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Monday, September 10, 2012

Unit 9 Notes

Unit # 9 Notes
Art Lynch


It never hurts to review or to look at things from a different direction. This unit attempts to do so, offering insight into concepts and terms beyond definitions, advice on how to improve you grades in this and other courses, ways to tackel the midterm and final and most important concepts that will help you to improve your speech and any presentations you may make in life.

Unit 9 covers outline formats and requirements, informative speaking, ethics, designs and structures for speech organization, references, listening and learning skills, statistics, vital information on graphs and charts, and a review of what you can find in the units prior to this one. This does not mean you should not go back and review the previous units yourself, or reread the chapters assigned to date. They will help you on your informative and persuasive speeches, your final exam and your adventures once this course is well behind you.

Click "read more" below for the complete Unit 9 Review and Insight.


I.               By the end of this unit, you should be prepared for your information speech, the midterm and be well on your way to understanding the communication process and meeting the requirements of COM 101 as a transferable college course.

II.             Common Ways to Improve Your Grade This Term
A.    Spread out your research and work
1.     Cramming will not work
2.     There is a great deal to understand and apply
3.     Rehearsal time is vital for your speech success
4.     Life will get busy as the term goes on, not just this class.
5.     Grading gets stricter as the term continues.
B.    Focus on applying your work to your speeches
1.     Chapters in textbook
2.     Unit notes under Handouts
3.     Lecture
4.     Feedback and Discussion of your speeches
5.     Feedback and Discussion of other students speeches
6.     Examples you find in everyday life
7.     Examples you find in other courses you are taking
C.    Find others in your section, in other sections or elsewhere at the school to help you
1.     On outlining
2.     On reviewing course material
3.     On APA style
4.     On computer use
5.     On preparing presentation aids
6.     To help your practice your speech presentations
7.     To study for midterm and final together
D.   Remember this course is offered to assist you
1.     Ask questions
2.     Do the work
3.     Find ways to apply it to your life
4.     Keep notes or records for future use or reference
5.     Answer WIIFM (what’s in it for me)
6.     Network and interact with instructor and other students
7.     Participate in the class, Web CT and in class sessions
8.     Work on and develop superior listening skills
E.    Attendance
1.     You are the audience needed for other students
2.     You will learn from critique and discussion about other students
3.     You will learn from critique and discussion of your own work
4.     Notes will be given, lecture is important
5.     Be on time
F.    Participate in Discussion
1.     Live in class
2.     Web CT
3.     Through instructor or other students
4.     By the topic and ways you do your speeches
G.   Make sure you read and follow the syllabus
1.     Entire document
2.     Assignment specifics
3.     Type
4.     Section on all documents
5.     Etc.
H.   Do your work on time or early
I.      Plan ahead to the end of the semester
J.     Make a check list
1.     Assignment specific details
2.     Evaluation sheet specific details
3.     Do your best work
4.     Proof and check details, outline, handouts, visuals
K.   Outlines
1.     Read and follow the chapters in the text
2.     Read and review previous weekly notes posted
3.     Make sure you are using notation properly
4.     Send draft to instructor a week in advance
5.     Share a draft using Web CT Discussion for student feedback
6.     Make sure your full outline is full and complete
a.     Can someone else give the speech from your outline
b.     Can they do further study based on your references
7.     Use APA properly inside your outline
8.     Use APA properly in the “Reference list” (not the same as #7)
9.     Make sure you have a presentation/key-word outline
10.  Make sure you have the proper abstract/narrative
11.  Make sure you review the evaluations sheet on Web CT for the speech you are giving
12.  Make sure the design(s) or structure(s) are clear and properly used or applied.
L.    References
1.     Make sure you have enough academic references to meet assignment
2.     Review syllabus requirements for references
3.     Makes sure you are using APA properly in your outlines, in references and in your spoken/ delivered speech.
4.     Have too many references
5.     List all references, even those that are not academic in nature
6.     Make sure you list where your visuals or presentation aids come from
M.  Length
1.     Make sure you review the requirements in the syllabus
2.     Plan for the shortest length up to the middle length
3.     Rehearse with length in mind
4.     Rehearse with your visual/presentation aids
5.     Time yourself as you do the speech (watch time)
6.     Minimize the temptation to add information while speaking
N.   Read and follow suggestions and notes in previous week handouts, discussions and notes
O.   Keep current on reading, and read more than once
1.     When in syllabus as assigned
2.     Prior to lecture
3.     After lecture
4.     When reviewing for exams
5.     When preparing speeches
P.    form study and networking groups
Q.   Use Discussion to widen study and networking groups

III.           Types of Learning
A.    Groupings
1.     Active / Reflective
2.     Sensing / Intuitive
3.     Visual /Verbal
4.     Sequential/Global
5.     Other
B.    Learners fall under multiple categories
1.     Need not be just one type of learner
2.     Most are visual/verbal as a learned base
3.     Varies widely by culture
C.    Active
1.     learn by doing
2.     Work well in groups
D.   Reflective
1.     Think about what they are learning
2.     Usually work best alone
E.    Sensing
1.     Learn “facts”
2.     Use well established methods to learn
3.     Usually patient
F.    Intuitive
1.     Discover through possibilities
2.     Do not like repetition
3.     Always seek new “input”
G.   Visual
1.     Need to see pictures, images, movement
2.     Understand diagrams, graphs, representational models
3.     “See”
4.     Associate ideas to visual imagery, visual literacy
5.     Relate to images for association or understanding
H.   Verbal
1.     Words are important
2.     Read
3.     Listen to spoken words
4.     Associate ideas to words, language
5.     Relate to words for association and understanding
I.      Audio
1.     Sounds are important
2.     Relate to what they hear
3.     Associate ideas to sounds
4.     Relate to sounds for association and understanding
J.     Olfactory
1.     Smells or odors are important
2.     See above, same list
K.   Sequential
1.     Use linear steps
2.     Follow prescribed paths
3.     Relate by direct line association
4.     Best at math and some forms of science
5.     Prefer rules and guidelines
6.     Are doers
L.    Global Learners
1.     Make large jumps in association
2.     Skip steps of simply know them without reasoning them through
3.     Solve complex problems, often without being able to explain why
4.     Easily put diverse information together into patterns others often do not see
IV.           Ethics
A.    Objectives
1.     A strong sense of ethical responsibility is needed for public speaking
2.     All you say or do will impact someone
3.     You are responsible for the impact you do have
4.     You are ethically responsible for the consequences of your speech
5.     The text offers five guidelines for critical speechmaking
6.     The text has three basic guidelines for ethical listening
B.    Ethics is a branch of Philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong
C.    Ethics come into play whenever we speak to an individual or group
1.     Speech is power, and power involved ethical responsibilities
2.     Ethics come into play at every stage of preparation and presentation
D.   The ideal commendable speechmaking is the good person speaking well (Roman rhetorician Quintilian)
E.    Make sure your goals are ethically sound
F.    Be fully prepared whenever you speak
1.     Lack of preparedness can waste the time of the listeners and speaker
2.     Lack of preparedness can lead to misinformation
3.     errononeous advice or information can have negative consequences
4.     You are impacting the shape of the listeners thoughts and ideas
5.     You can cause harm to yourself or others
G.   Be honest
1.     Avoid manipulating or juggling evidence without balance
2.     Do not misrepresent sources or source information
3.     Identify tentative or work in progress as just that, not fact
4.     Believe what you are saying and be able to support it
H.   Be civil
1.     Avoid attacks, name calling, indictments
2.     Be culturally sensitive
3.     Understand your audience and their values and morals
4.     Do not swear unless there is a very solid reason (disclaimer recommended)
5.     Avoid shock-jock techniques unless there is a very solid reason (disclaimer recommended).
6.     Remember that your ethos can be seriously damaged by any misstep.
7.     Remember you can harm others without intending to do so.
I.      Do not use speech to silence opponents
1.     Speech is discourse
2.     Speech is communication
3.     Keep it open
4.     Speech can build bridges not just dams.
J.     Put ethical principles into practice
1.     Your ethos depends on ethical behavior at all times
2.     Ethical responsibilities are as serious as strategic objectives
3.     Ethic are as vital as any other step in the process
K.   Avoid Plagiarism, intended or unintended
1.     (see syllabus, text and school policies)
L.    Listeners have ethical responsibilities as well.
1.     Be courteous and attentive to the speaker
2.     Be open to their views and the information they offer
3.     Practice solid listening skills
4.     Work to understand
5.     Be civil
6.     Encourage and support the speakers
7.     Provide feedback that includes positive as well as critical comments and questions
8.     Learn form what you experience
9.     Listen to the entire speech before making a judgment on its content or value
M.  Speakers and Listeners should maintain free and open expression of ideas
1.     A free society depends on the right of individuals to speak their minds on public issues
2.     Avoid actions that will undermine an open, honest and free flow of information and ideas
3.     Support a speakers right to say what they believe, regardless of your belief as a listener
4.     Be willing to apply what you learn, or to work to counter what you feel may be wrong in a presentation
5.     Always be ready to research instead of knee-jerk reactions
N.   Learn and apply all the skills in the communication model and offered in this course
O.   Participate in your society, including civil, social, political and personal life options, duties and/or responsibilities.


V.              Informative Speaking
A.    Goal to share or convey knowledge and/or information
B.    Can be persuasive in that it provides new information
1.     Goal is not to persuade
2.     But any knowledge can shift a persons perspectives
3.     Should educate but not advocate
4.     Avoid words such as “should” or “ought” or “need”
C.    Is about sharing knowledge and ideas
1.     For mutual understanding
2.     Social or Political purpose
a.     Why is its importance for your audience
b.     What will be gained through this information
c.     How does it effect or interact with human priorities
d.     How does it effect or interact with the human condition
3.     Education and Enrichment
a.     How will audience benefit
b.     Will it improve understanding
c.     Will it result in a better life or world
d.     How does it interface with other information
4.     Present reasonable knowledge
5.     Present responsible knowledge
6.     Present balances information
7.     Persuasive only in
a.     Advancing information base
b.     No strong point of view
c.     No call for action
d.     Balanced and as unbiased as possible
D.   Sharing ideas and information is an integral part of the human condition
1.     Only human being have the linguistic and cognitive ability to accumulate, transmit and utilize complex information
2.     Shared information is essential to human progress and survival
3.     Information is a powerful commodity for individual success

E.    Speeches that are primarily informative perform four basic functions
1.     Share information and ideas to teach and enhance understanding
2.     Reasonable knowledge to share information effectively
3.     Value can be considered on how new information is to audience
a.     Is topic significant enough for audience to care
b.     How much does audience already know about topic
c.     What more does the audience need to know
d.     Does speaker have significant enough understanding to communicate accurately with the audience
e.     Why should the audience listen
f.      How does it relate to other issues of importance to listeners
g.     Informative function to adapt information to the listeners
4.     Informative speeches can persuade
a.     By providing information that may shape perspectives or decisions
b.     By being selective in what is presented
c.     Though the bias of the speaker or editor
d.     By favoring or suggesting on interpretation over others
e.     By distorting information
f.      By interpreting the information for the listener
g.     By adding to the information library of the listener
h.     By providing new ideas and perspectives to the listener
i.      By properly navigating the Nose/filters of the receiver
j.      Information can shape the agenda or priority of decision makers
k.     Information can shape agendas or perspectives by preparing or laying the groundwork for future efforts to persuade.
l.      Information can clarify options
F.    Ethical speaking involves
1.     Responsible knowledge
2.     Reasonable knowledge
3.     Covers all major reasonable options
4.     Covers all responsible options
5.     Is fair
6.     Is objective
7.     Keeps in mind the effect on the listeners
8.     Takes responsibility for the effect and response of listeners
G.   Learning principles can enhance the effectiveness of informative speaking
1.     Motivate to learn
a.     Relate topic to the needs and interests of the listeners
b.     Use direct examples and narratives
2.     Techniques to attract and sustain audience interest
a.     Intensity of language
b.     Artful repetition of key words, phrases, sounds, phrases
c.     Acronyms
d.     Novelty
e.     Physical activity
f.      Verbal activity
g.     Strong presentation aids (well used)
h.     Contrast (works because opposites attract attention)
i.      Vocal changes
j.      Stress relevance
k.     Invoke ideas and interests
3.     Information is useless unless the audience retains it
4.     Techniques for retention
a.     Repetition
b.     Key points
c.     Relevance (what’s in it for me: WIIFM)
d.     Well organized
e.     Use of visuals
f.      Use of acronyms
g.     Humor
H.   Four major types of informative speaking
1.     Description
a.     Paint a clear picture of activities, objects, people, places
b.     Rely heavily on artful language use
c.     Commonly use special, categorical, comparative designs
d.     A mental picture of a topic, person, place, activity, etc.
e.     Drawing or creating a picture with words
2.     Demonstration
a.     Aim for understanding or Application
b.     Usually use sequential design
c.     Visual aids are usually required or desirable
d.     Show how it is done and often why
e.     An explanation of a specific process
f.      Actually shows how to do something
3.     Explanation
a.     Appropriate for complex or abstract applications
b.     Define critical terms
c.     Offer Examples and/or non-examples
d.     Seek the understanding of the audience
e.     May show how something works
f.      May show why something works
4.     Briefings
a.     Short explanations or descriptions
b.     Presented in an organized setting
c.     Brief and to the point
d.     Organized with audience in mind
e.     Organized with situational need in mind
f.      Organized with need to know in mind
g.     Rely on verified facts, figures, testimony
h.     Use short examples
i.      Presented with confidence
j.      Deal with questions forthrightly and honestly
k.     Be as informed as possible with questions in mind
I.      Designs/ Organization structures
1.     See previous week’s note postings
2.     See textbook (as always)
3.     Use appropriate and best design for your topic / goals
4.     All designs may be used but the four best for informative are
a.     Spatial
b.     Sequential
c.     Categorical
d.     Comparative
e.     Causation
5.     Spatial Design
a.     Effective for describing places, locations or locating subjects within a physical setting
b.     Ordered by physical location or size, or special relationship or connection
c.     Determine a starting point and proceed in an orderly manner
d.     Complete patterns of descriptions to satisfy an audience need for closure
6.     Sequential Design
a.     Move audiences through time
b.     Effective for showing times steps
c.     Effective for showing change over time
d.     Effective for placing in historical perspective
e.     See previous notes and text for types of sequential design
f.      Includes random sequence, sequence, motivated sequence and chronological designs
g.     Chronological puts main points in order of time
h.     Sequential orders main points in terms of place in a particular process or puts them into a numbered order so that the audience may follow a process
7.     Categorical Design
a.     Appropriate for subjects with natural or customary divisions
b.     Suggested that 2 to 5 categories be used
c.     Begin and end with the most interesting categories
d.     Tie category relationships together
e.     See previous notes and text for additional information
f.      Main points do not have to have an inherent relation to each other
8.     Comparative Designs
a.     Helpful with new, abstract or difficult subjects
b.     Helpful for describing changes
c.     Helpful contrasting differing issues and proposals
d.     Best to relate one topic to something the audience already understands
e.     There are three types of comparative design
1.     A literal analogy draws subjects from the same field of expertise
2.     A figurative analogy draws subjects form differing fields of expertise
3.     Comparison and contact design points to similarities and/or differences
9.     Causation Design
a.     Explains a situation, condition, or event in terms of the causes that led up to it.
b.     See previous notes and text for types of causation design
J.     Steps in preparation for an informative speech
1.     Brainstorm on topic selection
2.     Select and analyze a topic
a.     Choose a worthwhile topic
b.     Choose a topic you care about
c.     Choose a topic that can meet the requirements for the speech assignment or situation
d.     Adapt your topic so that it is interesting and relevant
e.     Limit your topic to something that can be handled in the time, situation or environment provided for the speech
f.      Determine, private and public purpose
g.     Determine thesis (proposed, be open to change)
3.     Develop responsible knowledge on the subject
a.     Review what you already know
b.     Use the library to expand what you know’
c.     Use other research tools to develop your knowledge
d.     Seek out the required amount of academic and non-academic sources
e.     Gather evidence including:
f.      Find facts, figures, testimony, examples and narratives to add substance to your speech
4.     Adapt the topic to the audience
5.     Organize your materials
a.     Select the proper structure
b.     Determine your main points
c.     Usually select between two and five key points
d.     Arrange the points to make the speech flow and easy to understand or follow
e.     Write the conclusion
f.      Write the introduction
6.     Outlining
a.     Prepare a formal outline (with sources shown)
b.     Make sure formal outline is detailed and reflects all of your research
c.     Shorten the outline
d.     Prepare a key word / key note / thumbnail presentation outline
e.     Write it out on note cards
f.      Practice, practice, practice
g.     Reduce the number of note cards if possible
7.     Practice
a.     At least ten times, more if possible
b.     Practice using presentation aids
c.     Keep potential audience, environment, and situation in mind.

VI.           Preparing a Thumbnail, Key-Work, Key-Note, Presentation Outline
A.    Complete your final outline
B.    Underline the key words or phrases in your formal outline
C.    Copy the key words or phrases onto new shorter outline format
1.     Use the same format as your larger outline
2.     Only a few words per major point
D.   Copy to note cards
1.     One for introduction
2.     One for each major body point
3.     One for conclusion
E.    Copy key citations when needed (try to minimize reading)
F.    Do not use full sentences. The shorter the better
G.   Only use full sentence if a quote must be exact
H.   Cut anything you can remember easily
I.      Reduce the amount on the cards as you practice (flash care effect).
J.     Number cards
K.   Use large lettering that is easy to read or find if you get lost
L.    On final presentation, use cards only if absolutely necessary

VII.         Listening
A.    Objectives
1.     The difference between hearing and listening
2.     Four kinds of listening
3.     The relationship of listening to critical thinking
4.     Good listening is important
5.     Four major causes of poor listening
6.     Seven way to become a better listener
B.    Hearing and Listening are different processes
1.     Hearing is physiological
a.     Physical in nature
b.     Passive, it just happens
c.     The vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses form the inner ear to the brain
2.     Listening is psychological
a.     A voluntary mental process
b.     Involves paying attention to sounds
c.     Involves actively interpreting sounds (including words)
d.     Pay attention to and make sense of words and sounds
e.     Understanding concepts through active communication
3.     Both can be more than just words and sounds
a.     Sound
b.     Sight
c.     Touch
d.     Smell
e.     Sixth Sense
f.      Thought
C.    Most people are poor listeners
1.     People understand less than half of what they hear
2.     After 24 hours most people remember less than ten percent of the original message
3.     Repetition is needed to reinforce ideas
D.   Listening is more important than ever
1.     An important job skill
a.     Leads to promotions and positions of leadership
b.     Business managers rank listening skills as the most critical of job skills
c.     More than half of the Fortune 500 companies provide training for employees in listening skills
d.     In any marketing or sales job, listening is the most important skill
2.     Academics
a.     90% of class time is spent listening
b.     Supplement reading and other sources
c.     Reinforces textbook and other sources provided
d.     Students with the highest grades have the greatest listening skills
3.     Reasoning and life
a.     The better the listening skills the more flexible the mind
b.     Trouble does not just happen, usually it happens due to a lack of attention to sensory clues
c.     People who listen well are perceived as more competent, intelligent, skilled, polite and social.
E.    Listening skills are closely tied to critical thinking
1.     Appreciative Listening
a.     For pleasure or enjoyment
b.     Entertainment or every day information
c.     Self advancement
d.     Appreciation
2.     Empathetic Listening
a.     Listening to provide emotional support
b.     Listening to experience emotional stimulation
3.     Comprehensive Listening
a.     Listening to understand the speakers message
b.     Listening to accumulate knowledge or viewpoints
4.     Critical Listening
a.     Evaluating a message to either accept or reject it
b.     Evaluating a message to determine how to use the information
c.     Evaluating a message to judge other information or perceived knowledge
d.     Listening to understand concepts or ideas
F.    Critical thinking skills are central to comprehensive listening
1.     Summarizing information
2.     Recall information
3.     Determine main points from minor points
4.     Decide what to retain and how to use it
G.   Critical thinking skills are critical to listening
1.     Separate fact from opinion
2.     Determine fact from supposition
3.     Spotting weakness in arguments or ideas
4.     Spotting strengths in argument or ideas
5.     Judging the quality of evidence
H.   Training in Listening is Training in Thinking
I.      Causes of Poor Listening
1.     Not concentrating
a.     Adults can listen 50% of less, kids 25% or less
b.     The human brain can process only 400 to 800 words a minute
c.     We cannot speak that fast
d.     Our brains think about many things at once
2.     Listening too hard can interfere with understanding messages
a.     Trying to remember too much detail can blur the message
b.     Main points can be missed if details become more important than the overall message
c.     Unlike written words, we cannot go back and reread what we have heard
3.     Jumping to too many conclusions
a.     Assuming we know what we do not know
b.     Assuming the speaker is saying something they are not saying
c.     Not understanding or trying to understand noise, filters, interference and cultural differences
d.     Prematurely accept or reject a speakers points or views
4.     Focusing on delivery or appearance
a.     Do not let personal appearance, accents, vocal mannerisms, or other distraction keep your from listening.
b.     Avoid emotional censorship of messages
c.     Do not jump to conclusions based on non-verbal clues
d.     Do not jump to conclusions based on verbal only clues
J.     Seven Ways to Improve listening skills
1.     Listen seriously
a.     Practice
b.     Self discipline
c.     Work at it as often as you can
d.     Be open minded
2.     Be a active listener
a.     Make an effort to understand
b.     Minimize interference and noise
c.     Understand the speaker and your own noise/interference
d.     Work to accurately decode the message
e.     Avoid prejudice, bias and stereotype if it interferes with the message
3.     Resist distractions
a.     Keep your mind on what the speaker is saying
b.     Be aware as you drift away and return to the speakers message
4.     Do not be distracted by appearance or delivery
a.     Set aside negative judgments
b.     Guard against positive appearance or charisma giving a false positive
c.     Think of all speakers as equal to you and very human (flaws and all)
5.     Suspend judgment until hearing the full message
a.     Know that you will disagree with some points
b.     Understand from the speakers point of view
c.     Be aware of speakers evidence
d.     Be aware of speakers reasoning
e.     Get the overall message before attacking specifics
6.     Focus your listening
a.     Focus on the speaker’s main points
b.     Evaluate the quality of the speakers evidence
7.     Develop strong note taking skills
a.     Note taking enhances listening
b.     Note taking enhances understanding
c.     Note taking reinforces other media or sources
d.     Avoid taking down every word
e.     Use outline format in some form
f.      Avoid trying to get every point or every nuance
g.     Avoid focusing too much on fascinating tidbits
h.     Concentrate on the speakers mina ideas and supporting materials
i.      Use key word outlines to summarize the speakers message


VIII.       Supporting Your Ideas
A.    Objectives
1.     Why you need strong support material for your ideas
2.     Examples
a.     Extended
b.     Brief
c.     Hypothetical
3.     How to use Examples effectively in a speech
4.     Three questions for judging the reliability of statistics
5.     How to use statistics effectively in a speech
B.    Supporting your point of view: Speeches need strong supporting materials to bolster the speaker’s point of view.
1.     Audience may not trust unsupported allocations
2.     Audiences may assume you are making things up
3.     Strong speeches use secondary ethos and examples
4.     Special and credible details are more convincing than are unsupported generalizations.
C.    Support materials is closely related to critical thinking
1.     Which ideas need to be supported and to what extent
2.     Must understand audience to select what audience will accept as support
3.     Support determined by audience, event, topic, purpose, location
4.     Use research to find best material to support what you are saying
5.     Best means what works best for audience and topic
6.     Find support that can be clear and creative
7.     Be specific whenever possible
8.     Make sure materials really do back up your point
D.   Accessing the Quality of Support Materials requires critical thinking
1.     Accuracy of supporting materials
2.     Relevance of supporting materials
3.     Reliability of supporting materials
4.     Strength of supporting materials
5.     Are supporting materials needed for a given point or idea?
E.    Examples
1.      Evaluating Examples
a.     Are the examples relevant to the issue?
b.     Do they help clarify the subject?
c.     Are the examples an exception or the rule?
d.     Are the examples representative of the situation?
e.     Are the examples believable? Or far-fetched?
f.      Are the examples fresh and interesting?
g.     Do the examples fit the mood and spirit of the situation?
h.     Are the examples in good taste?
i.      Are factual examples and hypothetical examples clearly differentiated?
j.      Are they necessary?

2.     Can get an audience involved in the speech, interested and listening.
a.     Concrete details that make a speech specific, personal and lively
b.     Examples have the most impact on an audience’s belief than any other kind of evidence
c.     Real world is better than hypothetical
3.     Brief Examples
a.     Specific incidents a speaker refers to in passing
b.     Quickly illustrates a point, concept or idea
c.     Useful in introducing a new topic or in transitions
d.     Can be stacked up to reinforce a speakers points
4.     Extended examples
a.     Longer and more detailed than brief examples
b.     Illustrations, narratives, anecdotes
c.     Should tell story vividly and dramatically
d.     Can be used to draw audience into the speech
e.     Can be used for Ethos, Pathos, Mythos or Logos
5.     Hypothetical examples
a.     Describe an imaginary situation
b.     Can relate general principles directly to the audience
c.     Should supplement and support with other evidence to show that the hypothetical situation could occur
d.     Can be more specific to the point than other examples
e.     Lower in ethos than actual events
6.     Tips for using examples effectively
a.     Use examples to clarify ideas
b.     Use examples to reinforce ideas
c.     Use exampled to personalize ideas
d.     Use extended examples hat are vivid and richly textured
e.     Always practice delivery to enhance delivery and impact
F.    Statistics (Figures)
1.     When properly used statistics strongly support a speakers ideas or points
a.     Can be brief or extended
b.     Can be used in combination to show the magnitude and seriousness of a situation.
c.     Need to be supported from credible sources the audience will accept
d.     Should not be used without showing reliable sourcing

2.     Should only be used when necessary for comprehension
3.     Can be easily manipulated or distorted
a.     Evaluate seriously what to use
b.     Be sure not to distort or abuse (ethics)
c.     Make sure the statistics come from a reliable source
d.     Make sure the audience will agree source is reliable
e.     Make sure statistics are representative of what they claim to measure
f.      Understand the difference between basic statistical measures
4.     Evidence: Evaluating Facts and Figures
a.     Is the information relevant to the issues?
b.     Is the information up to date? Recentcy.
c.     Is the information reliable?
d.     Can the information be confirmed by an independent source?
e.     Have the sources of the data or information been identified?
f.      What bias can be identified, and is it significant enough to draw the data or information into question?
g.     Co you consider the information trustworthy and competent?
h.     Was the information complete and sufficient?
i.      Was anything purposely withheld?
j.      Is this information or opinion?
k.     Are statistics passed off as representing actual differences?
l.      Is there a stated margin of error?
m.   Was there a clear methodology followed?
n.     Do they clarify or muddy understanding of the point?
o.     Are they needed and necessary?
5.     Statistics should be used to quantify ideas
a.     The main value of statistics is to give numerical precision
b.     Can greatly enhance the impact of other examples by quantifying the speakers point
6.     Statistics should be used sparingly
a.     People do not comprehend numbers as well as we think we do. They can confuse or even make people stop listening.
b.     Cluttering a speech with too many statistics can make is come across as dull and uninteresting
c.     The use of statistics depends on the nature and professional interests of the audience. Are they accustomed to numbers?
d.     Effective speakers use statistics only when they are needed.
7.     The source of statistics should usually be identified in the speech
a.     The audience knows statistics can be manipulated
b.     It is more persuasive when sources are identified
c.     The more educated, critical or careful the listeners the more support are needed for any numbers used in a speech.
8.     Statistics need to be made meaningful to the audience
a.     WIIFM, what’s in it for me?
b.     Numbers seldom speak for themselves.
c.     Statistics need to be explained and related to the audience
d.     Large numbers need to be humanized for the audience
e.     Most audience an interest is in smaller ideas or personal images they can relate to. Bring numbers home.
9.     Round off numbers
a.     Complicated statistics need to be rounded off
b.     Can use exact numbers on charts or graphs, but audiences will not retain the key concept only a few digits if you do not round up or down.
c.     The audience knows you will round numbers to your advantage, so be honest with them.
d.     Unless there is a strong reason to give exact numbers, lengthy figures should be rounded off for the audience,
10.  Statistics may need visual aids to clarify concepts
a.     Statistical trends should be shown visually
b.     Effective speakers use graphs and other visual aids to make their presentations more meaningful and easier to comprehend.
11.  Statistics can be found in many sources
G.   Testimony
1.     Can be highly effective used in a speech
a.     Strong secondary Ethos
b.     Can support Speakers Ethos
c.     Audiences accept people perceived as having special knowledge of topic or event
d.     Brings greater strength to the speakers points
e.     Can be paraphrased, quoted or simply referred to
2.     Tips on using testimony effectively
a.     Quote or paraphrase accurately
b.     Use testimony from qualified sources
c.     Use testimony from balanced sources or
d.     Use conflicting testimony for your own credibility as a speaker
e.     Identify the people being quoted or paraphrased
f.      Identity the ethos or credibility of those you quote or paraphrase
3.     Questions to Ask before using Testimony
a.      Is the testimony relevant to the issue?
b.     Is the testimony representative of the sources opinion?
c.     Is the testimony representative of the sources position?
d.     Has the proper type of testimony been used?
e.     Have the credentials of the source been presented?
f.      Has the source been quoted or paraphrased accurately?
g.     If expert testimony is used, is the source and authority on the subject?
h.     Is the source objective? If not what do you compensate or reveal bias?
i.      Is the testimony recent, still valuable, or out of date?
j.      Does the testimony help understanding of the issue or point?
k.     Is it needed and necessary?

4.     Expert Testimony
a.     Knowledgeable authorities in their fields
b.     Provides credibility for experts and non-expert speakers
c.     Useful with controversial topics
d.     Useful if audience is skeptical about topic or views presented
e.     Useful in debate or court formats
5.     Peer Testimony
a.     Ordinary people with first hand experience
b.     People the audience may know or relate to
c.     Provides a personal viewpoint
d.     Audiences accept more color and variety from peer testimony
e.     Usually has greater emotional impact (Pathos) than expert
f.      Usually has greater authenticity in the perception of the audience.
g.     Testimony a presentation audio or audio/visual aid
1.     Keep it short
2.     Maximize impact
3.     Best if person is famous or has visual credibility
h.     Testimony can be presented word for word (veer vatim)
1.     Keep it short / brief
2.     Use only if it conveys the speakers meaning better than their own words or
3.     Use if the word are famous or very specific in intent
4.     Best if speaker can properly interpret subtext and intended meaning of the words
5.     Best is the quote is eloquent, witty or compelling
6.     Strongest when used for attention, for main points or as part of an introduction or conclusion
i.      Testimony can be presented through paraphrasing
1.     Using simpler words to explain the true meaning of a quotes intent
2.     Using simpler words to shorten a quite but keep the intent
3.     Preferable if the wording of a quote is long, obscure or awkward
4.     Use if the quote will not work as well with a contemporary audience

IX.           Evidence: Evaluating Facts and Figures
A.    Is the information relevant to the issues?
B.    Is the information up to date? Recentcy.
C.    Is the information reliable?
D.   Can the information be confirmed by an independent source?
E.    Have the sources of the data or information been identified?
F.    What bias can be identified, and is it significant enough to draw the data or information into question?
G.   Co you consider the information trustworthy and competent?
H.   Was the information complete and sufficient?
I.      Was anything purposely withheld?
J.     Is this information or opinion?
K.   Are statistics passed off as representing actual differences?
L.    Is there a stated margin of error?
M.  Was there a clear methodology followed?
N.   Do they clarify or muddy understanding of the point?
O.   Are they needed and necessary?

X.             Evidence: Evaluating Testimony
A.    Is the testimony relevant to the issue?
B.    Is the testimony representative of the sources opinion?
C.    Is the testimony representative of the sources position?
D.   Has the proper type of testimony been used?
E.    Have the credentials of the source been presented?
F.    Has the source been quoted or paraphrased accurately?
G.   If expert testimony is used, is the source and authority on the subject?
H.   Is the source objective? If not what do you compensate or reveal bias?
I.      Is the testimony recent, still valuable, or out of date?
J.     Does the testimony help understanding of the issue or point?
K.   Is it needed and necessary?

XI.           Evidence: Evaluating Examples
A.    Are the examples relevant to the issue?
B.    Do they help clarify the subject?
C.    Are the examples an exception or the rule?
D.   Are the examples representative of the situation?
E.    Are the examples believable? Or far-fetched?
F.    Are the examples fresh and interesting?
G.   Do the examples fit the mood and spirit of the situation?
H.   Are the examples in good taste?
I.      Are factual examples and hypothetical examples clearly differentiated?
J.     Are they necessary?

XII.         Evidence: Evaluating Narratives
A.    Are the narratives relevant to the points they support?
B.    Can they be understood clearly?
C.    Are they believable and realistic?
D.   Do they create a mood consistent with the topic?
E.    Are the narratives fresh and interesting?
F.    Do the narratives involve the audience and create identification?
G.   Are the narratives in good taste?
H.   Are the narratives short and to the point?
I.      Are the narratives necessary?

XIII.       Presentation Aids
A.    Will it enhance understanding?
B.    Is it easy to understand?
C.    Is it needed?
D.   Is there enough information on the aid?
E.    Is the aid neat and professional?
F.    Is the print large enough for the audience to read?
G.   Are colors used correctly?
H.   Is everything drown to scale? If not clearly identify differences.
I.      Is the necessary equipment available and in working order?
J.     Is there an alternative in case of any problems in presentation?
K.   How is equipment used? How do you run it properly?
L.    Do I need any additional tools (tape, tacks, etc.) to position aids properly?
M.  Could speech be done just as well or better without the aids?
N.   Are they used properly
O.   Are they necessary?

XIV.       Graphic Message Presentation
A.    Sketches
1.     Simplified representations of items, ideas, thoughts
B.    Maps
1.     Representation of spaces or geography
2.     Good for describing spatial locations
C.    Graphs
1.     Representation of numbers, statistics, relationships, change
2.     Pie Graph: shows size or proportion of parts relative to each other of the whole
3.     Bar Graph: compares and contrasts items or information
4.     Line Graph: illustrates changes of growth rates over time or another third factor.
5.     Mountain Graph: illustrates same as line graph but allows comparison of differing factors against each other over time. Also effective when there are extreme variations in data.
D.   Charts
1.     Summarizes process and relationships
2.     Flow charts
a.     Steps of a process
b.     Power/responsibility relationships within a hierarchy
3.     Sequence charts
a.     Presented as a series
b.     Shows a process over time or in steps
E.    Textual Graphics
1.     Use words to illustrate information
2.     Keep it simple
3.     Bulleted lists
a.     Have no more than six words a line
b.     No more than six lines
c.     Less is more
4.     Acronyms
a.     Use initial letters or prominent letters to help audience remember a concept or idea
b.     Always define, since same acronym may have multiple meanings
c.     Useful in memorization of ideas or concepts
5.     Statistical charts
a.     Best to have no more than three columns
b.     Best to have no more than six rows of data
c.     Show only what you need to
d.     Use to illustrate points
F.    Photographs
1.     Large enough to be seen clearly
2.     Simple enough to be understood quickly and clearly
3.     Must relate strongly to point or story being made/told.
4.     Best if kept near speaker
5.     Only in view of the audience when being spoken about

XV.         Contacting Instructor
A.    See syllabus
B.    Best to use Web CT e-mail
C.    Best day is Friday morning, but 24 submission possible
D.   Before of after class for brief meetings
E.    Appointments are encouraged for outside of class

XVI.       Course will pick up speed, but other then for review or to assist you in your speech presentation, most new text material or lecture will be minimal. This is your time, your class and the time most students enjoy most (except if they wait until the last minute). Put your time into your speech preparation and keep on top of review toward the final (which is worth 20% of your grade). Also consider doing an extra credit as explained in the syllabus.

I.               Be sure to take advantage of the presentation primer (located in handouts)

A.    Provides basics for putting together a good speech
B.    Contains basics for visual aids
C.    Shows general outline format (as does this document)
D.   Is by one of the authors of the textbook (hint, study it for final).

II.             Supporting A Point Presentation (if done by your section, if not use as guide for Persuasive in how to focus in on one strong point)

A.    10% of final grade / 100 points
B.    4 to 6 minutes
1.     50 points deducted if over or under
2.     No exceptions to time restriction
C.    Social or political issue you are interested in.
D.   Pick a topic for which you feel a strong passion.
E.    Speech must make a single specific and strong point
F.    May be persuasive or informative in structure.
G.   Notes:            May be used in any form you select.
H.   Remember to maintain eye contact with the audience.
I.      Minimize dependence on the podium.
J.     A thumbnail outline must be provided to each audience member as well as the instructor.
K.   Full outline and narrative are also required to the instructor
1.     Before you speak on both thumbnail and full outline/references
2.     Must use APA format
L.    References are what other forms of citation call Bibliography
M.  Citations are inside the outline, also in APA format
N.   At least five references must be used and supplied to the
                                   Instructor as a bibliography.
O.   Use at least one form of visual aid to reinforce your point(s).
P.    Develop a strong argument
1.     contested thesis
2.     on a timely topic
3.     leaving the audience with
a.     one strong point
b.     well made
c.     and convincingly presented
Q.   Your thesis points must be free of blatant fallacies.
R.    Pick timely issues
1.     with which your audience may not be familiar
2.     or may not have made up their minds as of yet.

S.    Convince the audience to
1.     recognize
2.     and acknowledge the validity of your point.
T.    Address opposing viewpoints
1.     Do not ignore any points that might be obvious in opposition to your main or supportive points.
2.     You need not sell or dwell on supporting opposing points
U.   offer a reasoning and evidence in support of your position.
V.    Your presentation must be reasonable and balanced


III.           Midterm Observations
A.    College work involves
1.     Reading,
2.     Research,
3.     Study
4.     Focus
5.     More reading
6.     And more research
B.    You need to apply yourself to your work in all of your courses if you wish to succeed
C.    You must keep up with the
1.     Syllabus,
2.     Instructor and
3.     Assignments
D.   You must look and work ahead,
1.     Not just in each moment
2.     And on each days tasks
E.    Overall you are doing fine work
1.     When you consider how few points we are into the term to date
2.     When you consider that this is a learning process
3.     When you consider where everyone one of you started the term, compared to today
4.     And in general against my past terms (you guys are great!)
F.    Your feedback is appreciated and will be utilized this term (if possible) or considered as part of planning on how to keep the course fresh, interesting and engaging for future students. Thank you.
G.   Those who are ESL, or having difficulty in other ways,
1.     May utilize the laboratories, workshops and other services offered by CCSN,
2.     Use the testing center for the final
3.     And are welcome to approach me for additional assistance.
H.   In general
1.     Attendance did reflect in midterm scores/ grades
a.     Attendance on key review days
b.     Overall days attended
c.     Ten points off per absence will be imposed at end of term
d.      You get only two days “free” (three hours of class time)
e.     You must attend on the day of your speech, the midterm and the final exam.
2.     Taking notes did reflect on midterm grades
a.     Those who took notes during class did better
b.     Those who were ready at the start of class did better
3.     Those who did the two take home quizzes fully scored much better on the midterm
4.     Those who read the text more than once scored much better on the midterm
5.     I can only assume that those who fully utilized the Web CT features of the class scored better (I can but will not check your actual hours of Web CT usage)
6.     Those who to date have shown they understand and can meet the requirements for a speech as outlined on the syllabus also did better on the midterm
I.      Results were about as expected,
1.     With many C’s and B’s,
2.     But only a few A’s.
J.     The final
1.     Is by the same authors, with a few exceptions
2.     Covers the entire text,
3.     Does duplicate the midterm quite a bit
4.     Is the same format (Scranton) as the midterm
5.     Has 100 questions and is worth 200 points (20% of your grade)
K.   Grading gets much harder on speeches from now on (see below and last week’s notes)
L.    You get what you put in.

IV.           We will be reviewing ways to insure your “A” in the class.
A.    Read these notes carefully (all ten weeks worth, plus all future notes)
B.    Make sure you meet or exceed the requirements in the syllabus
C.    Keep up with the syllabus, instructor and assignments
D.   Talk about things you have a passionate interests in
E.    Use the speeches to learn more about what you are interested in and/or to network in areas you need to start networking anyway
F.    Watch your time
G.   Watch and learn from other student’s speeches
H.   Listen to feedback on all speeches, not just your own
I.      Keep a positive attitude
J.     Enjoy the class instead of “suffering” through it

V.             Textbook
A.    By now you should have completed the entire textbook.
B.    If you have not, I strongly suggest you do so, and read sections you do not understand several times.
C.    Then read the weekly notes I have posted (this is the tenth installment)
D.   And if necessary seek out other sources on the Internet, in the library or go to the Communication office or lab and access other textbooks to look up any material you do not fully understand.
E.    You may e-mail questions or ask them in class, depending on time (from here on in, the speeches take full priority).

VI.           Informative speeches may persuade

VII.         Persuasive speeches must inform,

VIII.       Education is repetition.

IX.           Informative Speech
A.    Read chapters in the text on informative, presentation, voice, outline and visuals, including all required reading that apply to an speech presentation.
B.    Review Week 9 and previous notes that have to do with
1.     Informative speaking
2.     Research
3.     Referencing
4.     Outlining
5.     Delivery
6.     Other
C.    Review the evaluation sheet for Informative Speech located on Web Ct
D.   Make a checklist of the requirements for the speech (requirements are in your syllabus, also under “handouts” or “syllabus” on Web Ct).
E.    Make sure all paper submitted to the instructor includes
1.     The assignment title (information speech)
2.     Your name
3.     Your section number
4.     Com 101
5.     And is typeset per syllabus and college requirements
F.    Watch your time length
1.     6 to 8 minutes
2.     Shoot for 6 to 7 minutes to be safe
3.     Time your speech and make sure it is on time
4.     Automatic 50 points off if long or short
5.     Rehearse often
6.     Rehearse with presentation aids
7.     If possible rehearse in classroom (at a minimum placement and use of visual aids)
8.     Relax
G.   Is the issue or concept new or interesting to the audience
1.     Make it interesting
2.     Find new ideas, concepts or information
3.     Bring information to current, relate to current
H.   Must have
1.     Strong introduction,
2.     Clear thesis,
3.     Supportive body
4.     And a clear engaging conclusion
I.      Main points
1.     Each must be supported by appropriate source
2.     Primary support sources must be clear to the audience
3.     All sources must be shown in the outline and references
4.     Support sources must be used for secondary ethos, etc.
J.     Reflect Reasonable Balanced Knowledge
1.     Avoid being one sided
2.     Be able to answer questions
3.     Do complete college level research
K.   Must be as objective as possible
1.     Use but filter and admit any personal bias
2.     Use but filter and point our any source bias
3.     Try to look at issue objectively
4.     Try not to advocate or persuade
L.    Is your outline full and complete
1.     Every detail you researched
2.     Another person could give a speech from it
3.     Easy to read
4.     References shown inside outline in APA format
5.     All references shown under “references” are also used in the outline
6.     Do you have the required minimum of 5 academic references
7.     Are references from multiple sources
8.     Are references diverse (not all internet or books)
9.     Are your non-academic references listed
10.  It is a good idea to be safe and have additional references
11.  Double check APA format in references and within outline
M.  Is your thumbnail a short presentation format, as required
1.     All you should have with you when you speak are note cards showing (at the most) what is in the textbook as a “presentation outline.”
2.     Name and section number on document
N.   Is you narrative a short “abstract”
1.     Find a few “abstracts” or journals (use CCSN on-line library or go to UNLV stacks).
2.     The narrative is a short abstract for your speech
3.     Include your thesis statement, your main body points or a summary of your speech, and your conclusion. It need not be longer than three sentences to no more than a page (double spaced).
O.   Presentation must be extemporaneous
1.     Must appear to not use notes
2.     Presentation, Thumbnail notes are allowed
3.     Eye contact is critical
4.     Proper use of all aids
5.     Conversational in tone
6.     React to and communicate with your audience
7.     See speech evaluation sheet on Web CT
8.     Read applicable sections in the textbook
P.    Bibliography is called References under APA and is included at the end of your full outline per APA format.
1.     5 or more points off for each missed academic reference
2.     Points will be take off for incorrect format on APA
3.     Help from Purdue on-line
4.     Help from information in your text
5.     Help from other links under handouts
6.     Help from writing center at CCSN
7.     Help from others in the class
8.     Help from APA guides on sale in bookstore
9.     Other
Q.   Presentation Aids
1.     At least 3
2.     At least one must be visual
3.     5 or more points off for each missed or poor presentation aid
4.     Suggested you not rely exclusively on any one type of aid
(For example, not all power point or all posters).
R.    Creativity, ingenuity, fresh approach, how you engage the audience will all be considered in determining final points on the speech

X.             Discussion
A.    You have access to all other sections and the instructor
1.     100 brains are better than one
2.     Share notes and experiences with students in other sections
3.     Take advantage of what others have to offer
B.    Use discussion more frequently
1.     Helps in review for final
2.     Helps in preparation for speeches
3.     Helps in stimulating and sharing ideas
4.     Helps in keeping current on topics
C.    Use Notes
1.     Notes is where you should post your notes
2.     You can access and review other students notes
3.     You can ask questions and get answers
4.     Instructor will review notes and posting and provide feedback
5.     You benefit from entering your own notes
a.     You review notes as you type
b.     You find out what holes or needs you may have
D.   Share Outlines and Research
1.     Get advance critiques from other students
2.     Get help on format and content from other students
3.     Share common research or topics
4.     Bounce ideas off each other
E.    Interesting Stuff
1.     Share articles or observations you may come across
2.     Help keep all of us current
3.     Counter any perceived bias by instructor or other students
4.     Other.






2 comments:

Linda Ndenga said...

This is some good stuff, I especially liked the ways to improve a grade, some of it can be appplied to other lasses too, but is especially helpful for this class. Linda Ndenga

Ana Tinta COM 101-4080 said...

Thank you for this post. You can tell that you really care for your students and want us to do well. Not very many professors care now and days. Thanks!