complete patterns of descriptions to satisfy an audience need for closure
6.     Sequential Design
a.     Move audiences through time
b.     Effective for showing times steps
c.     Effective for showing change over time
d.     Effective for placing in historical perspective
e.     See previous notes and text for types of sequential design
f.      Includes random sequence, sequence, motivated sequence and chronological designs
g.     Chronological puts main points in order of time
h.     Sequential orders main points in terms of place in a particular process or puts them into a numbered order so that the audience may follow a process
7.     Categorical Design
a.     Appropriate for subjects with natural or customary divisions
b.     Suggested that 2 to 5 categories be used
c.     Begin and end with the most interesting categories
d.     Tie category relationships together
e.     See previous notes and text for additional information
f.      Main points do not have to have an inherent relation to each other
8.     Comparative Designs
a.     Helpful with new, abstract or difficult subjects
b.     Helpful for describing changes
c.     Helpful contrasting differing issues and proposals
d.     Best to relate one topic to something the audience already understands
e.     There are three types of comparative design
1.     A literal analogy draws subjects from the same field of expertise
2.     A figurative analogy draws subjects form differing fields of expertise
3.     Comparison and contact design points to similarities and/or differences
9.     Causation Design
a.     Explains a situation, condition, or event in terms of the causes that led up to it.
b.     See previous notes and text for types of causation design
J.     Steps in preparation for an informative speech
1.     Brainstorm on topic selection
2.     Select and analyze a topic
a.     choose a worthwhile topic
b.     Choose a topic you care about
c.     Choose a topic that can meet the requirements for the speech assignment or situation
d.     Adapt your topic so that it is interesting and relevant
e.     Limit your topic to something that can be handled in the time, situation or environment provided for the speech
f.      Determine, private and public purpose
g.     Determine thesis (proposed, be open to change)
3.     Develop responsible knowledge on the subject
a.     Review what you already know
b.     Use the library to expand what you know’
c.     Use other research tools to develop your knowledge
d.     Seek out the required amount of academic and non-academic sources
e.     Gather evidence including:
f.      Find facts, figures, testimony, examples and narratives to add substance to your speech
4.     Adapt the topic to the audience
5.     Organize your materials
a.     Select the proper structure
b.     Determine your main points
c.     Usually select between two and five key points
d.     Arrange the points to make the speech flow and easy to understand or follow
e.     Write the conclusion
f.      Write the introduction
6.     Outlining
a.     Prepare a formal outline (with sources shown)
b.     Make sure formal outline is detailed and reflects all of your research
c.     Shorten the outline
d.     Prepare a key word / key note / thumbnail presentation outline
e.     Write it out on note cards
f.      Practice, practice, practice
g.     Reduce the number of note cards if possible
7.     Practice
a.     At least ten times, more if possible
b.     Practice using presentation aids
c.     Keep potential audience, environment, situation in mind.

VII.         Informative Speech
A.   Read chapters 6 to 12, 14, and chapter 16 in the text
B.    Review Week 9 and previous notes that have to do with
1.     Informative speaking
2.     Research
3.     Referencing
4.     Outlining
5.     Delivery
6.     Other
C.    Review the evaluation sheet for Informative Speech located on Web Ct
D.   Make a checklist of the requirements for the speech (requirements are in your syllabus, also under “handouts” or “syllabus” on Web Ct).
E.    Make sure all paper submitted to the instructor includes
1.     The assignment title (information speech)
2.     Your name
3.     Your section number
4.     Com 101
5.     And is typeset per syllabus and college requirements
F.    Watch your time length
1.     6 to 8 minutes
2.     Shoot for 6 to 7 minutes to be safe
3.     Time your speech and make sure it is on time
4.     Automatic 50 points off if long or short
5.     Rehearse often
6.     Rehearse with presentation aids
7.     If possible rehearse in classroom (at a minimum placement and use of visual aids)
8.     Relax
G.   Is the issue or concept new or interesting to the audience
1.     Make it interesting
2.     Find new ideas, concepts or information
3.     Bring information to current, relate to current
H.   Must have
1.     Strong introduction,
2.     Clear thesis,
3.     Supportive body
4.     And a clear engaging conclusion
I.      Main points
1.     Each must be supported by appropriate source
2.     Primary support sources must be clear to the audience
3.     All sources must be shown in the outline and references
4.     Support sources must be used for secondary ethos, etc.
J.     Reflect Reasonable Balanced Knowledge
1.     Avoid being one sided
2.     Be able to answer questions
3.     Do complete college level research
K.   Must be as objective as possible
1.     Use but filter and admit any personal bias
2.     Use but filter and point our any source bias
3.     Try to look at issue objectively
4.     Try not to advocate or persuade
L.    Is your outline full and complete
1.     Every detail you researched
2.     Another person could give a speech from it
3.     Easy to read
4.     References shown inside outline in APA format
5.     All references shown under “references” are also used in the outline
6.     Do you have the required minimum of 5 academic references
7.     Are references from multiple sources
8.     Are references diverse (not all internet or books)
9.     Are your non-academic references listed
10.  It is a good idea to be safe and have additional references
11.  Double check APA format in references and within outline
M.  Is your thumbnail a short presentation format, as required
1.     All you should have with you when you speak are note cards showing (at the most) what is in the textbook as a “presentation outline.”
2.     Name and section number on document
N.   Is you narrative a short “abstract”
1.     Find a few “abstracts” or journals (use CCSN on-line library or go to UNLV stacks).
2.     The narrative is a short abstract for your speech
3.     Include your thesis statement, your main body points or a summary of your speech, and your conclusion. It need not be longer than three sentences to no more than a page (double spaced).
O.   Presentation must be extemporaneous
1.     Must appear to not use notes
2.     Presentation, Thumbnail notes are allowed
3.     Eye contact is critical
4.     Proper use of all aids
5.     Conversational in tone
6.     React to and communicate with your audience
7.     See speech evaluation sheet on Web CT
8.     Read applicable sections in the textbook
P.    Bibliography is called References under APA and is included at the end of your full outline per APA format.
1.     5 or more points off for each missed academic reference
2.     Points will be take off for incorrect format on APA
3.     Help from Purdue on-line
4.     Help from information in your text
5.     Help from other links under handouts
6.     Help from writing center at CCSN
7.     Help from others in the class
8.     Help from APA guides on sale in bookstore
9.     Other
Q.   Presentation Aids
1.     At least 3
2.     At least one must be visual
3.     5 or more points off for each missed or poor presentation aid
4.     Suggested you not rely exclusively on any one type of aid
(For example, not all power point or all posters).
R.    Creativity, ingenuity, fresh approach, how you engage the audience will all be considered in determining final points on the speech

VIII.       Informative Speech Requirements (reviewed from week 10 notes)
A.   Read chapters 6 to 12, 14, and chapter 16 in the text
B.    Review Week 9 and previous notes that have to do with
1.     Informative speaking
2.     Research
3.     Referencing
4.     Outlining
5.     Delivery
6.     Other
C.    Review the evaluation sheet for Informative Speech located on Web Ct
D.   Make a checklist of the requirements for the speech (requirements are in your syllabus, also under “handouts” or “syllabus” on Web Ct).
E.    Make sure all paper submitted to the instructor includes
1.     The assignment title (information speech)
2.     Your name
3.     Your section number
4.     Com 101
5.     And is typeset per syllabus and college requirements
F.    Watch your time length
1.     6 to 8 minutes
2.     Shoot for 6 to 7 minutes to be safe
3.     Time your speech and make sure it is on time
4.     Automatic 50 points off if long or short
5.     Rehearse often
6.     Rehearse with presentation aids
7.     If possible rehearse in classroom (at a minimum placement and use of visual aids)
8.     Relax
G.   Is the issue or concept new or interesting to the audience
1.     Make it interesting
2.     Find new ideas, concepts or information
3.     Bring information to current, relate to current
H.   Must have
1.     Strong introduction,
2.     Clear thesis,
3.     Supportive body
4.     And a clear engaging conclusion
I.      Main points
1.     Each must be supported by appropriate source
2.     Primary support sources must be clear to the audience
3.     All sources must be shown in the outline and references
4.     Support sources must be used for secondary ethos, etc.
J.     Reflect Reasonable Balanced Knowledge
1.     Avoid being one sided
2.     Be able to answer questions
3.     Do complete college level research
K.   Must be as objective as possible
1.     Use but filter and admit any personal bias
2.     Use but filter and point our any source bias
3.     Try to look at issue objectively
4.     Try not to advocate or persuade
L.    Is your outline full and complete
1.     Every detail you researched
2.     Another person could give a speech from it
3.     Easy to read
4.     References shown inside outline in APA format
5.     All references shown under “references” are also used in the outline
6.     Do you have the required minimum of 5 academic references
7.     Are references from multiple sources
8.     Are references diverse (not all internet or books)
9.     Are your non-academic references listed
10.  It is a good idea to be safe and have additional references
11.  Double check APA format in references and within outline
M.  Is your thumbnail a short presentation format, as required
1.     All you should have with you when you speak are note cards showing (at the most) what is in the textbook as a “presentation outline.”
2.     Name and section number on document
N.   Is you narrative a short “abstract”
1.     Find a few “abstracts” or journals (use CCSN on-line library or go to UNLV stacks).
2.     The narrative is a short abstract for your speech
3.     Include your thesis statement, your main body points or a summary of your speech, and your conclusion. It need not be longer than three sentences to no more than a page (double spaced).
O.   Presentation must be extemporaneous
1.     Must appear to not use notes
2.     Presentation, Thumbnail notes are allowed
3.     Eye contact is critical
4.     Proper use of all aids
5.     Conversational in tone
6.     React to and communicate with your audience
7.     See speech evaluation sheet on Web CT
8.     Read applicable sections in the textbook
P.    Bibliography is called References under APA and is included at the end of your full outline per APA format.
1.     5 or more points off for each missed academic reference
2.     Points will be take off for incorrect format on APA
3.     Help from Purdue on-line
4.     Help from information in your text
5.     Help from other links under handouts
6.     Help from writing center at CCSN
7.     Help from others in the class
8.     Help from APA guides on sale in bookstore
9.     Other
Q.   Presentation Aids
1.     At least 3
2.     At least one must be visual
3.     5 or more points off for each missed or poor presentation aid
4.     Suggested you not rely exclusively on any one type of aid
(For example, not all power point or all posters).
R.    Creativity, ingenuity, fresh approach, how you engage the audience will all be considered in determining final points on the speech

I.               IX. Persuasive Speech
A.   20% of final grade / 200 points
B.    7 to 9 minutes,
C.    50 points deducted if over or under limit
D.   Topic: Pick a social or political topic that requires
                                               i.     A specific, tangible action on the part of the audience.           
E.    Choose a topic that you feel is timely and important; something you feel represents a problem that needs collective action.
F.    Craft a speech that establishes the existence of the problem in the minds of your audience and offers clear and explicit set(s) of actions for your audience to take to help resolve the matter. Action must be immediate and easily achieved within the classroom setting.
G.   Must have a clear thesis, clear sense of purpose and meet or exceed all of the requirements of speeches #2 and # 3.
H.   You should incorporate strategies for involving your audience with your speech.
I.      The persuasion speech topic should be of a contemporary and controversial nature, which is of interest to both the speaker and the audience.  Time worn topics (e.g. Death Penalty) should be avoided. 
J.     Try to come up with a persuasion speech topic that is unique and interesting, because you will be working with it for a good part of the semester. 
K.   A complete outline of all of your speeches MUST be turned in BEFORE your speech on the due date.
L.    Be sure that all of the elements used or leaned in the term are applied;
M.  Both written and oral grading criteria will be strictest on the final speech of the term.
N.   Notes: All requirements of Speech #3 apply
                                               i.     Must give all notes except note card to instructor prior to speech
                                             ii.     Must present note cards following speech (per syllabus)
                                            iii.     Must be presentation / thumbnail outline only
                                            iv.     Must be on note cards
                                             v.     Only quotes or significant statistics may be added
                                            vi.     Do not read, must be extemporaneous
                                          vii.     Full outline must be turned in to instructor
a.     May contain more than you say in your speech
b.     Must have all references shown inside outline using APA style
c.     Must have References listed following outline (in addition to within outline) per APA format
d.     Must have a minimum of 7 academic sources
e.     May have as many sources as you was
f.      Visuals should be sourced in references
g.     Must use proper Outline Notation
h.     Must be complete and full (so that research may build on your outline and someone else can, if needed, present a version of the speech.
                                         viii.     Thumbnail / Presentation Outline must be presented to the instructor
                                            ix.     Short Narrative / Abstract must be presented to the instructor
O.   Audience must be presented with an action to take in response to your speech.
a.     Must be an action that can be taken in the classroom
b.     Must be an action that can be measured
c.     Must be an action that shows a change or commitment on the part of a disputed conflict or issue
P.     Three presentation aids or more (one of which must be visual)


IX.          Persuasive Speaking
A.   Intro to Persuasive Speaking
1.     Understand the characteristics of Persuasive Speaking
2.     The steps in the persuasive process
3.     Adapting persuasive messages to differing audiences
4.     Major persuasive functions
5.     Designs for persuasive functions

B.    Root Principles of Persuasive Speaking
1.     The art of convincing others to give favorable attention to our point of view.
2.     Persuasion is an integral part of our lives
3.     Can be ethical or unethical
4.     Learn how to resist bad persuasion
5.     Lean how to be open to positive persuasion
6.     Our social and political systems rely on free and open persuasion
a.     Deliberation
a.     Is the central process underlying democracy and bottom up based government and decision making
b.     Is the sign of an open and intelligent mind
c.     Involves an open discussion of all sides of issues before reaching a conclusion.
d.     Requires listening and being open to compromise
e.     Requires thought and being open to ideas, points of view, opposing evidence and change.
b.     Persuasion
a.     Is more ethical than force or coercion
b.     Is practical than force or coercion
c.     The freedom to voice unpopular views produces better decisions.
7.     Persuasion can be ethical and beneficial
a.     Ethical Persuasion is based on
a.     Sound reasoning
b.     Sensitivity to others
c.     Appeals to people’s better nature
d.     Respect for other cultures
b.     Ethical persuasion
a.     Helps us apply received wisdom to new situations
b.     Helps us apply reasoned knowledge to decision making
c.     Improves the quality and humanity off our commitments
C.    Persuasive speaking differs from informative speaking
1.     Informative reveals and clarifies options
2.     Persuasive speakers advocate choices among options.
3.     Informative speakers provide information to enlighten
4.     Persuasive speaking provide evidence to justify conclusions or recommendations
5.     Informative speaking involves offering education
6.     Persuasive speaking requires audience committeemen and belief
7.     Leadership is an important issue in persuasion
8.     Appears to feeling (Pathos) are more appropriate in persuasion
9.     Persuasive speakers assume greater ethical responsibilities than informative
10.  Both informative and persuasive can change thoughts and lives.
D.   The five major phases of the persuasive process.
1.     Awareness
a.     Make audiences understand how it impacts their lives
a.     Know about
b.     Understand
c.     Attend to (take action)
b.     Convince audiences
a.     Problem does or does not exist
b.     Impacts their lives directly or indirectly
c.     Is of vital importance for action
2.     Understanding
a.     Get the point
b.     Be moved by ideas
c.     Know how to carry out ideas
d.     Call or action
e.     Be ethical
a.     Expand out knowledge
b.     Not mislead or twist the truth
c.     Demonstrate how some arguments are stronger than others
d.     Provide evidence in support of proposition
e.     Provide key points to support proposition
f.      Support key points with evidence
g.     Do not harm others or call for harm
3.     Seek Agreement
a.     Success is measured by degree,
b.     Total success may not be possible
c.     Help audiences find find and remember reasons to agree
d.     Help move compromise toward your position
e.     Present indisputable facts
f.      Present facts that will stand up to criticism and critique
g.     Present well reasoned arguments
h.     present arguments that flow smoothly, easy to follow
i.      Help audience remember the reasons for their agreement
j.      Present arguments where opposition is
i. Minimal
ii. Easy to manage
iii. Not overly resistant to change
4.     Encourage Action
a.     Call for action
b.     Measurable action is best
a.     Petitions
b.     Signatures
c.     Commitment cards
d.     Voice agreement
e.     Take other action
f.      Vote
g.     Try something new
h.     Etc.
5.     Integrate new attitudes and actions into belief and value systems
a.     Make it easy to modify an existing idea or belief to make room for integrate the new idea or value
b.     Make it enforceable through daily action or commitment
c.     Follow-up (more than once)
d.     Repeat and reinforce message
e.     Help overcome risks
f.      Reinforce benefits over time
g.     New ideas are consistent with
ii.              Cherished values
iii.            Existing beliefs
iv.            Existing attitudes
v.              Etc.
h.     Anticipate and respond to objections
i.      You cannot get the results you want from a single speech, it must be reinforced, repeated, or audience must be encouraged and supported in seeking constant reinforcement
6.     Successful persuasion is rarely an all or nothing proposition
a.     It takes a series of attempts to “get through”
b.     It takes reinforcing to set in
c.     Most of the time results need to be perceived quickly
d.     Commitment must be entrenched over time
e.     Must adapt to audience
a.     Anticipated challenges
b.     Anticipated objections
c.     Physical limitations
d.     Other limitations
e.     Needs
f.      Wants
g.     Etc.
E.    Addressing Specific Audiences
1.     Where does the audience stand on the issues or actions
a.     United for or against
b.     Split- and what percentages
c.     Open or fixed
2.     How will the audience perceive the speaker
a.     Ethos
b.     Perception of motivations for speech
c.     Perception of committeemen to speech
3.     Give thoughtful consideration to opposing views
4.     Acknowledge obvious positive points on opposing side
5.     Co-active approach to bridge differences
a.     Establish identification
a.     Stress common attitudes
b.     Stress common beliefs
c.     Stress common values
d.     Etc.
b.     Emphasizes common values
a.     Find things you have in common
b.     Do this prior to addressing points of opposition
c.     Emphasize explanation
a.     Inform
b.     Do this more than argument
d.     Cite authorities and secondary ethos
e.     Cite evidence that is acceptable to the audience
f.      Work to make ethos and evidence fit existing audience values
g.     Set modest goals for change
h.     Make multi-sided presentations
i.      Help those who agree to find ways to resist tendency to reverse or lean toward opposing views or arguments
6.     Challenge of a strongly opposed audience
a.     Enhance their ethos
a.     Acknowledge their value to you
b.     Acknowledge their values and beliefs
c.     Be honest
d.     Enhance their importance
e.     Request a fair hearing
f.      Etc.
b.     Avoid an overly ambitious proposal
a.     May result in a boomerang effect
c.     Avoid Great Expectations fallacy
a.     Do not hope for change from one speech or action
b.     Do not promise more than you can deliver
c.     Be honest
d.     Do not expect immediate positive response
a.     May be misleading
b.     May not reflect solid commitment
c.     There may be a sleeper effect over time
d.     Etc.
F.    Removing barriers to commitment
1.     Provide all needed information
a.     Avoid overload
b.     Do provide essentials
c.     Offer additional follow-up
d.     Provide where to go for additional information
2.     Affirm and apply common values
a.     Build bridges
b.     Use values to cement change
3.     Strengthen credibility
a.     Cite experts the audience can respect and trust
b.     Cite evidence the audience will accept and trust
c.     Appear as open and non-bias as possible
d.     Provide quality information
e.     Be as multi-sided as possible
f.      Etc.
G.   Moving audience or individuals from attitude to action
1.     Provide a personal connection to the problem and proposed solution
2.     Provide specific actions and follow-up actions
3.     Propose a plan for change with reinforcement
4.     Provide the opportunity and window for action
H.   With Reluctant Listeners
1.     Revitalize shared beliefs and values
2.     Demonstrate the need for involvement
3.     Demonstrate the need for action
4.     Use examples and narratives
5.     Use pathos, logos and mythos
6.     Present a plan of action
7.     Show the audience why on each step of the plan
8.     Show the audience how to proceed
9.     Answer “What’s in it for me?”
10.  Etc.
I.      Three major forms of persuasive speaking
1.     Corresponds to their relative functions
2.     Speeches addressing attitudes and values
a.     Aimed at forming, reforming or reinforcing what people believe or think they believe
b.     Aimed at forming, reforming or reinforcing how people feel or think they feel about something
c.     Paves the way for speeches urging action
d.     Need to begin with common ground
3.     Speeches seeking direct response
a.     Goes behind attitude change
b.     Seek individual or Group actions
c.     Provide good reason to overcome caution
4.     Speeches of contention
a.     May be suitable if audiences are split on a topic
b.     Should target uncommitted listeners
c.     May target reasonable opponents open to change or reform
d.     Use tactful, carefully documented arguments and counter arguments
5.     Speeches that are intended to shock and undermine strongly opposed audiences
a.     Usually a poor choice for action,
b.     But good to start a process of challenge, compromise and change
c.     Use rarely and with caution
d.     Best using Pathos and Mythos
e.     Use of humor should be considered but used carefully
J.     Speeches must select appropriate designs
1.     Can use some or all of the designs or structures utilized in informative speaking
2.     Categorical can be used to list reasons
3.     Sequential may be used to show steps in a plan
4.     Chronological could be used to support reasons for action
5.     Comparative may work well with a speech of contention
K.   Problem-Solution
1.     Convinces audience there is a problem
2.     Shows audience a probable/ recommended solution
3.     Shows how to deal with the problem effectively
4.     Establishes problem exist and is significant
5.     Should offer solutions that are concrete and easy to follow
L.    The stock issue approach
1.     Acknowledges a need for change because of a significant problem
2.     The elephant in the living room or gorilla in the closet
3.     Questions that reasonable people are likely to have on their mind
4.     Addresses the following questions
a.     Is there a need for change because of some significant problem
b.     What is the best solution to the problem
c.     Who will put this solution into effect
5.     Focuses on inherency
a.     Is a harmful effect caused by this problem
b.     Will proposed solutions solve it
c.     To what extent is harm an inevitable part of the situation
d.     How much resistance is there to change
e.     Can change occur without greater damage
M.  Motivated Sequence
1.     An elaboration of sequential and problem-solution design
2.     Shows reason for each step in the process
3.     Contains six basic steps (or a variation)
a.     Arousing attention
b.     Demonstrate a need for change
c.     Offer a plan of action
d.     Visualize results
e.     Call for action
f.      Reinforce the action over time
4.     To use motivated sequence effectively
a.     Consider where audience stands
b.     Focus on appropriate steps
c.     Make actions manageable
d.     Make actions measurable
e.     Reinforce actions
N.   Regulative Design
1.     Raises doubt about competing propositions
2.     Raises attention to competing propositions deficiencies
3.     Must understand opposing positions before refuting them
4.     May focus on oppositions
a.     Faulty reasoning
b.     Poor evidence
c.     Self interests
d.     Non substantive solutions
5.     Address the weakest opposing viewpoints first
6.     Five steps in refuting and argument
a.     State the point to be refuted
b.     Tell how the point will be refuted
c.     Present credible evidence
d.     Interpret the evidence
e.     Explain the significance of the Refutation
7.     Strengthen regulative positions by supporting counter proposals


And For those who love to read and want an A so hard they  can taste it, there is even more….

I.             Extra Credit.

a.     Because of time the extra credit must be a paper.
b.     The paper must be one to twenty pages long (not as long as it sounds once you start work on it).
c.     The longer the paper the more opportunity you will to do the assignment correctly and gain maximum extra credit points.
d.     You critique a speech, preferably in person or on video, which can be documented or affirmed by the instructor.
e.     You use all of the terms from the class to show your understanding of how the concepts in the course are used in communication by the speaker and by both the intended and unintended audience.
f.      You will score from one to thirty extra credit points, based on the quality of work you do on the paper.
g.     You need not have any other sources besides the text, lecture and the actual speech.
h.     Deadline is the day of the final, prior to taking the final. Those who use the testing lab, it is the class prior to the final exam.

II.          Final Review Part Continued
See Jillians notes…

Courtesy of a Fellow Student: (Leann Trousdale, Fall, 2006). Accuracy of notes comes from a student who is a solid A in class…. As the instructor; I have augmented the notes to assist in your studies.

As always spelling, grammar and other errors are those of the instructor and not the contributors…

Evidence is used to clarify a claim.

Claims are statements you want your audience to understand remember and act upon.

Marking is including an unnecessary identifier, such as race, gender, religion or other irrelevant description in your presentation. This may lead to increasing noise (screens/filters) and work against the complete nature of your communication transaction. Marking can be used in calculated ways to add details to narratives, but take caution.

Similes, Metaphor, Alliteration, Personification, Allegory, Acronym, Abbreviation, idioms, trigger words, Denotative meaning, Dogmatism, Connotative meaning, Physiological, Psychological are all on the tests.

The Science of the Concrete is the human tendency that refers to the innate need to name the unfamiliar, to make it concrete, to give it substance, a hook to hand your hat on.

Safir-Whorf hypothesis: The language you speak determines the way you interpret the world around you. Greater vocabulary, multi-lingual will make you able to understand more about the world and others.

Listening for emotional support is empathetic listening.
To understand is comprehensive listening.

Good listening is difficult because:
It is an active process requiring concentration
We are prone to unwelcome distractions
The mind is moving far faster than the ability to translate what we hear
Good listening is a habit that must be formed and reinforced

The proofs do not have any inherent ethics. They are methods to convey and prove an argument. Whether that argument is ethical is a separate issue to discuss.

Know Ethos, Logos, Pathos and Mythos and able to identify them.

Ethics is the study of human moral conduct

After dinner speech also called Speech to Entertain are not meant to make people laugh (Should Not be a Stand Up Comedy Routine) p177

Speeches should have 3-5 main points

Need, Ought and Should indicate it is a Persuasive speech

Manuscripts are not spontaneous; they are planned and written in advance. The same is true of memorized manuscripts, neither is spontaneous or extemporaneous.

Your goal as a speaker is to converse with the audience. To sound as if you are talking with each individual and to respond to their feedback.

Evidence has nothing to do with the difference between Persuasive and Informative. Both require evidence and the amount of evidence depends on your topic and speech, not the type of speech.

In extemporaneous speaking you use note cards that have words and/or short phrases to prompt your memory.

Keywords are used in extemporaneous to prompt your memory. You should not read material word for word. Memorize when exact quotes are needed. The outline is known as a keynote, keyword or thumbnail outline.

A verbal road map is one way to describe the structure of a speech based on an outline, including the key points in the introduction, body and conclusion. In a speech you want to constantly tell your audience where you have been and where you plan on going next in the presentation and development of your ideas. This also allows audience members to reconnect with you, to reinforce what they have heard or learned and to be ready to advance along with you in your presentation. Remember that no one listens 100% of the time. Repetition and a good road map are needed to guide them on your journey.

Most people find real examples more compelling than hypothetical ones.

The same speech may not be used in a wide range of speaking situations. The speech needs to adapt to the audience, environment, situation, circumstances, etc.
A transaction requires two or more parties to provide two way or greater feedback. Public speaking requires the transaction of message and feedback return message to be effective.

Narrative can be equally Informative and Persuasive.
Informative Speeches may persuade
Persuasive Speeches must inform.
Education is Repetition.

Narrative Coherence asks whether or not a story’s events seem to make sense and whether or not the characters act consistently.

Speeches delivered by manuscript DO NOT sound natural.
Memorized speeches also do not sound natural unless presented by a professional
Neither manuscript or memorized is flexible to the audience needs.

Differences between types of delivery positives and negatives of each                       
Method
Description
Advantages
Disadvantages
Memorized
Few or no notes
Look/sound impressive
Forget material
Manuscript
Word-for-word
Less likely to forget material
Do not sound natural (monotone)
Impromptu
No preparation
Sound Spontaneous and direct
Think on feet; speech on the spot
Extemporaneous
Notes w/ short phrases
Sound natural & conversational
More prep time and rehearsal

My goal as the speaker is to be conversational NOT to emphasize every word

To be Extemporaneous you must use only a few key words per major thought on note cards. You may draw lines or punctuation on the card to assist in delivery.

You DO NOT have to provide references in the introduction. You may wish to do so however.  Content and plan are conditional.

Graphs
*Bar Graphs-compare and contrast THINK COMPARING CANDY BARS
Line Graph- Change over time or fixed variable.
*Mountain graph- accentuates the differences in a line graph by filling in space between the lines. Basically compared two or more primary targets against time (multiple line graphs using same criteria and variables).
*Pie Graph- shows a relationship PARTS of a WHOLE, percentage of Whole.
         *Emphasized in class

Normally do not have to cite page number, volume etc. in an oral presentation. Do so in your outline only, Oral citation involves credibility (Ethos) with credentials first, prior to name.

Actual testimony is better then fictitious testimony

Negative Self-Talk internal or intrapersonal self-defeating talk
        3 TYPES:
SELF PRESSURING- places too much pressure on oneself (I MUST BE PERFECT)
                        SELF CRITICIZING – when we berate ourselves. Dwelling on minor                                     mistakes
                        CATASTOPHIZING- blow things out of proportion

The same speech CANNOT carry to a wide variety of audiences…This is why you must adapt to the environment, including the audience. This is also why Extemporaneous delivery is best. It is the most flexible to the audience.

Transaction- something is given and received (A two way process)
            Written is NOT
            Memorized is NOT   these are a one-way process

NOISE- something that gets in the way of the meaning. (filters, screens, etc)

Semantic Noise is when there is a lack of clarity about what words and/or symbols mean
   Ex. The word love has many meanings.
Semantic Noise is not one of the primary forms of noise in the model, because it can be found in internal, external and cultural screens/filers/noise.
Semantic Noise is simply confusing meaning based on not agreeing to what words or symbols mean in the context of the speech and the environment of the speech.
Semantic noise involves a lack of clarity as to what words or symbols mean by one or more parties in any communication transaction.

Internal-our own thoughts
    Ex. I should be picking up the kids right now
External- outside factors
    Ex. Noisy people

Speech of Acceptance- Given when receiving an award.
             TWO GOALS: Thank those giving the award
                                      Thank those who made it possible
KEEP IT SHORT people may resent you otherwise

**Eulogy is a speech of TRIBUTE- tries to focus on person’s achievements and not their death

**Speech of presentation: Example a Scholarship- discuss the nature of the award then discuss the recipients accomplishments

Wedding Toast is also a Speech of Tribute Celebrate the special occasion

IF you get lost during a speech instead of panicking look back at the presentation outline

IMPROMPTU: Spontaneous: off the top of the head, organize thoughts quickly and clearly. You may use a short outline jotted down just prior to the speech, Speak of something you know about or have had personal experiences.

Prep Time: Term found under impromptu speaking 2-3 minutes of Time to prepare your impromptu speech. Prep time simply means preparation time for any speech. but it has particular importance for Impromptu Speaking.

RECENCY: How recent and up to date is your information? Does it remain true today? Has more recent information contradicted or altered the perception created by your source? You are guilty of the fallacy of Recency when something has change pertaining to your topic and you are not aware of this change

A doctor who practices medicine and is also partial owner of a pharmacy has a conflict of interest that potentially violates source willingness. Laws set up to protect against such a conflict led to the closure of doctor owned hospitals, such as Maternity Hospital of Las Vegas.

Audience Analysis
Maslow
Demographics
Surveys
Anything you use to understand the make-up, beliefs, and potential actions of your audience

What is linguistic convergence?

Tests of Testimony
Source Willingness:  Is the source willing to report or interpret the situation fairly?
   Example from class:  A doctor owns a pharmacy he has a confrontation-resulting in   
   Source Willingness

When you explain examples that are contrary to your argument, you pass the test of accountability.

If you neglect to identify criteria for evaluation you are guilty of the fallacy of qualifier.

If testimony is consistent with other evidence from the same source it passes the test of internal consistency.

“You are either for or against us” involves an argument that is based on a false dichotomy,

When you maintain your opponent must disprove you claim, you are guilty of shifting the burden of proof.

In Hasty Generalization you use an inadequate number of examples to warrant your claim.

Systematic negation of a particular argument is an example of the persuasive structure or design of Refutation.

Propositions (Thesis or central idea) can be composed around questions of fact, value or policy.

FACT is either true or false and can be answered with either yes or no.
Asserts a particular claim to be a certainty.

VALUE- audience has to agree with your values
             Good/Bad
            Right/Wrong
            Moral/Immoral
            Declares a principal, value of moral claim.

Conjecture- Paint the Future / Project and plan for the future  
            Might/ Might not Happen
            May/ Will Happen
            Could/Should Happen

POLICY- a plan of action should or should not do.
Outlining a specific course of action.

Communication Model is on the test, as it’s parts (transmitter/speaker, receiver/audience, Noise/screens/filters, channel, message, feedback, proofs, codes encode, decode, etc.)

Phases of Persuasive Speaking
1. Make audience aware of the situation and issue
2. Understand the need for action
3. Agreement: find the common ground
4. An action that can be taken
5. Taking Action personally, group or society
6. Integrate these actions continue reinforcement the beliefs necessary for change.

Status Quo: when people think things are all right as they are. The current system or way things are. Resistant to change because the system is accepted. For example, not long ago people did not lock their cars or homes, but today it is take as just a part of life and not thought about.

Hasty Generalization: Not enough information to support your claim

To show your Accountability you must explain examples that are contrary

Tests of testimony
Internal Consistency: Is testimony consistent with other evidence from the same source
Source Verifiability: Is the source available to all
Source Ability: Is the source of data competent to report or interpret the situation in this field

Notes say Fallacy of Qualifier
Fallacy of Qualifier: An argument that neglects to identify its criteria for evaluation or fails to qualify its claim ex. You’re going to fail the exam. After all, you only studied for an hour and a half.

Arguing your opinion must prove your claims- Prove me wrong.
Must be shifting the burden of proof.
Not presenting evidence in support, only in attack of others claims.

Ad Hominem:  is when you attack someone personally.
Putting it on a personal level, a human level, rather than the real issue.

Organizational Structures of a persuasive speech
*Notes said to connect motivation sequence and visualization
Part of the Motivation Sequence for a persuasive speech is Visualization that lets your audience see the positive outcomes of the action.
*Stock Issue structure shows NEED, INHERENCY AND SOLVENCY

Know all of the structures and designs for Informative and Persuasive speaking. Be ready to identify them, to use them, and to counter them as needed.

A proposition refers to the central idea, or thesis, of a speech (persuasive in particular)

Proposition of…
Policy: A course of action
Value: declares a principal standard or moral claim

Fact asserts a particular claim to be certain

Claim: attempting to show or prove

The proposition is also called the thesis or central idea

The Burden of Proof lies on the SPEAKER
The speaker is responsible for creating a solid argument supported by evidence and research. They are also responsible to anticipate any obvious objection and supply reasons to take their argument over alternatives.

Presumption is the belief that most people are all right with the Status Quo or current system. The way we do things now holds strong support and resistance to change. You must show how it is not fair, just or in the best interest of your audience or target.

The status quo carries a powerful force because it carries presumption.

Informative structures:
          Categorical- main points categorized by topic, need not have inherent relation to one another, but all are aspects of a common topic
          Chronological-in order of occurrence i.e. TIME. Year, month, date, minutes, nano-seconds, general chronology.
          Sequential-in order i.e. Demo speech. Chronological is sequential by time. Spatial can be sequential by location. 12 Step program is sequential. Baking a cake is sequential.
          Spatial- physical location i.e. speech on monuments from east to west. Also by relative size, or shape…etc.


Types of informative speeches
Descriptive
Demonstration
Explanation: explains an abstract idea

Informative speaking is sharing or conveying knowledge

Eye Contact is Dominant (80% of the time or more)
                        Direct (look in audiences eyes, not over their heads)
                        Sustained (for ½ second or more)
                        Distributed
                       
Principals of Note Cards
Underline keywords and phrases in outline
Then use those words on presentation outline
which goes to note cards
Draw lines use few words, to create sections of information

Rhythmic Language
Alliteration: repetition of sounds
Simile: ex. She sang like a bird. A comparison using like or as
Personification: Giving human qualities to inanimate things or events ex. The rain danced on the windshield.

Importance of language

CODES:
Verbal The Words (ex language)
Vocal All Sounds (different ways there spoken)
Visual What you can see, hear, feel, touch

Marking Using unnecessary identifiers such as gender, race, sexual orientation etc. to verbal descriptions AVOID USING MARKERS BECAUSE THEY CREATE OR EXCIE SCREENS AND FILTERS. Marking may be used if calculated, to add detail and color to a narrative or create audience identification…but be careful.

Coloring: adds more detail to speech making it more interesting

Denotative- Has NO EMOTION it is BLACK AND WHITE; Dictionary definition (first in dictionary, as connotative is also in the dictionary). Subjective. Non-emotional.
Connotative- words that have FEELING TO THEM Objctive and emotional (emotional response)


Differences between written English and Speech. In speech
Contractions can be used, however
Like Can’t and Don’t should not be used without casual purpose because
Cannot and Do Not reinforces points and eliminates misunderstanding

When making a speech the first person, including personal pronouns and contractions are used.

Colloquial words (current to the group and time of the speech) are used more often in speech than in written presentations.

Speak in short sentences to explain complex ideas

Identify presentation aids: visual and auditory
Actual objects, models, photographs, line drawings, maps, graphs and charts, posters, handouts, slideshows, overhead transparencies, video, prerecorded music and taped oration or taped interviews.

The Introduction is your contract with your audience

The text says to WRITE THE BODY FIRST if you don’t you won’t know what to say.

PRIMING: getting your audience prepared.
Priming is the concept from psychology that says we are better able to receive information if we are first prepared for it.
Priming the pump. Priming a carburetor.

OUTLINING: A structure with set rules and thinking patterns

Academic Research is called SCHOLARLY RESEARCH in the text- usually done in an academic setting i.e. University
                                                 Critical review by experts
                                                 Most reliable source of information

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
Scholarly or Academic is juried and relies on other confirmable sources

Primary is the horse mouth, the actual document or person who experienced and event. First hand knowledge with some level of expertise from being there…informed observation or primary observation.

Scholarly research is usually collected in an academic or controlled setting
It avoids bias as much as possible (impossible to completely eliminate bias)
It undergoes critical review by experts in the field (juried).
Often considered one of the most highly reliable types of information.

Web Pages- Who wrote it; when was it posted, is the host site legitimate, is it credible and does it provide the source. Can you trust it? Does it ring true (narrative fidelity)?

Test of evidence: (web included)

Are the authors identified?
What is their background, expertise, bias?
Who is paying them?

Is the source, host or publication well known and respected?
Is anyone hiding its true background, financing or bias?
Is the source, host or publication legitimate?

You should leave and/or find legitimate contradictory sources if you are not provided with the source of information included (references, legitimate information)


Evidence- information used to clarify or support a claim

Claim-what you want your audience to UNDERSTAND, REMEMBER AND ACT UPON

Environment analysis is the situation you are in which include
            Physical arrangement of speaking situation
            Size of audience
            Time of day
            Occasion
            Speaking from a podium or not

What are ways you can understand your audience
Survey
Maslow
Demographics

MASLOW Pyramid
          5th Self-Actualization
          4th Self/Social Esteem
            3rd Belonging
     2nd Safety & Security
1st Physical Need (Physiological)

Ethnocentrism: a group believes their way is the best way. They ARE SUPERIOR.
A group’s way of doing or looking at things is somehow superior to everyone else’s.

Egocentrism: people pay closer attention to what affects them. WIIFM, what’s in it for me?

Idiom: Phrases or words that carry a peculiar meaning to a particular culture

Perceptual Differences:  the differences in the way people UNDERSTAND or make sense of the world

Audience Adaptation: modify your speech to meet the needs of your listeners

Trigger Words: used for an emotional response get people to respond. Trigger words are Connotative in definition and use.

Connotative words are Emotional and subjective
Denotative Words are rational and objective

Cocoon- to shut yourself off from anything you do not want to hear, see or do

Surveys and Polls are not evidence they are TOOLS

Plagiarism has nothing to do with the written words, thought, ideas, and creative work-
it has everything to do with not giving credit to these written words, thought, ideas, and creative work that aren’t our own

A narrative can be equally informative and persuasive

Narrative Paradigm (Walter FISHER* Fisher price toys)- argues that we listen to stories and weigh them by whether the story coheres together and if we identify with it.
Narrative Coherence- does it make sense
Narrative Fidelity- Rings true to our experience

You must cite your sources whenever you provide information obtained through research

Semantic Noise- is when there is a lack of clarity about what words and/or symbols mean
   Ex. The word love has many meanings.

Graphs
*Bar Graphs-compare and contrast
Line Graph- Change over time
*Mountain graph- accentuates the differences in a line graph by filling in space between the lines.
*Pie Graph- shows a relationship
         *Emphasized in class

Extemporaneous speaking involves the use of notes with words and short phrases that prompt your memory

When citing sources during a speech you do not want to cite sources last

The transmitter gets the information to the receiver.
*Just know the communication model

In the introduction of the speech you do want to establish credibility

The web is not totally reliable

According to our authors when writing a speech you start with the body of the outline.
In scientific method you start with you thesis and expected results, then do the research (the body) and revise the introduction and conclusion after you have done the experiment and/or research.

Attribution is crediting your sources

Outline is a method of structuring information according to a set of rules and thinking patterns.


Informative Outline structures
          Categorical- main points categorized by topic
          Chronological-in order of occurrence i.e. TIME
          Sequential-in order i.e. Demo speech
          Spatial- physical location i.e. speech on monuments from east to west

State anxiety- uneasiness caused by a situation
          Types
          Physiological- physical changes like rapid heartbeat
          Psychological- cognitive (Effects thinking clearly)

Negative Self Talk is internal or intrapersonal communication act of self-defeating talk
          Types
          Self Pressurizing- expects perfection
          Self Criticizing- berates oneself
          Catastrophizing- blowing things out of proportion

Anxiety Management
 *Drawing a mental picture is called visualization
 Other Types Cognitive Restructuring
                    Preparation and practice
                    Setting realistic goals
                    Self-fulfilling prophecy
                    Coping statement
                    Relaxation Techniques
Getting more sleep is not a technique recommended to managing communication anxiety.


Types of informative speaking
          Description- draws a picture
          Demonstration
          Explanation-explains an idea

Proper Gesturing
Gesture when emphasizing information
-above the waist
-distinct
-with intention and purpose
-between each hand

Functions of aids

-help emphasize your points
-breakdown complex information
-help with different learning styles

Have to use visual aids to help people follow you
Visual Aids should serve to explain complex concepts
Visual Aids may be used for transitions
Visual Aids should always integrate into the content of your speech
Visual Aids should be simple and easy to follow (exception handouts)


Rules for presentation aids
-talk to the audience, not the aids
-Do not have to use handouts
-prepare audience for controversial topics
-rehearse with your aids

Claim Statements (Claims) you want your audience to understand, remember and act upon
Warrant-explains why evidence should be believed. It demonstrates the relationship between claims and evidence, and prompts action

Types of speeches
Memorized- few notes
Manuscript-word for word
*Impromptu- little to no prep time
Extemporaneous- notes with short phrases

Self-fulfilling prophecy is a type of anxiety management when you feel strongly about either success or failure

85% of the population has some anxiety over public speaking
40% of Americans list Public Speaking as their number One fear.

Outlining is a specific system called Notation System

Sometimes we pause in a speech to make a dramatic effect, between bodies of the speech, reinforce ideas, or pause for laughter

Rules for interviews
Makes sure they have proper credentials
Have a list of questions
Give your interviewee your questions ahead of time

Contractions can be used, however words ending in NOT
Like can’t and don’t should not be used because
Cannot and do not reinforce points and eliminate misunderstanding

Use first person in persuasive speech

Commemoration speech remembers a national holiday, specific dates
 Ex. Sept. 11

Eye Contact

Meet everyone’s eyes for a second, when in a large room distribute eye contact to each area of the room

Presentation Setting includes social themes, which give you some idea of the formality of the situation.

Other things I marked as possible questions throughout the semester


Public Speaking is #2 Fear of Americans
Communication Model

In feedback
The receiver becomes the transmitter and the transmitter becomes the receiver

Adults listen 50% or less
Teenagers listen 25% or less
Kids listen 15% or less
This is not because of lack of effort, but because our brains move much faster than we can talk or even observe.  Our brains change over time. The younger we are the more being able to think and absorb quickly is of value. The older we get the more the ability to retrieve and use information becomes valuable.


Noise/*INTERFERENCE*/Filters- are things that get in the way of the message

Psychographics *peoples identities of themselves, self answered information translated into data, measuring or estimating any quality or qualities you can give number to (Demographics behind age and Gender). Examples: individual income, household income, rent/own, vehicle owned, church identification, amount of times a year you go to church, ethnic identity, racial identity, geography of birth, where you live now, where you live when it most impacted your life, etc.

Codes
Verbal- The WORDS
Vocal- All SOUND
Visual- anything you SEE, HEAR, FEEL, TOUCH
Plato believed there is fixed and absolute truth- Fundamental beliefs RIGHT & WRONG

Aristotle believed in relative truth- depends on circumstance, time, where you from is relative

Bias and stereotype can be changed
Prejudice culturally entrenched bias very difficult to change
Prejudice is a strongly entrenched cultural bias that is very difficult to change
(Try small baby steps or chinks in the armor).

Stereotype is shorthand used in communication (think commercials, TV, film, first impressions and so forth) based on bias observations and methods of making quick judgments.

Reread the textbook.

Review the weekly notes starting with week one, paying attention in detail to the concepts that show up in the past three weeks notes under “review for final” or similar title.


Form study groups. They work.

If you must take the exam early, have English as your second language, have a verified disability or for any other reason would like to take the exam in the testing center, please notify me. It is up to the instructor to decide if you can use the lab.

No notes, books, telephones or any other tool (except for language translator for the ESL students) may be used during the exam.

Ask questions in class or by Angel/Web CT e-mail.




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