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Friday, April 24, 2009

Unit 14: Final Review continued

Unit 14 Notes
Art Lynch, COM 101

Tentative Teaching Schedule Next Term
General notes and suggestions on grading and working toward end of term
Review of Persuasion notes
Meeting the Challenges of Persuasive Speaking
Final Review (parts IV to VII)
It’s only a test
Feedback Request

I.               Tentative Art Lynch Schedule or Fall, 2010
A.    Keep in touch. I have summer and fall tentative
B.    Referrals of students is appreciated
C.    References are accepted after the end of the term
D.   I will also provide references for students as needed.

II.             General note on grading
A.    There are set rules you must follow
1.     Time length
2.     Academic sources requirements
3.     APA inside the outline and in the references
4.     Outline format
5.     Use off presentation aids
6.     The structure as shown in the Evaluation sheets
7.     The structures as taught in the text
8.     All concepts taught in the text applicable to your speech
9.     Speech must be extemporaneous, as required and explained in the textbook, lecture and notes.
10.  Only key words are allowed to be used, placed on note cards as explained in the text, during the informative and persuasive speeches required for this course.
11.  Action in class and/or other specific requirements of each assignment
12.  Doing the speech on the date assigned, and if you did not volunteer, then when your name is called.
13.  Having the proper documentation for excused absences, particularly on days when you are due to make a speech, and following class days if you did not make a speech
14.  Make-goods or make-ups are offered but not guaranteed, particularly now that the term is almost over. You must come prepared.
15.  Be on time for class
16.  Do not enter when someone is giving a speech
17.  Cell Phones off during class
18.  No gum chewing or other distracting habits or practices when speaking
19.  Etc.
B.    Grades are final, and may not be appealed. However I will work with you to improve future grades or to help you raise your overall grade with items such as extra credit, study review or assistance understanding key concepts.

III.           Quick end of term review on resources and study
A.    You are expected to read the text, study the text and apply what it teaches in the text, including but not limited to outlining, references and presentation aids.
B.    The exams are on the textbook.
C.    Review the fall final exam sample, and quiz 1 to 6. Questions will probably come from those tests (the exam is computer generated from the same data bank).
D.   It is best to find partners or group with which to critique your persuasive speech in advance, to keep up with the course concepts, and to study for the exams.
E.    Utilize Angel /Web CT discussion to post ideas, outlines for review, ask questions about the concepts of the course or to review for the final.
F.    Utilize the blog, including reviews in the right hand column.
G.   There are chapter reviews in each chapter, and detailed reviews on Angel/Web CT.
H.   There are detailed questions concerning the content of the course, written by the authors of the text and of the exams, available on Angel/Web CT
I.      The vocabulary notes from your vocabulary list will be useful in studying for the exam and properly preparing for the informative and persuasive speeches.
J.     It is useful to look at other student’s outlines or notes, as posted under discussion.
K.   Remember that this course, and life in general, are all part of the learning process, of personal growth and of personal achievement. Take it one step at a time and with an open mind and heart.

IV.           Persuasion Review
A.    Building Blocks
1.     Facts:
a.     True / False
b.     Yes / No
c.     Usually fixed and accepted
2.     Values:
a.     Good / Bad
b.     Right / Wrong
c.     Moral / Immoral
d.     Usually strong but can be impacted
e.     Scaled (usually 1 to 10 if consciously scale
f.      Conjecture:
3.     Might Not / Might / Will
a.     Could/ Should / Shouldn't
b.     What If?
c.     Future
d.     Projections
4.     Policy:
a.     Should / Should not
b.     Action
c.     Plan
d.     Set to deal with
-Fact, values, conjecture and society
B.    Phases of Persuasion
1.      Awareness
a.     Must establish the existence of a need or issue
b.     Must establish that it is a problem or potential problem
2.     Understanding
a.     Now the need
b.     Be moved to change
c.     Know how it effects listener and others
3.     Seek Agreement
a.     Consensus or agreement action is needed
4.     Encourage Action
a.     Change Path and policy
5.     Integrate New Ideas
a.     Into belief system
b.     Into value system
c.     Into every day activities
d.     Into policy decisions
e.     Difficult but needed to sustain change
6.     Rarely is anything al or nothing
7.     So be ready to compromise or change
C.    Persuasive Speaking is the art of getting others to pay favorable attention to your point of view

III. Meeting the challenges of Persuasive Speaking
  1. Entice reluctant audiences to listen
1.     Establish identification
2.     Establish good will
3.     Begin with agreement areas where you agree
4.     Cite sources
5.     Cite authorities listeners trust
6.     Set modest goals
7.     Offer a multi-sided presentation
a.     Uses identity,
b.     Positive direction/thinking,
c.     Assimilation,
d.     Explanation,
e.     Sources,
f.      other
  1. Remover Barriers to Commitment
    1. Provide needed information
    2. Demonstrate the need to improve
    3. Clear a path to action
    4. Achievable goals
    5. Make it easy to act

V.             Review General
A.    Review notes posted under Handouts for Weeks 9 to 14
B.    Review notes posted under Handouts for Weeks 1 to 8
C.    Reread the book cover to cover including:
1.     Note formats
2.     APA style inside and at the end of the outline in References
3.     Presentation Aids
4.     Persuasion
5.     Informative
6.     Special Occasion Speeches
7.     Impromptu Speaking
8.     Storytelling
9.     Delivery
10.  Audience Diversity and Analysis
11.  Listening
12.  Ethics
13.  Communication Anxiety
14.  Communication Theory
D.   Exam is comprehensive
E.    Persuasion is like an oral exam showing how you apply the concepts of the course.
F.    Pay attention to detail in the speech and in taking the exam

VI.           Final Review Continued
A.    In the communication transaction there is a response, known as feedback. In that response the receiver becomes the sender, and the sender becomes the receiver, it is basically the same communication process only going the opposite direction. Noise/Screens/Filters still interfere, there is still encoding and decoding, the codes and proofs still apply. The process consists of the receiver sending his or her own message back to the sender in response to the initial message. In most cases this is a continuous, ongoing process.
B.    The sender and receiver negotiate the meaning of the communication, because words or other symbols often mean more than one thing. We therefore have to negotiate the intended meaning. Too often the message is misunderstood or not entirely understood because of the lack of full and complete negotiation with the Noise or filters of each party considered fully. All parties involved in a communication need to make efforts to choose words or symbols carefully and to understand words or other symbols carefully for a communication to be successful.
C.    40% of Americans list public speaking as their number one fear (but in my book, all Americans do fear speaking at some level).
D.   There are many sources of Anxiety, including trauma, lack of preparedness and negative self-talk.
E.    There are many techniques used to manage communication anxiety, including but not limited to: exercise, coping statements and cognitive restructuring.
F.    Ethics can be defined as the study of human moral conduct.
G.   Absolute truth holds that the truth is complete and unqualified.
H.   Relative truth says that truth may vary or be affected by environment, cultures and circumstances.
I.      Know the definition and applications of Dogmatism, which applies at time to everyone regardless of race, gender, creed or other cultural influences or identifications.
J.     Ethnocentrism is the tendency of a group to think that its way of thinking, or its way of doing things, is somehow superior to everyone else’s, It does not say that others are wrong, but rather than we are “more correct”. In other words ethnocentrism can be seen as the belief that a groups (your, plural) are somehow superior to all others.
K.   Know all four Aristotelian proofs and their applications.
L.    Know all three codes and how they effect ad affect communication.
M.  Know all aspects of the Communication model.

N.   Be failure with Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs and it’s applications.
O.   Ethos, logos and mythos are not components of ethical speaking
P.    Avoiding unnecessary ethnocentrism, avoiding discriminatory language, fully crediting your sources, and being fully aware of the impact of your words and gestures on your audience, both now and for their future, is key elements in the application of ethical speaking.
Q.   Comprehensive listening required the listener to understand the message.
R.    Empathetic listening is listening to provide emotional support.
S.    Good listening can be difficult because it is an active process requiring concentration, is prone to many distractions (noise, screens, filters), if difficult to learn and continue, and is a habit that most of us have not yet formed.
T.    Watch very closely to make sure you distinguish between physiological and psychological.
U.   The language we speak determines he way we interpret the world around us, This hypothesis was developed by Sapir-Worf and holds that your language patterns, vocabulary, communication skills and determine how you frame and understand the world around you. Language is adaptive to change, but only to the extent off our understanding of the universe in which we live.
V.    The science of the concrete refers to the human tendency to have a need to name the unfamiliar, to make it solid or concrete, to give it meaning through the process of putting a word or words to it.
W.  Connotative meanings for words or phrases are emotional and subjective. They trigger response in the audience or listeners. They carry emotional undercurrents. While these words are in the dictionary, the connotative meanings are often second or third in a dictionary definition to the emotive meaning.
X.    Denotative words carry little or no emotional impact, and simply describe solid objects or ideas. The denotative definition of words is usually the first definition in the dictionary.
Y.    Your ability to modify your message to meet the needs of your listeners is referred to as audience adaptation.
Z.    Because perceptual differences in your audience will exist, it is best o understand those differences before you prepare to give a speech. You need to adapt to your audience through audience and environmental analysis.

VII.         Final Review Continued.
A.    Idioms or idiomatic expressions are phrases that carry peculiar or particular meanings for a particular culture or group.
B.    Egocentrism refers to the reality that people pay closer attention to issues that affect them. In other words, audiences will ask the question what’s in it for me (WIIFM) A?
C.    Assimilation is the tendency to feel that someone you in general agree with or who has an ethos help positive to you has views closer to your own then they actually are, and to accept those views without question as being the same as your own.
D.   Surveys are not evidence. They are tools to use in understanding an issue, audience, and concept or to estimate response, information, and tendencies. In other words they are ways to take the temperature of a particular group or environment at a particular time. Polls are a form of surveys.
E.    Audience analysis may include such tools as surveys, studies of demographic tendencies or such methods to understand individuals or groups as Maslows Hierarchy of Needs.
F.    Environmental Analysis is used to determine the physical nature of the speaking situation. The physical arrangement off the speaking situation, the sizes of the audience, the demographics of the audience, the social situation for the speech, tie time of day and other elements are used in environmental analysis, both in preparing for and adapting to the audience and its needs.
G.   Understand the definitions of, relationships between, and differences between claims, warrants, evidence, fact, supposition and propositions.
H.   Understand the fallacies. How does each work and how can you spot them.
I.      Understand the designs or structures for public speaking. Which are informative and which are more often used in persuasive. How do you us or identify each in the structure of a speech.
J.     Understand Scholarly Research, and how to determine what references are scholarly. The text uses scholarly in the same way as other texts and lectures use academic. What is necessary to qualify a source as scholarly research?
K.   How do you determine the legitimacy of a source? How would you apply these tests to web pages? When does the text say you should leave a site and look elsewhere for information you can trust and use?
L.    What is a primary source? When and how should use primary sources? How do you determine if a primary a source qualifies as scholarly or academic?
M.  Scholarly research is usually conducted by people in academic institutions, is juried and fact checked, undergoes critical review by experts in the field, and is often considered one of the most highly reliable sources of information.
N.   Outlining is a method of structuring information according to a set of rule sand thinking patterns.
O.   Priming is the concept form psychology that says we are better able to receive information if we are first prepared for it.
P.    According to the text we develop the speech body before we develop the introduction and conclusion of a speech, because until the body is properly developed, we do not actually know what we have to say.
Q.   In Scientific Method you develop a thesis first, which serves as a temporary introduction and continues through until the end of the process as the heart of your introduction, we then develop and expected conclusion. Next we develop the research that serves as the body of the paper or process, and adapt the hypothesis that is our thesis and the conclusion as needed. In most Masters Thesis projects, the conclusion is that the thesis is wrong and needs to be reexamined.
R.    The introduction of a speech provides a contract between the speaker and the audience. What is laid out in the introduction must be followed and fulfilled.
S.    The use of an outline and body points provide the map directions as part of the contract between the speaker and listener. Think of this as a “road map” for the listener.
T.    What are the various types of presentation aids and how are they used?
U.   Why is PowerPoint both a useful tool, and one that can be easily misused or abused? Too often it is a crutch. Remember that in briefings PowerPoint is often the primary visual aid and very useful.
V.    What is the denotative definition off CCSN?
W.  In oral speech there are several key differences from written speech. The listener cannot turn back the clock to go back and “look” at something that has already been said. Therefore repetition is needed in oral presentations more than it would be used in written presentations. Personal pronouns are used to connect with the audience, so first person is preferred over third person when speaking. Colloquial or current language is more acceptable in oral presentation than in most written work.
X.    In oral speech we have a tendency to utilize shorter sentences, and even sentence fragments, as compared to written or formal English structures.
Y.    What is a simile? What is a metaphor?
Z.    What is personification?

VIII.       Final Review Continued
A.    Including an unnecessary identifier of race, gender, to other irrelevant descriptions is known, according to the text, as marking. Marking is acceptable under limited circumstances, such as story telling. Remember if you use marking, you risk creating or running into filters or noise that could jeopardize or even reverse your intended message.
B.    What is alliteration?
C.    Know the forms of informative speaking and how each is used (see text and notes posted under Web CT).
D.   What are the elements of the presentation setting? What do you determine from each element?
E.    Note cards are allowed in this course as part of Extemporaneous speech (which more generally means ‘without notes’). The principles of note cards include developing a full outline, determining what from your full outline will be used in the speech, underlining key words or phrases (not full sentences), using the words or phrases only as you transfer the speech to a thumbnail or presentation outline, transferring the presentation outline to note cards, and drawing lines or marks to determine sections of information as needed.
F.    Dominant eye contact requires you have direct, sustained and distributed eye contact at least 80% of the time. Direct means you look directly into the eyes of your audience. Sustained means that you keep your eyes on every given person for at least a half a second. Distributed means that you make eye contact with everyone, If that is not possible make contact with as many quadrants or sections of the audience as you can, making sure that in the end you have covered the entire audience including far right, center and far left.
G.   What are narrative coherence and narrative fidelity?
How are these utilized in a speech and by whom?
H.   Informative speeches share or convey knowledge.
I.      Informative speeches may persuade. How and why?
J.     Persuasive speeches must inform. Why and how?
K.   Understand the nature of, use of and purpose for the following graphs:
1.     Pie
2.     Bar
3.     Line
4.     Mountain
L.    Status Quo refers to the current system or status of events or beliefs. The status quo is a powerful force because it carried the presumption that things as they are working fine, that the current interpretation of truth is accurate and complete, and that change may not be for the best. The presumption is that the status quo is functioning adequately.
M.  The Burdon of proof is on the speaker or sender. The text refers to Burdon of proof as the speaker’s responsibility for creating a solid argument supported by evidence and research.
N.   In persuasive speaking you central idea, or thesis, is also know as your proposition. The steps along the way to support your proposition are referred to as claims.
O.   A proposition of act asserts a particular claim to be a certainty. A proposition of value declared a principle, standard or moral claim. A proposition of policy outlines a specific course of action; Policies are often general, flexible and may be altered.
P.    Stock issues are the elephant in the living room, the gorilla in the closet, the issue that is most likely to be at the top of the audiences mind. Stock issue design answers the questions a reasonable person is most likely to ask. A stock issue persuasive structure includes need, inherency and solvency.
Q.   In motivated sequence design, the benefits that would emerge once the proposed solution has been adapted are presented to the audience through visualization.
R.    When the audience is already aware a problem exists, an ideal structure to use may be comparative advance.
S.    The systematic negation of a particular argument is an example of the persuasive structure of regulations.
T.    The hasty generalization fallacy uses an inadequate number of examples to warrant a claim. In other words a few observations may be used to be generalized to apply to the whole, when in fact there may be many other elements involved that could disprove the assumption of the observations.
U.   When you indict or attack an individual rather than an idea or concept you may be guilty of ad hominem. When you argue that your opponent must disprove you claim you may be guilty of shifting the burden of proof. Fallacy of qualifier refers to an argument that fails to identify the criteria for evaluation.
V.    If the source of testimony is competent to report or interpret the situation fairly, they pass the test of source ability.
W.  When testimony is consistent with other evidence from the same sourc3e it passes the test of internal consistency.
X.    When you explain examples that are contrary to your argument, you pass the test of accountability.
Y.    What is source willingness?
Z.    If anything has changed from the date of testimony to the time you use it is in your speech, or if there are updated and contradictory facts or information, you fail the test of recency.

IX.           Final Review continued.
A.    Impromptu delivery should be spontaneous, rely on only a few quickly drawn notes or body points, and reflect the experiences and expertise of the speaker. A good impromptu speaker organizes their thoughts quickly and clearly, is specific and uses examples that stem form personal experience. The time spent preparing or arranging the details of an impromptu speech, no matter how short, is called preparation or prep time.
B.    When you lose your train of through in an extemporaneous or impromptu speech, cover as best as you can while you refer to your presentation or thumbnail outline notes for guidance.
C.    Review Chapter 20, Special Occasion Speeches, as there are many questions concerning the nature of, type of and application of the types of speeches discussed in that chapter.
D.   What is Cognitive Restructuring when used in the contact of this class? Of the classroom? In general definition?
E.    A speech of introduction for another speaker has two primary objectives
1.     Building enthusiasm for the topic
2.     Building enthusiasm for the speaker
F.    What are the limitations you should place on speeches of introduction, special occasion speeches and other speeches discussed in the text, and why?
G.   Most speeches have two to three main points, with audiences remembering one to three items from any speech. 
H.   A well-constructed narrative (story) can be equally informative and persuasive.
I.      What are the advantages and disadvantages, potential use off and abuse of each of the following presentation techniques
1.     Manuscript
2.     Memorized
3.     Extemporaneous
4.     Impromptu
J.     An extemporaneous speech should conversational, be open to and respond to immediate or near immediate feedback.
K.   When and why to you identify sources during a speech, as opposed to when and why would you identify sources inside you outline or formal papers?
L.    When is it appropriate to site volume, issue or page numbers?
M.  What is an acronym? When and how would you use it in speech, as opposed to in written applications?
N.   People do find real examples more compelling than hypothetical ones. Why and when?
O.   Castastrophizing is a form of negative self-talk that involves blowing mistakes out of proportion.
P.    Speeches need to be adaptive to the audience. A well and properly developed speech must still be adapted to the situation, environment and audience, and may not apply as is across a wide variety of speaking situations.
Q.   What is semantic noise? It is a type of noise that crosses over between internal, external and cultural and is not the fourth type of noise in the communication model. Why?
R.    Presentation Aids should be used to support, illustrate or reinforce the main body points and/or general thesis of a presentation. They should not distract from these key organizational tools and should never be used without purpose.
S.    You should not look at or read your visuals, except to initially draw attention to the visual or each major point supported by the visual.
T.    Why is PowerPoint (or similar computer assisted presentation software) a crutch in too many situations? What are its positive contributions to public speaking and what are its limitations or drawbacks?
U.   Why is length important to consider in the preparation and presentation of a speech?
V.    Name at least four ways in which public speaking skills will assist you in your future career and both intended and unintended life experiences?
W.  What does it mean to have a liberal education?
X.    Know, understand and be able to apply the communication model in full.
Y.    Read the questions carefully.
Z.    Use the answers to other questions to assist you in answering any questions where you have a doubt or draw a blank

X.             Remember this is only a class and this is only one test.

XI.           Please provide your feedback on study notes, weekly reviews, classroom notes, speech grading or any other topic you wish to share privately with the instructor though Angel/Web CT e-mail or in person, or through Discussion on the the blog and Angle/Web CT.

XII.         More to come next week…

Thank You.

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

This is so much information it's more like the actual text rather than a distillation for review purposes. Now I'm REALLY worried about the final!

Jill Pentkowski