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Wednesday, July 18, 2012

Unit 11 (includes informative and intro to persuasion)

Unit 11 Notes

I highly suggest you reread the informative and persuasive chapters of the text, and review all ten previous weeks of notes. These will help you with your speeches and the final!

The impromptu assignment will involve you writing 7 to ten different things you can talk about on a paper, then my selecting which one you will do. You will have ten minutes or so outside to prepare your speech. You may jot down notes or a brief outline if you wish. When you come in make it as extemporaneous as possible and pay close attention to length.

This unit includes notes on how to improve your grade, visual aids, specifics of the persuasive speech assignment, as well as an overview of persuasion including designs and concepts. Unit 12 will include additional material of persuasive.

Click "read more" below for the unit notes.




I.               Concepts to review:
A.    Semantic Noise…
1.     the words and how words can provide interference or noise
2.     Saphir-Whorf: The language you speak determines the way your see, interpret, understand the world around you
3.     Vocabulary and language skills of the speaker and audience are vital to communication
B.    Designs
1.     Sequential
a.     Chronological
b.     Sequential
c.     Motivated Sequential
d.     Ordered
2.     Spatial
3.     Categorical
4.     Comparative
5.     Regulative- or Refutative
6.     Cause-Effect
7.     Problem-Solution
8.     Stock Issue
C.    Cognitive Restructuring
D.   Claims
E.    Evidence
F.    Primary Academic sources
G.   Secondary sources
H.   Juried Scholarly or Academic Sources
I.      Directory Media or Sources
J.     Artifact
K.   Expert Witness
L.    Expert Testimony
M.  Support Media
N.   Facts
O.   Figures – Statistics
P.    Polarization
Q.   Cocooning
R.    Podding
S.    Connotative
T.    Denotative
U.   Trigger Words
V.    See units 1 to 10
W.  See vocabulary in the textbook and chapter review
X.    Review Quiz 1 to 3 and Midterm

II.             Visual Aids Assignment Requirements
A.    Aids must be different types\
                                               i.     PowerPoint counts as one
                                             ii.     Each poster counts as one
                                            iii.     Handouts count as one
                                            iv.     Video added to power point counts as one (separate from PowerPoint).
B.    Must be used to support points or transitions
C.    Must be used per all suggestions in chapter on Presentation Aids
D.   Must be used per all suggestions in notes in previous weeks on visual and presentation aids
E.    Must show attention and to lecture and critique of other speakers
F.    Keep them simple and to the point
G.   Internet is not suggested, as it can be difficult to access or conflict in the classroom with screens, filters and other protective programs on the college network.
H.   Etc.

III.           Persuasive Speech
A.    20% of final grade / 200 points
B.    7 to 9 minutes,
C.    50 points deducted if over or under limit
D.   Topic: Pick a social or political topic that requires
                                               i.     A specific, tangible action on the part of the audience.           
E.    Choose a topic that you feel is timely and important; something you feel represents a problem that needs collective action.
F.    Craft a speech that establishes the existence of the problem in the minds of your audience and offers clear and explicit set(s) of actions for your audience to take to help resolve the matter. Action must be immediate and easily achieved within the classroom setting.
G.   Must have a clear thesis, clear sense of purpose and meet or exceed all of the requirements of speeches #2 and # 3.
H.   You should incorporate strategies for involving your audience with your speech.
I.      The persuasion speech topic should be of a contemporary and controversial nature, which is of interest to both the speaker and the audience.  Time worn topics (e.g. Death Penalty) should be avoided. 
J.     Try to come up with a persuasion speech topic that is unique and interesting, because you will be working with it for a good part of the semester. 
K.   A complete outline of all of your speeches MUST be turned in BEFORE your speech on the due date.
L.    Be sure that all of the elements used or leaned in the term are applied;
M.  Both written and oral grading criteria will be strictest on the final speech of the term.
N.   Notes: All requirements of Speech #3 apply
                                               i.     Must give all notes except note card to instructor prior to speech
                                             ii.     Must present note cards following speech (per syllabus)
                                            iii.     Must be presentation / thumbnail outline only
                                            iv.     Must be on note cards
                                              v.     Only quotes or significant statistics may be added
                                            vi.     Do not read, must be extemporaneous
                                           vii.     Full outline must be turned in to instructor
a.     May contain more than you say in your speech
b.     Must have all references shown inside outline using APA style
c.     Must have References listed following outline (in addition to within outline) per APA format
d.     Must have a minimum of 7 academic sources
e.     May have as many sources as you was
f.      Visuals should be sourced in references
g.     Must use proper Outline Notation
h.     Must be complete and full (so that research may build on your outline and someone else can, if needed, present a version of the speech.
                                         viii.     Thumbnail / Presentation Outline must be presented to the instructor
                                            ix.     Short Narrative / Abstract must be presented to the instructor
O.   Audience must be presented with an action to take in response to your speech.
a.     Must be an action that can be taken in the classroom
b.     Must be an action that can be measured
c.     Must be an action that shows a change or commitment on the part of a disputed conflict or issue
P.     Three presentation aids or more (one of which must be visual)


IV.           Persuasive Speaking
A.    Intro to Persuasive Speaking
                                               i.     Understand the characteristics of Persuasive Speaking
                                             ii.     The steps in the persuasive process
                                            iii.     Adapting persuasive messages to differing audiences
                                            iv.     Major persuasive functions
                                              v.     Designs for persuasive functions

B.    Root Principles of Persuasive Speaking
                                               i.     The art of convincing others to give favorable attention to our point of view.
                                             ii.     Persuasion is an integral part of our lives
                                            iii.     Can be ethical or unethical
                                            iv.     Learn how to resist bad persuasion
                                              v.     Lean how to be open to positive persuasion
                                            vi.     Our social and political systems rely on free and open persuasion
1.     Deliberation
a.     Is the central process underlying democracy and bottom up based government and decision making
b.     Is the sign of an open and intelligent mind
c.     Involves an open discussion of all sides of issues before reaching a conclusion.
d.     Requires listening and being open to compromise
e.     Requires thought and being open to ideas, points of view, opposing evidence and change.
2.     Persuasion
a.     Is more ethical than force or coercion
b.     Is practical than force or coercion
3.     The freedom to voice unpopular views produces better decisions.
                                           vii.     Persuasion can be ethical and beneficial
1.     Ethical Persuasion is based on
a.     Sound reasoning
b.     Sensitivity to others
c.     Appeals to people’s better nature
d.     Respect for other cultures
2.     Ethical persuasion
a.     Helps us apply received wisdom to new situations
b.     Helps us apply reasoned knowledge to decision making
c.     Improves the quality and humanity off our commitments
C.    Persuasive speaking differs from informative speaking
                                               i.     Informative reveals and clarifies options
                                             ii.     Persuasive speakers advocate choices among options.
                                            iii.     Informative speakers provide information to enlighten
                                            iv.     Persuasive speaking provide evidence to justify conclusions or recommendations
                                              v.     Informative speaking involves offering education
                                            vi.     Persuasive speaking requires audience committeemen and belief
                                           vii.     Leadership is an important issue in persuasion
                                         viii.     Appears to feeling (Pathos) are more appropriate in persuasion
                                            ix.     Persuasive speakers assume greater ethical responsibilities than informative
                                             x.     Both informative and persuasive can change thoughts and lives.
D.   The five major phases of the persuasive process.
                                               i.     Awareness
1.     Make audiences understand how it impacts their lives
a.     Know about
b.     Understand
c.     Attend to (take action)
2.     Convince audiences
a.     Problem does or does not exist
b.     Impacts their lives directly or indirectly
c.     Is of vital importance for action
                                             ii.     Understanding
1.     Get the point
2.     Be moved by ideas
3.     Know how to carry out ideas
4.     Call or action
5.     Be ethical
a.     Expand out knowledge
b.     Not mislead or twist the truth
c.     Demonstrate how some arguments are stronger than others
d.     Provide evidence in support of proposition
e.     Provide key points to support proposition
f.      Support key points with evidence
g.     Do not harm others or call for harm
                                            iii.     Seek Agreement
1.     Success is measured by degree,
2.     Total success may not be possible
3.     Help audiences find find and remember reasons to agree
4.     Help move compromise toward your position
5.     Present indisputable facts
6.     Present facts that will stand up to criticism and critique
7.     Present well reasoned arguments
8.     present arguments that flow smoothly, easy to follow
9.     Help audience remember the reasons for their agreement
10.  Present arguments where opposition is
i. Minimal
ii. Easy to manage
iii. Not overly resistant to change
                                            iv.     Encourage Action
1.     Call for action
2.     Measurable action is best
a.     Petitions
b.     Signatures
c.     Commitment cards
d.     Voice agreement
e.     Take other action
f.      Vote
g.     Try something new
h.     Etc.
                                              v.     Integrate new attitudes and actions into belief and value systems
1.     Make it easy to modify an existing idea or belief to make room for integrate the new idea or value
2.     Make it enforceable through daily action or commitment
3.     Follow-up (more than once)
4.     Repeat and reinforce message
5.     Help overcome risks
6.     Reinforce benefits over time
7.     New ideas are consistent with
ii.              Cherished values
iii.            Existing beliefs
iv.             Existing attitudes
v.              Etc.
8.     Anticipate and respond to objections
9.     You cannot get the results you want from a single speech, it must be reinforced, repeated, or audience must be encouraged and supported in seeking constant reinforcement
                                            vi.     Successful persuasion is rarely an all or nothing proposition
1.     It takes a series of attempts to “get through”
2.     Speaker ethos is essential
3.     Secondary ethos to support speaker and main points suggested
4.     Pathos and Mythos are powerful proofs in persuasion
5.     It takes reinforcing to set in
6.     Most of the time results need to be perceived quickly
7.     Commitment must be entrenched over time
8.     Must adapt to audience
a.     Anticipated challenges
b.     Anticipated objections
c.     Physical limitations
d.     Other limitations
e.     Needs
f.      Wants
g.     Etc.
E.    Addressing Specific Audiences
                                               i.     Where does the audience stand on the issues or actions
1.     United for or against
2.     Split- and what percentages
3.     Open or fixed
                                             ii.     How will the audience perceive the speaker
1.     Ethos
2.     Perception of motivations for speech
3.     Perception of committeemen to speech
                                            iii.     Give thoughtful consideration to opposing views
                                            iv.     Acknowledge obvious positive points on opposing side
                                              v.     Co-active approach to bridge differences
1.     Establish identification
a.     Stress common attitudes
b.     Stress common beliefs
c.     Stress common values
d.     Etc.
2.     Emphasizes common values
a.     Find things you have in common
b.     Do this prior to addressing points of opposition
3.     Emphasize explanation
a.     Inform
b.     Do this more than argument
4.     Cite authorities and secondary ethos
5.     Cite evidence that is acceptable to the audience
6.     Work to make ethos and evidence fit existing audience values
7.     Set modest goals for change
8.     Make multi-sided presentations
9.     Help those who agree to find ways to resist tendency to reverse or lean toward opposing views or arguments
                                            vi.     Challenge of a strongly opposed audience
1.     Enhance their ethos
a.     Acknowledge their value to you
b.     Acknowledge their values and beliefs
c.     Be honest
d.     Enhance their importance
e.     Request a fair hearing
f.      Etc.
2.     Avoid an overly ambitious proposal
a.     May result in a boomerang effect
3.     Avoid Great Expectations fallacy
a.     Do not hope for change from one speech or action
b.     Do not promise more than you can deliver
c.     Be honest
4.     Do not expect immediate positive response
a.     May be misleading
b.     May not reflect solid commitment
c.     There may be a sleeper effect over time
d.     Etc.
F.    Removing barriers to commitment
                                               i.     Provide all needed information
a.     Avoid overload
b.     Do provide essentials
c.     Offer additional follow-up
d.     Provide where to go for additional information
                                             ii.     Affirm and apply common values
a.     Build bridges
b.     Use values to cement change
                                            iii.     Strengthen credibility
a.     Cite experts the audience can respect and trust
b.     Cite evidence the audience will accept and trust
c.     Appear as open and non-bias as possible
d.     Provide quality information
e.     Be as multi-sided as possible
f.      Etc.
G.   Moving audience or individuals from attitude to action
                                               i.     Provide a personal connection to the problem and proposed solution
                                             ii.     Provide specific actions and follow-up actions
                                            iii.     Propose a plan for change with reinforcement
                                            iv.     Provide the opportunity and window for action
H.   With Reluctant Listeners
                                               i.     Revitalize shared beliefs and values
                                             ii.     Demonstrate the need for involvement
                                            iii.     Demonstrate the need for action
                                            iv.     Use examples and narratives
                                              v.     Use pathos, logos and mythos
                                            vi.     Present a plan of action
                                           vii.     Show the audience why on each step of the plan
                                         viii.     Show the audience how to proceed
                                            ix.     Answer “What’s in it for me?”
                                             x.     Etc.
I.      Three major forms of persuasive speaking
                                               i.     Corresponds to their relative functions
                                             ii.     Speeches addressing attitudes and values
1.     Aimed at forming, reforming or reinforcing what people believe or think they believe
2.     Aimed at forming, reforming or reinforcing how people feel or think they feel about something
3.     Paves the way for speeches urging action
4.     Need to begin with common ground
                                            iii.     Speeches seeking direct response
1.     Goes behind attitude change
2.     Seek individual or Group actions
3.     Provide good reason to overcome caution
                                            iv.     Speeches of contention
1.     May be suitable if audiences are split on a topic
2.     Should target uncommitted listeners
3.     May target reasonable opponents open to change or reform
4.     Use tactful, carefully documented arguments and counter arguments
                                              v.     Speeches that are intended to shock and undermine strongly opposed audiences
1.     Usually a poor choice for action,
2.     But good to start a process of challenge, compromise and change
3.     Use rarely and with caution
4.     Best using Pathos and Mythos
5.     Use of humor should be considered but used carefully
J.     Speeches must select appropriate designs
                                               i.     Can use some or all of the designs or structures utilized in informative speaking
                                             ii.     Categorical can be used to list reasons
                                            iii.     Sequential may be used to show steps in a plan
                                            iv.     Chronological could be used to support reasons for action
                                              v.     Comparative may work well with a speech of contention
K.   Problem-Solution
                                               i.     Convinces audience there is a problem
                                             ii.     Shows audience a probable/ recommended solution
                                            iii.     Shows how to deal with the problem effectively
                                            iv.     Establishes problem exist and is significant
                                              v.     Should offer solutions that are concrete and easy to follow
L.    The stock issue approach
                                               i.     Acknowledges a need for change because of a significant problem
                                             ii.     The elephant in the living room or gorilla in the closet
                                            iii.     Questions that reasonable people are likely to have on their mind
                                            iv.     Addresses the following questions
a.     Is there a need for change because of some significant problem
b.     What is the best solution to the problem
c.     Who will put this solution into effect
                                              v.     Focuses on inherency
a.     Is a harmful effect caused by this problem
b.     Will proposed solutions solve it
c.     To what extent is harm an inevitable part of the situation
d.     How much resistance is there to change
e.     Can change occur without greater damage
M.  Motivated Sequence
                                               i.     An elaboration of sequential and problem-solution design
                                             ii.     Shows reason for each step in the process
                                            iii.     Contains six basic steps (or a variation)
a.     Arousing attention
b.     Demonstrate a need for change
c.     Offer a plan of action
d.     Visualize results
e.     Call for action
f.      Reinforce the action over time
                                            iv.     To use motivated sequence effectively
a.     Consider where audience stands
b.     Focus on appropriate steps
c.     Make actions manageable
d.     Make actions measurable
e.     Reinforce actions
N.   Regulative or Refutive Design
                                               i.     Raises doubt about competing propositions
                                             ii.     Raises attention to competing propositions deficiencies
                                            iii.     Must understand opposing positions before refuting them
                                            iv.     May focus on oppositions
a.     Faulty reasoning
b.     Poor evidence
c.     Self interests
d.     Non substantive solutions
                                              v.     Address the weakest opposing viewpoints first
                                            vi.     Five steps in refuting and argument
a.     State the point to be refuted
b.     Tell how the point will be refuted
c.     Present credible evidence
d.     Interpret the evidence
e.     Explain the significance of the Refutation
                                           vii.     Strengthen regulative positions by supporting counter proposals

V.             Review of Ways to Improve your grade
A.    Attend class. As class size decreases attendance will be strictly enforced. Poor attendance will lead to enforcement of the syllabus and a loss of grade points (as indicated).
B.    Make sure your name; Speech 101, section number and the speech title (Introduction, Demonstration, Point, Informative, or Persuasive) appear on every paper you turn in.
C.    Make sure it is typed or computer generated per school policy as represented in the syllabus.
D.   Reread the syllabus and meet or exceed all requirements in the syllabus (available as an icon on Wed CT).
E.    Make sure your speech is within time lengths required/ requested
F.    Make sure your outline is as complete or more so than examples in textbook or referred to in lecture
G.   Make sure sources in reference section are done in APA style
H.   Make sure references inside the outline re done in APA style
I.      Make sure all references are used in the outline and noted in APA style
J.     Make sure you turn in a full outline
K.   It is OK to have material in full outline you do not use in your actual speech
L.    Turn in a thumbnail/ presentation outline
M.  Turn in a narrative / practice abstract
N.   Make sure you meet or exceed all requirements in the syllabus for the speech
O.   Make sure you meet or exceed all of the requirements on the
Evaluation Sheets (found on Web CT).
P.    Make sure you engage the audience
Q.   Make sure introduction, body points and conclusion are done as discussed in the text, lecture and in previous notes posted on web CT.
R.    Make sure you have the minimum number of academic references (or exceed for safety)
S.    Make sure you have a variety of types of sources.
T.    Make sure you show all sources properly in the outline and, when needed, correctly in your speech.
U.   Proper eye contact
V.    Extemporaneous delivery (as explained in the text and lecture)
W.  Proper use of the concepts of the course (including understanding the communication model, audience demography and all other applicable concepts).
X.    Be on time.
Y.    Attend class.
Z.    Listen in class
AA.                  Learn from other speakers
BB.                  Form study groups
CC.                  Read text, Angel/Web CT, blog and other sources offered
DD.                 Use Blog discussion, response and present your own ideas
                                               i.     Use Angel /Web CT discussion and e-mail
EE. Graphics as clean and professional as possible
FF. Proper disclaimer used, and used in way required by the textbook
     And/or lecture.
GG.                 Plan ahead.
HH.                 Make a check list











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