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Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Unit 8 Notes

Com 101 notes

Unit 8 Notes and Review
3-4-10 draft
Art Lynch


Unit # 8 Notes

Unit 8 covers the entire course to date, including but not limited to: research, references, interviewing, Q&A, visual aids, impromptu and extemporaneous speaking, language use, as well as continued midterm review of all concepts.

This unit includes important details on research, designs or structures, speech presentation and what each type of speech entails.

The course moves very quickly, so be sure to plan ahead, do your work and be prepared to speak on the day you signed up for. There are no guarantees of make-goods.

Click on "read more" to review notes, comments and advice.

Study with others, read the on-line material, read the book, review class notes, attend class and apply that knowledge and all of you can earn A's or B's by the end of the term.

Grading from here on in is stricter, but not hard if you read the book, review these posted unit notes (starting from unit #1), follow lecture advice, listen to the feedback to your speech and to those of your fellow students, make sure you do what is in the assignment on the syllabus, plan and rehearse as required, and use the evaluation sheets during your preparation. Of course do the best you can (personal improvement counts).

Apply the textbook, lecture and critique of your previous speeches (including classmates).

Remember to use APA correctly, that the full outline must be complete (so complete anyone else can do a speech from it, with references shown in the proper way inside the outline and at the end as “references”), thumbnails (presentation/ delivery / key work / key note) are a few words, narrative means only a few sentences (abstract), visuals must be seen and apply well to the points you are making when you are making them, you should talk without notes (very few notes on note cards) about something you care about and watch your time (aim for the short end and make sure you make it…that’s my best advice on time…plus use a timer or watch), and above all remember that “it’s only a class” (Cognitive Restructuring).

Extra credit should be considered as a safety.

USE ANGEL / WEB CT to its full advantage. Post your notes as e-mail to instructor and the rest of your class. In doing so you will reinforce your own knowledge and allow feedback from others. This course is not competitive in grading, it is cooperative and individual achievement based. Post your outlines for feedback from others (including myself) to increase the chance that you will gain full points when you give your speech. Open your mind to the thoughts, ideas, concepts, knowledge, experiences and beliefs of others. Make the most of this course.

PLEASE DO THE DISCUSSION...respond, add to it, post your notes, post your outlines for review by other students, ask questions...use the blog!

I am here for all of you.

I hope these outline notes continue to be of assistance in reviewing for tests and in doing your best work on your speeches.


I.               Designs / Structures / Organization tools (review)
A.    Designs may be used for both information or persuasion
B.    Designs do tend to work to differing degrees depending on the topic or goals of a presentation, paper or argument
C.    See the text for which designs it recommends for informative, persuasive and other forms of speeches, papers, presentations or arguments
D.   Categorical
1.     Frequently used for informative
2.     Arrange reasons in a failure pattern
3.     Arrange speech around smaller categories of larger topic
4.     Arrange to allow audience to follow larger topics or ideas
5.     Allows narrowing of focus around a few specific and manageable divisions
6.     Can be Topical
a.     Usually large into small
b.     Offering and describes reasons, techniques
E.    Causation
1.     Used most often in persuasive
2.     Involves and issue that is best understood by understanding the underlying causes
3.     Identify one of more possible causes
4.     Most often used in advertising (as problem-solution format)
5.     Causation
a.     When used alone simply established the cause of a problem
b.     Can be informative if used only as Causation
c.     Best when sub-set or alternatives below are used for persuasion
6.     Cause and effect
a.     This causes that
b.     A causes B
c.     The danger is that the sequence may be coincidental or that there may be other greater causes, or that a combination of causes need to be in place for the effect to occur
7.     Cause-Solution
a.     Show what the cause is and how it solves a problem
8.     Problem-Solution
a.     Establish a problem and then show how to solve it
b.     Usually one solution, as in advertising products that relieve headaches, sexual problems, flue symptoms, etc.
c.     “If this” “then that”.
d.     “If this, then we must…”
e.     Cooperative- compare multiple good, better and best solutions
f.      Contrasting- only one works and here is why they others do not
g.     Generative- show how together or alone solution solves problem
h.     Logistic- shows flow chart solution to a problem
9.     Problem-Cause-Solution
a.     Establish and clearly indicate the problem
b.     Show the most likely cause
c.     Show how your solution will solve the problem based on the cause or causes you indicated
d.     Allows for a relatively simple breakdown of all information into two or three (more only if time or space allows, but three is optimum) pre-set main points.
e.     Danger is that the cause may be one of many and may not be the most influential or likely cause (Example: Why Nevada is the 47th state in average education)
F.    Comparative
1.     Compares or contrasts one or more concepts, items, ideas, individuals or solutions
2.     Is most common in informative speeches
3.     Can be used in persuasive to point out the weaknesses off the opposition and the strengths of the proponent
4.     Note: need not be direct point against point as in regulative design.
5.     Allows comparison of two or more alternatives
G.   Refutative
1.     Directly address opposing viewpoints, show why they are wrong
2.     Directly address opposing argument, point by point
3.     Argue against a particular point of view, act, acts or actions.
4.     Main points of speech argue against the claims of the opposing viewpoint.
5.     Used when other side is dominant
6.     Also used to defend status quo
7.     Also used in a purely defensive posture
8.     Best used as a persuasive design
H.   Sequential
1.     Puts information into some order
2.     Outline steps in a plan of action
3.     Pure sequential, the order is to help audience to understand and may or may not be mandatory
4.     Chronological is a sequential design where things are put into the order of time (could be seconds, hours, days, weeks, years, or centuries, etc.)
5.     Motivated Sequence is where sequence must be followed and it is explained why.
a.     Example: 12 steps program for Alcohol Anonymous or why ingredients must be put in a certain order.
b.     Uses a sequence of steps and offers an explanation as to why they must be in sequence
I.      Spatial
1.     Organize the main points according to space, size, distance or other physical relationship to other points.
2.     Examples: Travel, state size, distance of planets, size of pyramids, relationship of genes, size of atoms, volume of water, and so forth.
3.     Keep to two to five main points (three is optimum) unless time or paper length allows for more (audience will only grasp two or three per text).
4.     Best used in informative speeches, but can be used in persuasive in conjunction with other designs.
J.     Stock Issue
1.     The elephant in the living room or the gorilla in the closet
2.     Questions that most people already have in there minds
3.     Questions reasonable people would ask
4.     Focus on “stock” questions
II.             Principles of Good Form (review)
A.    Simplicity
1.     Limit your main points (2 or 3 are suggested by the text)
2.     Phrase main points clearly and succinctly
3.     Repeat points as suggested in text
4.     Use parallel phrasing for emphasis
B.    Balance
1.     The body should be the longest part of the speech
2.     Main points should be balanced
a.     All may be equal in importance or length
b.     Or make sure they do not overwhelm other points
c.     Order is vital to making your point
d.     Main Points may increase or decrease in importance
e.     Main Points may increase or decrease in length
3.     Introduction and Conclusion should be close in length
a.     Make sure you follow suggestions in text
b.     Make sure you look at evaluations sheets on Web CT/ Angel
C.    Orderliness
1.     Open with the Introduction
2.     Develop main ideas in the body of your speech
3.     End with a conclusion
4.     Follow a consistent pattern of development

III.           Unit notes are long but there to assist you…use them.

IV.           There is repetition in these notes, often with additional details or rephrased to assist you in understanding and applying the material and concepts of the course.


V.             It gets harder and pickier from here.

VI.           Things to remember:
A.    Section number on all documents,
1.      Including title of e-mail
2.      Title of document: .doc submissions,
3.     Subject line on all e-mails,
4.     In message,
5.     On al papers in the upper right hand corner
B.    Time is important. Be on time.
C.    Speech length is vital.
D.    Day of speech is ready.
E.    Sources must be APA, not only in references,
F.    But in inside the outline (specifics must be followed).
G.   Sources means academic (for minimum).
H.   You may use and list non-academic beyond or have more academic than you need.
I.      Full outline is full outline per text and examples.
J.     All research must be shown and
K.   I should be able to give the speech from it.
L.    Thumbnail is delivery outline, and must be distributed.
M.  Narrative (short abstract) is required.
N.   Visuals/ presentation aids must meet standards in text
O.   And in notes
P.    Grading gets harder.
Q.   Must meet standards in Informative or Persuasive Evaluation sheets
R.    And all of the requirements in the syllabus for the speech.
S.    Extra Credit is listed in the syllabus


VII.         Using the Angel / Web CT tools and blog postings.
A.    Discussion is where you can find ideas, (it is optional but valuable)
1.     A place to post the material you discover during your research,
2.     A place to respond with your own views and opinions.
3.     Read some of the other introductions from your fellow students, then enter your own.
4.     Under "Education" see what the New York Times has to say about why two year college students enter without a clue of what college is and how to get the most from it.
5.     Under Media find out about MS and its battle with Apple, radio formats, pirate video and more...
6.     Then post your own media stories or comments.
7.     Under history and social science, find out about presidential retreats,
8.     Why we have been in one century long world war instead of two or three...
9.     The achieve contains the best of two years of discussion postings and stories and topics...
10.  The discussion may help with your research
11.  Or allow you to post interesting things that you find while doing your research...
12.  Please do so...it is here for you.

VIII.       References
A.    This is a learning curve. You should not know and be using APA format.
1.     APA can be found in the text.
2.     The writing center at the college can help
3.     Books on APA are available at the campus and other bookstores
4.     There are on-line links under discussion and handouts on Web CT as well as from the CCSN library home page
5.     A librarian can assist you
6.     Work with other students
B.    APA involves the main sources listed as reference, by author and year (see format)
C.    APA also involves a very specific means of showing pages and specific location of your references inside your detailed full outline.
D.   The required number of references for the assignment must be academic.
E.    You may use and list other references as well
F.    See previous weeks notes, the textbook, web links and other sources for assistance.

IX.           Research and Gathering Materials

A.    Objectives
1.     Drawing from your own knowledge and experience can enhance your speech, argumentation, sharing of knowledge
2.     There are major resources available to assist in research
3.     Use the library, and do not be afraid to ask the librarian for help
a.     Library aids can help
b.     Ask for the actual librarian if you need more help
They have degrees, usually masters, in research related fields. They know their own library and its resources.
4.     You can use the internet
a.     As directory media
b.     As source to find basic information
c.     As bias source for point of view
d.     As reference source for academic use
e.     The internet is NOT highly reliable
f.      Most of the internet is not juried or academic in nature
g.     Academic material can be accessed through use of the internet
5.     Understand the three steps of interviewing and the responsibilities of the interviewer at every stage of the process
6.     Follow the five tips for doing research found in the chapter
B.    Speakers knowledge and experience
1.     We are all experts or at least experiences at many things
a.     Make a list of all you can talk about
b.     Make a list of your hobbies
c.     Make a list of places you have been or lived
d.     Other.
2.     You speak best about topics you are familiar with
3.     Use your interests and knowledge to assist you in finding additional information
a.     Agree with what you know
b.     Contradict or disagree with that you think you know
c.     Add additional information and depth to what you know
d.     Etc.
4.     Using material and subjects you are familiar with allows you to add emotion and color to your speech
5.     Be open to other ideas
6.     Listen to feedback and use it for future revision
C.    Tie what you learn in books or research to what you already know. Supplement and compliment, shift and alter your views and presentation as you research the topic of your choice.
D.   Library Research is important
1.     Librarians are an excellent resource
a.     They can assist you in locating specific materials
b.     They can identify specific resource material
c.     They can assist you in understanding the materials
d.     They know and understand the resources in their libraries
e.     They are usually well educated and well trained in research
2.     The card catalog (on computer now) lists all books, periodicals, and other resources owned by the library or to which the library has licensed access
a.     Author, title, key word, subject, concept search ability
b.     Call numbers, Library of Congress number or other systems make it easier to locate the material you need
3.     Periodical Data Base
a.     Magazines, journals, newspapers, pamphlets
b.     Abstracts are short summaries of full material, but are aware the summary is not the article and may not be complete or fully accurate. Be sure you read the actual article or entry
c.     Often full text can be pulled up on accessed
d.     General, Special, Proprietary and Private data bases
4.     Your student fees pay for access to many databases.
5.     The textbook has links to several data bases that come with the text
6.     There are free data bases or public access available
7.     Newspapers
a.     Local newspapers help to localize issues
b.     Local newspapers can make content current
c.     Local newspapers can help you to find and locate primary interview sources (a directory media in this way)
d.     Regional, national and international newspapers can help you to find more detailed information on subject
e.     Regional, national and international newspapers can assist you in gaining perspective on issues of subjects
f.      All newspapers have political, economic or geographic point of views, so that must be taken into consideration when newspaper sources are used
g.     Most newspapers have on-line versions and access to archives on-line. Some charge, others are free.
h.     New York Times and Wall Street Journal are generally accepted as the only academic juried newspapers
i.      Many times a newspaper published by one group or in one area of the world can be a primary sources in showing the point of view or perspective of the publishing group or part of the world
j.      Newspapers are often available on library or student fee paid for data bases
k.     Other databases include ProQuest, LexisNexis Academic Universe, Global NewsBank, Infotrak, NewsInk…
l.      Editorials on File reprints editorials fro hundreds of newspapers
8.     Directory and Non Academic Reference Sources
a.     Encyclopedias provide reasonably accurate, usually objective information that can help you understand issues, subjects and information, as well as provide you with links or suggestions of more in depth resources
b.     General encyclopedias offer articles about all branches of human knowledge
c.     Special encyclopedias are devoted to specific subjects and are more detailed, therefore contain even more useful specific information
d.     On line encyclopedias from reputable printed corporations (Britannica for example) are excellent non-academic directory resources
e.     Wikipedia is not a reliable source, as it is not juried and entries are not always from editors and those knowledgeable in their field. However Wikepdia and other similar on-line resources may be an excellent base-line resource on which to build. They are not always accurate, but do often contain more current information than traditional encyclopedia resources.
9.     Yearbooks
a.     Annual or printed on a set specific schedule
b.     Usually more current than other sources
c.     Usually provides good directory summaries
d.     Are not considered academic
e.     The Statistical Abstract is one source for numerical information on life in the United States
f.      The World Almanac and Book of Facts are two of the sources for international data or from international sources
g.     On-line yearbooks, almanacs and statistical abstracts contain more recent information from a wide range of sources (judge each on its merits).
h.     Facts on File covers national and international news events
10.  Dictionaries
a.     Offer a wide range of information about language or concepts
b.     Some dictionaries such as “Webster’s” or “Columbia” define words in a various languages
c.     Some such as the Oxford English Dictionary provide histories of words and phrases
d.     Some provide detailed pronunciations and root information on words and phrases
11.  Quotation Books, the use of quotes and famous phrases
a.     Can add secondary ethos to your presentation
b.     Are useful in grabbing audience attention
c.     Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations is the most used text
d.     There are many specialized quotation books
12.  Biographical Aids
a.     Provide information about people in the news or in specific fields
b.     Are not academic as the information is often provided by the individual without jury or editorial check, and in many cases the person listed is asked to pay for the listing or to buy a copy of the book
c.     Who’s Who, Chancellors Lists and Current Biography are examples of this type of text
d.     Googling can work, but make sure that the person you read about is actually the person you are talking about.
13.  Atlases and Gazetteers
a.     Provide geographic information
b.     Contain maps, charts, tables of statistics and narrative
c.     Gazetteers follow a dictionary type alphabetical listing system, but include information on geographic locations
14.  Phone books
a.     Often forgotten in the touch pad, computer age
b.     Useful in contacting primary and secondary sources
15.  There are many other sources for non-academic material in this Internet based Information Age world.
16.  Libraries contain many other references
a.     Video
b.     Audio achieves
c.     Art prints
d.     Lectures and community events
e.     Etc.
E.    The Internet as research tool
1.     Search Engines
a.     Index web pages and their content
b.     Becoming increasingly detailed and complex
c.     Now heavily influenced by paid advertisers
d.     Now influenced by paid or system based methods to put resources on top that may not be the best end resource
e.     Use multiple engines as each uses different methods to find results and index materials
f.      Use academic based engines for specific academic information
g.     Have become big business, so be aware of bias
2.     Virtual Libraries
a.     Combine internet and traditional library methods of cataloging
b.     Established by brick and mortar libraries, charities, corporations, librarians, schools and other information professionals to make access easier to information in their care
c.     Best for finding high quality web based information
d.     Be aware of bias, which is often far less than commercial based search engines
e.     You pay for access to many of these virtual libraries with your student fees
f.      May have additional fees or may be “open access”
g.     Ask a librarian for help if you need assistance
h.     Other
3.     Use all reference resources systematically, efficiently and with accuracy of information in mind
a.     Keyword search: each engine has its own rules for how to write or group words
b.     Subject search involves general subject heads
c.     Others or a combination of the two may be needed to get the results you need
4.     Track Resources
a.     URL (Uniform Resource Locator) should be recorded accurately
b.     Useful to keep notes on a computer where URL can be linked on demand easily
c.     Bookmaking works for short term or often visited sites
d.     Try to find author, date, company or group behind the site, page heads or numbers, and any other information you can to verify and justify the site, judge its value and its bias
e.     Write down all you can to keep accurate track, so you or other researchers can retrace your research
5.     Specialized Internet Resources
a.     Suffix is important
b.     Government documents and statistics are .gov
c.     Educational documents and resources are .edu.
d.     Many sites for basic information
e.     Many sites for news and information
f.      Rich resource for multi-cultural exploration and information
g.     Useful in finding opposing views or points of view
h.     Etc.
6.     Primary Criteria for Evaluation the Quality of Information found on Internet Sources
a.     Find the objectivity and credentials of the sites author and/or sponsor organization
b.     Find and evaluate bias of the site
c.     Check the recency of the information
d.     Find other independent sources to confirm, support, conflict or attack the information on the site
e.     Be balanced
f.      Be able to fill out as much of a traditional APA or MLA reference requirement as possible, beyond the web address itself.
7.     Be sure to site sources from the Internet with as much accuracy, reliability, and believability as you do any other source.
F.    Interviews
1.      The interview process
a.     Begins when you formulate the idea for your speech
b.     Continues through the purpose and thesis phases
c.     Decide who you may wish to interview and why
d.     Set an appointment to interview them
e.     Video conference may be next best thing to in person
f.      Telephone is not as good as in person
g.     e-mail or chat are not as good as telephone
h.     Letter or written interviews are the least desirable, but may have to do if a time cannot be set for any alternative method
i.      Decide if you wish to record the interview (see below)
2.     Recording an interview
a.     Advantage is accuracy on quotes and facts
b.     Portions can be used as a presentation aid
c.     Allows you to review content of interview in specific details
d.     Take notes while recording so you can find key points on the tape
e.     Disadvantage is people may not always be as open or forthcoming when being recorded
f.      Disadvantage is that taping leads to a less casual environment
g.     It is unethical to record and interview without the knowledge and consent of the person being interviewed
h.     It is unethical to use the audio or video in a presentation unless the person being interview consents to that use at the time of the interview
i.      It is unethical to post audio or video on the internet without written consent from the person being interviewed
3.     Preparation for Interviews
a.     Research the person you are interviewing
b.     Make sure they have the proper credentials
c.     Make sure they have the proper expertise
d.     Find out as much as you can about them and their knowledge of your subject in advance.
e.     If they have written books or articles, make a point of reading any that may be useful in generating questions or knowing how they will fit into your topic or presentation.
f.      Have a list of questions ready
g.     Be presentable when you meet with them.
h.     Avoid hostile questions, unless you are deliberately confrontational. People will respond differently and often refuse to respond at all if confronted.
i.      Avoid questions that can be answered through your other research, unless used to make the person being interviewed more comfortable
j.      Phrase tough questions as neutrally as possible and save them for toward the end of the interview
k.     Arrange questions in the order you wish to ask them, but do not limit yourself or lock yourself into that order when you go into the interview
l.      Check off questions to make sure the essential question or questions have been asked and answered (a notation system to mark important questions prior to the interview is therefore recommended).
4.     During the interview
a.     Dress appropriately
b.     Show up on time
c.     Offer to pay any bill or expense since they are doing you a favor
d.     Restate the purpose of the interview
e.     If consent is given for recording the interview, make sure you set up quickly and inconspicuously
f.      If recorded start with casual take and questions to help make the person being interviewed feel at ease
g.     Allow the person being interviewed to direct most of the conversation
h.     Always listen carefully
i.      Restate major points to make sure you understand what was said correctly
j.      Ask for clarification is necessary
k.     Have a check list to make sure key questions have been answered
l.      Take a while asking warm-up questions and getting comfortable with each other.
m.   Feel free to allow the person being interviewed to speak
n.     Feel free to ask additional questions based on their responses
o.     Do not talk over the person being interviewed
p.     Let them finish their comments or thought (this is not talk radio or FOX TV!)
q.      Be courteous
r.      Respect the time and personal beliefs of the person interviewed
s.     Repeat any answer that may not be clear to you back to the person interviewed in your own words so they can clarity, correct or confirm what was intended by their initial response.
t.      Do not cut them off unless absolutely necessary, Let them answer (you are not a talk radio rating driven personality).
5.     After the interview
a.     Consider a note or thank you gift for their time
b.     While the interview is fresh in your mind, review your notes
c.     Discover the main points that emerged during the interview
d.     Identify specific information that may be useful for your speech
e.     Identity information that is vital background (use in your full outline, but only in speech if the interview is of background support)
f.      Do not be afraid to call the person interviewed to clarify information, quotes, or to ask follow-up questions based on your review of your notes or tape.
g.     Transcribe the interview ideas and content into the same format as the rest of your research (whatever systems you use)
G.   Ways of making research more productive
1.     Begin your research early
a.     Time is needed to be through and open to new discovery
b.     Allows time to think about and organize materials
c.     Allows time to work on the other aspects of the speech
d.     Allows time for rehearsal and other needed steps of a presentation
e.     Allows for follow-up on what you may learn
2.     Create an ongoing preliminary bibliography or reference list
a.     Collect all sources used in researching the topic and the speech
b.     No obligation to use them all in full outline
c.     And no obligation to use what is in the full outline in the final speech
3.     Organize and keep notes
a.     Take plenty of notes
b.     Record notes in a consistent format
c.     Have a subject header for each note
d.     Make a separate entry to each note
e.     Distinguish between direct quotes, paraphrase and your own interpretation or ideas
f.      Use index cards, outline format or computer
4.     Think about your materials
a.     Always think about how things connect
b.     Always be open to change and alteration of ideas
c.     Always be open to new information
d.     Try to keep in mind how notes tie into the whole
e.     Creatively find interesting materials
f.      Constantly access research materials and their relationship to the topic
g.     Build a reserve of information for future use
H.   Guidelines for using the principles of evidence
1.     Has to be applicable to the situation being described
2.     Are relative to culture and belief structures
a.     Evidence not apply with all audiences, groups or individuals
b.     One groups “truth” or “correct” may be another’s “wrong” or “false”
c.     Examples: Middle East, Asian Pacific, Immigration Policy Assumptions, etc.
3.     There may be competing principles which need to be considered and accounted for
a.     Example: “eye for an eye” vs. “killing is wrong”
b.     Example: where and when does life begin?
c.     Example: Science vs. Faith
I.      Surveys
1.     Are tools used to measure and estimate
2.     Are not evidence
3.     May or may not be scientifically conducted
4.     Are dependant on:
a.     Time
b.     Place
c.     Environment
d.     Context
e.     Order of Questions
f.      Wording bias of Questions
g.     Goals or views of those paying for them
h.     Have margins of error
5.     Examples: Polls, marking surveys, public opinion polls, political polls, etc.
6.     Surveys are not evidence, they are a tool, a way of measuring only


X.             Point Speech (if required for your section of the course)
A.    See syllabus for details on assignment
B.    See Web CT posting on point speech for additional information
C.    May be informative or persuasive, but persuasive is best
D.   Use the outline for persuasive or informative
E.    Outline must use APA (American Psychological Association) citation
F.    Make a single strong point, left in the minds of your audience
G.   As informative, entertaining or controversial as you wish it to be
H.   E-mail questions using Web CT e-mail, I will answer as best I can.

XI.           Impromptu (if required of your section of the course)
A.    Read the section in the text and see unit notes elsewhere
B.    Pick topics you can talk about without research
C.    Pick topics you care about
D.   You may use brief notes you put together in your preparation time
E.    Keep track of time

XII.         Extemporaneous Speaking
A.    Without notes
B.    For this class only key phrase or what the book calls presentation notes (keyword/ keynote) may be used
C.     And put them on note cards in large easy to read lettering
D.   Speak naturally and spontaneously
E.    Respond to audience feedback
1.     Be flexible
2.     Plan for response time
3.     Plan to repeat if needed based on feedback
F.    Establish and maintain eye contact
G.   Let your working differ during practice and in the speech
H.   Practice from your key-work or presentation outline
I.      Practice your gestures and movements
J.     Practice you timing
K.   Memorize key quotes or statistics
L.    Practice with your visual aids.
M.  Practice until you can fully respond to your ideas
N.   Practice, if possible, where you will be speaking
O.   Always recheck visuals, particularly electronic
P.    Always be prepared with backup visuals, or to go without
Q.   Begin with your formal outline, then switch to your key-word
R.    Be ready to go even if you forget your notes
S.    Know your topic
T.    Pay attention to time

XIII.       Eye Contact
A.    Should be direct- look into the eyes of listeners
B.    Sustained, at least a half a second for each person you look at
C.    Distribute contact to each section of the audience
D.   Talk to the audience not to presentation aids, notes, podium, floor, ceiling, wall, papers, etc.

XIV.       Differences between written English and Oral Communications
A.    Use Contractions in speech, avoid them in formal written papers
B.    Repeat concepts, thoughts and even words in speech that you would not repeat in written reports
C.    While it is OK to use them, the contractions “can’t” and “don’t” should, in most cases, be avoided, as “cannot” and “do not” are stronger signals.

XV.         Pausing during a speech
A.    For dramatic effect
B.    To help signal transitions
C.    To give the audience time to react to a humorous comment
D.   Before repeating key points or phrases
E.    For additional emphasis when needed

XVI.       Fear of Speaking in Public
A.    Is the number two fear of Americans
B.    Is reported by 85% of Americans at some level

XVII.     Narrative Paradigm
A.    Is a concept framed by Walter Fisher

XVIII.   Presentation Aids
A.    Used to (as needed only, not at all times)
1.     Clarify points
2.     Support evidence
3.     Emphasize key points
4.     Break down complex information
5.     Appeal to differing styles of learning
6.     Assist in needed repetition and reinforcement
7.     Support points in body of speech
8.     For transitions
9.     See notes in book and in previously posted weekly notes.


XIX.       Language Guidelines
A.    Be clear
1.     Use repetition, paraphrasing, examples, etc.
2.     Use lay or common language
3.     Define terms
4.     Repeat using differing words
B.    Be colorful
1.     Use vivid and intense words
2.     Evoke vivid sensory images
C.    Be concrete
1.     Avoid abstractions unless needed by context
2.     Use specific examples
3.     Use real world examples
D.   Be correct
1.     Look up unfamiliar words
2.     Know and practice correct pronunciations
3.     Understand full meaning and context of what you are saying
E.    Be concise
1.     Use simple, direct sentences
2.     Avoid redundancy
3.     Repeat only to clarify or drive home points
4.     Move on if you feel the audience understands what you are saying,
5.     Repeat only was needed to keep audience interested and understanding your speech
F.    Be culturally sensitive
1.     Respect the diversity of your audience
2.     Avoid offensive language, images or actions
3.     If above is needed, use proper disclaimer prior to speech
4.     If above is needed, warn inside speech when potential offense is about to occur
5.     Check with host, instructor, and event coordinator when in doubt.

XX.         Language Techniques
A.    To help audiences see things use
1.     Similes or metaphors
2.     Synecdoche
3.     Metonymy
4.     Contrasts
5.     Examples
6.     Common experiences
7.     Adverbs and adjectives as appropriate
B.    To arouse emotions use:
1.     Connotative language
2.     Images
3.     Onomatopoeia
4.     Hyperbole
5.     Personification
6.     Identification
7.     Shared experiences or ideas
C.    To temper emotions use
1.     Denotative facts
2.     Facts and figures
3.     Non inflammatory language
4.     Euphemisms
D.   To promote identification use:
1.     Inclusive pronouns
2.     Narratives
3.     Cultural types and ideographs
4.     Archetypal metaphors
5.     Common experiences or ideas
E.    To move people to action use:
1.     The techniques used to arouse emotions
2.     Alliteration
3.     Parallel constructions
4.     Inversion
5.     Antithesis
6.     Strong persuasive designs


XXI.       Persuasive Proofs
A.    See previous notes on Aristilian Proofs
B.    See test for further explanation
C.    Also use Agel/ Web CT handouts and links for further clarification
D.   Proof by Logos / Logic
1.     Uses appeal based on rationality
2.     Relies on facts, figures and expert testimony
3.     Is basic to all ethical persuasion
E.    Proof by Pathos / Emotion
1.     Uses appeals based on emotion
2.     Relies on examples and narratives
3.     May be necessary to move people to action
4.     Is used heavily in marketing and advertising
5.     May boomerang if overused or misused
6.     Should be used in conjunction with ethos and logos
F.    Proof by Ethos / Credibility
1.     Uses appealed based on credibility
2.     Includes
a.     Expert,
b.     Prestige,
c.     And lay testimony
G.   Proof by Mythos / Myths
1.     Uses appeals base on cultural heritage
2.     Relies on examples and narratives
3.     Involves appeal to patriotism, cultural pride, historic deeds, heroes/heroines, etc.
4.     Can help bring audiences together
5.     Can provide useful shortcuts or shorthand





XXII.     Midterm Review Continued (and repeated for your ease of review)
A.    If you wish your grade, send an e-mail over Angle / Web CT with your section number in the subject line!
B.    Midterm review: there are many tools available.
C.    Read and follow in all ways the Syllabus (for midterm, final, speech preparation and classroom rules and behavior – it gets harder the second half of the term).
D.   Use discussion and e-mail on Web CT to keep in touch, review notes, post notes, review for midterm, and to help each other on speeches, speech critique, research and topics.
E.    Read the book again! Pay attention to terms, concepts and the review and questions at the end of each chapter.
F.    Textbook Study Questions on Web CT may have the wrong pages and chapters (since the book has been updated), but it is invaluable in review for exam and in understanding the concepts. Test yourself in preparation for the midterm, final and speeches.
G.   Chapter Reviews may be posted, with more to come this weekend. Use them as well. See unit notes.
H.   Lecture notes are not detailed enough to help much, but they will give you a start.
I.      Check postings regularly, including handouts.
J.     Vocabulary #1 is a must, soon to be followed by Vocabulary #2 (which will contain many of the same terms plus additional terms).
K.   The icons for Proofs, Presentation Aids and Com Theory UM should be useful in review.
L.    Some of the links on the Sources icon may be useful as well.
M.  What are the kinds of evidence identified in the text?
N.   Outlining is a method of structuring information according to a set of rules and thinking patterns. It is a notation system.
O.   What is a speech of acceptance? What are the rules for such a speech and when would it be appropriate?
P.    What is a narrative?
What is state anxiety (trick question on midterm, so study this question).
Q.   The language you speak does determine the way you interpret the world around you.
R.    What does it mean to negotiate meaning? Why is this needed?
S.    The definition of ethics as presented in the text is the study of human moral conduct.
T.    A well-constructed narrative can be equally informative and persuasive.
U.   The Communication Model (all of it), plus codes, filters/noise, proofs, demographics, psychographics, types of speeches (all), when you use what types of graph (line, pie, bar, mountain, etc.), the structures for informative speaking (spatial, chronological, categorical, sequential, etc.).
V.    The rules the book gives for proper gesturing.
W.  Credibility as defined and used in the context presented by the text.
X.    A survey is not a key resource for finding evidence. Why?
Y.    What are the resources for finding evidence?
Z.    What is evidence?

XXIII.   Additional Midterm Review Concepts (also repeated here for your ease of review)
A.    In the speech introduction you do not have to identify all of the sources.
B.    When should you identify the sources you are using? In the speech? In the outline?
C.    What are the rules for using, questioning, judging and evaluating the World Wide Web / Internet? Why?
D.   How do you evaluate sources?
E.    What are academic sources?
F.    What is a verbal road map, and how do you use it?
G.   Do you have to identify all of your sources and explain why they are credible? Why or why not?
H.   Outlining including, but not limited to, the notation system, thumbnail, references, academic references, APA and MLA.
I.      What percentage of the population has some anxiety over public speaking?
J.     Absolute truth holds that truth is complete and unqualified. Whose concept is absolute truth?
K.   Who developed the proofs?
L.    What are the components in the text that define ethical speaking and why?
M.  What percentage of the public, according to the text, is afraid of speaking in public?
N.   Where does public speaking rank among the fears of Americans?
O.   Define and be able to identify the use of speeches of consolation, commoration, presentation, acceptance, and all of the other forms specifically identified in the text or lecture.
P.    What are the advantages, disadvantages, deference’s between and definitions of extemporaneous, impromptu, manuscript, memorized, etc?
Q.   Trait, state, slate and situational anxiety.
R.    What advice does the text give for interviewing a source?
S.    What advice does the text give for the physical presentation of a speech?
T.    Persuasive speeches do not necessarily have more evidence or documentation than informative. In fact it can be the opposite.
U.   “Should”, “ought”, “need” and “must” are signs that the speech is persuasive.
V.    Narrative coherence, narrative congruence, narrative fidelity, narrative consistency, etc.
W.  According to the textbook, what is the correct structure for stories?
X.    A well-constructed narrative can be equally informative and persuasive.
Y.    What are keywords or keynotes? How do you use these in your preparation for speech?
Z.    According to the text a speech should have 3 to 5 main points.

XXIV.   Midterm Review concepts Continued
A.    What are the principles of evidence? What are the guidelines for using principles as evidence?
B.    Visualization, coping statements, goal setting, preparation, self fulfilling prophecy, coping statements, cognitive restructuring, self-talk, practice and confidence as related to the process of giving a speech presented in the text.
C.    What are the functions presentation aids can serve?
D.   What are the three types of informative speaking?
E.    What are the suggestions and rules presented in the text on topic selection?
F.    Comprehensive listening requires the listener to understand the message.
G.   Define empathetic listening, complete listening, and comprehensive listening.
H.   What is the science of the concrete?
I.      What theory was advanced by Saphir-Worp? What does it state and where does it apply?
J.     Ethnocentrism, egocentrism, assimilation, dogmatic, trigger words, donatives meaning, connotative meaning, acronym, semantic noise, internal filters, external filters, cultural filters, encode, decode, message, channel, transmitter, receiver, feedback, multiple messages, transactional model, etc.
K.   The use of, definitions of, examples of all of the terms above.
L.    Long term memory, short term memory.
M.  What are the texts suggestions and rules for the use of presentation aids?
N.   Adults listen 50% of the time or less. Teens 25% or less, Kids 20% or less…why?
O.   Informative speeches may persuade.
P.    Persuasive speeches must inform.
Q.   What are the benefits of pausing during a speech?
R.    The rules of and use of contractions during a speech.
S.    Define claims, warrants, truth and facts as explained in the text.
T.    What are the general rules given by the text for eye contact.
U.   Study all of the types of speeches in the text including, but not limited to, informative, persuasive, demonstration, acceptance, recognition, etc.
V.    Self-fulfilling prophecy, coping statements, cognitive restructuring, self-talk, etc.
W.  What are the rules for using presentation aids suggested in the text?
X.    When and why should a speaker pause while giving a speech?
Y.    Evidence is information used to clarity or supports a claim.
Z.    The physiological and psychological indicators discussed in the text.

XXV.     Midterm Review Continued
A.    Who developed the narrative paradigm and what does the paradigm state?
B.    What are the rules for avoiding plagiarism?
C.    The test states that the introduction and conclusion for a speech must be done after the body has been written. Why? How does this differ from scientific method?
D.   How and when do you give attribution?
E.    Extemporaneous speaking should be conversational.
F.    What are the sources of anxiety discussed in the textbook?
G.   According to the test what percentage of Americans lists public speaking as their greatest fear?
H.   What are the techniques in the text for managing communication anxiety?
I.      What are the rules in the text for how you cite a resource, particularly verbally? Why? How does this differ from most written communication?
J.     What are the rules for the notation system of preparing outlines?
K.   What percentage of the population suffers “some anxiety” over public speaking?
L.    Audience adaptation refers to your ability to modify your message to meet the needs of your listeners.
M.  Idiomatic expressions or idioms are phrases that carry peculiar meaning for a particular culture.
N.   What is linguistic convergence?
O.   What is involved in environmental analysis as presented in the text in relation to public speaking?
P.    What type of graph to you use for what purpose?
Q.   What to each type of graph represent?
R.    What are the designs, organizations, or structures for informative speaking?
S.    What are the designs, organizations, or structures for persuasive speaking?
T.    Informative speeches may persuade
U.   Persuasive speeches must inform.
V.    See units 6 and 7.
W.  Review all units and chapter to date.
X.    Review all four quizzes taken to date.

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