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Thursday, September 29, 2011

Unit 10

Note: format error in transfer. Please be patient and sort it through.

Unit 10

Review of key elements going into Informative Speech
(suggest you review all 9 units, and all chapters and lecture notes to date)
(suggest that you complete all written one week prior to speech and have the instructor review it, and/or use the writing center and Communication lab)


I.               Seven stages of developing and presenting a speech

A.              Purpose: Overall Goal

1.              Determine the purpose of the speech

II.             Why did you select topic

III.           Is it appropriate to the audience

IV.            What do you hope to accomplish

V.              See private, public, general and specific in future notes

A.              Be audience centered in selecting a topic and doing your speech

Click on "read more" below to continue.

1.              Audience centered communication

2.              Audience adaption

3.              Target your message to a particular audience, time and place

4.              The same exact speech cannot be used with different audiences

5.              All speeches are organic and need to change based on audience, feedback, situation, location, time, goals and so on…

B.              Topic

1.              Meets your purpose

2.              Adapted to audience

3.              Selected and polished through research

4.              Willing to change based on research and new developments

C.              Gathering Information

1.              Begin with yourself: information you have knowledge on

2.              Have a passion and interests in the topic

3.              Seek help from others (librarian suggested, one with an MA)

4.              Use differing sources, not just internet

5.              Use academic sources (defined in later unit and lecture)

6.              Seek out

VI.            Books

VII.          Periodicals

VIII.        Videos

IX.            Audio

X.              Microfiche

XI.            Data bases

XII.          Abstracts

1.              Be strategic

XIII.        Plan your search

XIV.        Stay on focus or shift topic

XV.          Think of how audience will perceive source

XVI.        Think of how instructor will perceive source

XVII.      Other

A.              Identify Main Points

1.              Organize ideas

2.              Group information

3.              Organization and outline in text and in later units and lectures

B.              Practice

1.              BS is not rewarded as term continues

2.              Many methods, one in the text 

XVIII.    Complete sentence (not favored by this course)

XIX.        Short reminder points

XX.          Decide if extemporaneous, memorized, manuscript, oratorical (explained later in this course)

XXI.        Extemporaneous required in this course (without notes or with a few key notes to remind you0

1.              Practice with note cards, eliminating them as you grow comfortable

2.              Practice Needed for 

XXII.      Length, 

XXIII.    To minimize missed materials, 

XXIV.     To assist in finding place

XXV.       To help reduce nerves

XXVI.     To reinforce knowledge of topic

XXVII.   To support ethos

XXVIII. To advance as a speaker and communicator

A.              Managing the Tools and Your Speech

1.              Voice (to be discussed later in the text, in later unit notes and lecture)

2.              Body (also to be discussed later)

3.              Audience Analysis: understanding your audience

4.              Topic: knowing your subject and being organized

5.              Presentation Media (practice with it)

6.              Time

7.              Make sure you

XXIX.     Do a speech appropriate for the occasion

XXX.       Use your note card when you must but only glace at them

XXXI.     Make and keep eye contact (direct, sustained, distributed, deliberate and at least 80% of the time)

XXXII.   Make sure the audience can hear and understand you

XXXIII. Volume, tone and other factors appropriate for your subject

XXXIV. Use gestures 

A.              Appearing natural

B.              Appropriate

C.              Natural

D.             Purposeful

E.              Comfortable

XXXV.   Arrive early

XXXVI. Check out room, equipment and environment

XXXVII.                 Practice or dry run all technical equipment

A.              Adapt or change if needed

B.              Be read for anything to go wrong, have backup

XXXVIII.               Analyze and understand your audience

XXXIX. Monitor your time

A.              Be ready to end early

B.              Be ready to stretch length

C.              Be ready to adapt to audience

D.             Make sure main points are made

E.              Make sure you have time for summary and action


XL.           Principles of Good Form (review)

A.              Simplicity

1.              Limit your main points (2 or 3 are suggested by the text)

2.              Phrase main points clearly and succinctly

3.              Repeat points as suggested in text

4.              Use parallel phrasing for emphasis

B.              Balance

1.              The body should be the longest part of the speech

2.              Main points should be balanced

XLI.         All may be equal in importance or length

XLII.       Or make sure they do not overwhelm other points

XLIII.     Order is vital to making your point

XLIV.     Main Points may increase or decrease in importance

XLV.       Main Points may increase or decrease in length

1.              Introduction and Conclusion should be close in length

XLVI.     Make sure you follow suggestions in text

XLVII.   Make sure you look at evaluations sheets on Web CT/ Angel

A.              Orderliness

1.              Open with the Introduction

2.              Develop main ideas in the body of your speech

3.              End with a conclusion

4.              Follow a consistent pattern of development



XLVIII. Research:

XLIX.     The process of gathering and interpreting evidence in support of claims

L.              Needed because

LI.            Knowledge evolves, 

LII.          ii.     Facts change, 

LIII.        iii.     New information is always being discovered

LIV.         iv.     New interpretations are always developing


LV.           Claims: 

LVI.         Statements you want your audience to

LVII.       Understand

LVIII.     ii.     Remember

LIX.         iii.     And/or act upon

LX.           Speaker must clarify and support their claims


LXI.         VII.         Evidence through research may be primary, secondary or tertiary. 

LXII.       Evidence is information used to clarify or support a claim

LXIII.     Academic primary evidence  

LXIV.     Includes first hand knowledge or experience, 

LXV.       ii.     Includes original documents or objects, 

LXVI.     iii.     Includes juried articles in academic articles or books 

1.              Usually through a University or Academic press

2.              That are reviewed by at least three experts in the field

3.              That are reviewed on a “blind test” basis

4.              That are revised to assure accurate and factual material

5.              That may include expert testimony.

6.              That has checks and balances to minimize bias

LXVII.   iv.     May include testimony or narratives from the original sources

1.              Those who have experienced the event or issue considered

2.              Those who have first hand knowledge of the experience or event

3.              Those considered expert witnesses

LXVIII. v.     May include oral or written testimony or narratives

1.              Letters

2.              Personal journals

3.              Original notes

4.              Original documents

5.              Original articles or objects

6.              Actual physical proofs

7.              Complete interviews that minimize bias

8.              Personal well done and professional interview with a primary source

LXIX.     Secondary references include 

LXX.       All other forms of reference that relate to the topic, specific thesis or point being made in a presentation or paper. 

LXXI.     ii.     Most books, 

LXXII.   iii.     Major news sources

LXXIII. iv.     Major media outlets

LXXIV.  v.     Anything related to the thesis, subject, issue, point or sub points

LXXV.    Tertiary sources are other sources not directly related with the point, topic, points or specific thesis of a paper or presentation.


LXXVI.  VIII.       Directory media are those secondary or tertiary references that are used primarily to provide a foundation for, or general introductory understanding of the topic, thesis, point or subject. 

LXXVII.                  Directory media include, but are not limited to, 

LXXVIII.                Dictionaries, 

LXXIX.  ii.     Encyclopedia, 

LXXX.    iii.     Atlases, 

LXXXI.  iv.     Many or most commercial internet sources 

LXXXII.                  v.     And any book that provides primarily a source for other references, including those that are academic or primary.

LXXXIII.                Directory media are not, under most circumstances, considered primary sources.


LXXXIV.                IX.           Supporting Materials provide substance, strength, credibility, and appeal.

LXXXV.                  Arouse Audience interests

LXXXVI.                Elaborate

LXXXVII.              Explain

LXXXVIII.            Show the

LXXXIX.                Meaning of ideas

XC.          ii.     Importance for receiver (audience)

XCI.        iii.     Substantive statements

XCII.      iv.     Substantiate controversial statements

XCIII.    v.     Substantiate new information

XCIV.     vi.     Substantiate surprising or hard to understand statements

XCV.       vii.     Credit ideas of others properly and support ideas derived from others or other sources

XCVI.     viii.     Support statements made that are essential to speakers/transmitters arguments or points

XCVII.   Gathered through personal experience, library resources and expert interviews


XCVIII. X.             Facts and figures tend to be most objective (judge the source objectively).

XCIX.     Factual statements can stand alone but

C.              Source must be supported or believed by receiver / audience.

CI.            Speaker can or even must interpret their meanings

CII.          Speaker should carefully distinguish facts from interpretive claims derived from the information.

CIII.        There are usually multiple ways to interpret “facts”

CIV.        Speaker must cite reputable sources in support of claims and/or “facts” alleged to be interpreted correctly or true.

CV.          Speaker must be cognizant of potential bias in sources of “factual” information

1.              All sources/writers/individuals select information based on their own filters, bias, objectives or thesis.

2.              Even neutral sources and statements are colored by the culture of the source/reference/writer/ speaker/ individual.

3.              Even objective sources must be selective in deciding what information to present and what to omit.

4.              All of communications is filtered or limited by size, time, potential, bias, culture, intent or perceived intent…etc.

CVI.        Figures, statistics and numbers are considered numerical “facts” (but may or may not accurately indicate what you are studying in their methodology, collection, statistical error, volume or interpretation.

CVII.      Figures /statistics

A.              Forms of numerical information that describe some population, event, relationship or real world data collected

B.              Describe size

C.              Describe scope

D.             Make predictions

E.              Illustrate trends

F.              Support or disprove claims

G.              Show relationships

H.             May not be relevant when reexamined

CVIII.    Speakers may

A.              Unpack or present “meaning” of figures for the audience/receiver

B.              Provide explanation

C.              Provide analysis

D.             Use visual aids to make the figures real or show relationships

CIX.        Facts and Figures are needed

CX.          To support claims

CXI.        To make the unfamiliar failure

CXII.      To add or support credibility

CXIII.    To help persuade on controversial topics

CXIV.     Facts and figures can

CXV.       Be used unethically

CXVI.     Be misleading

CXVII.   Be mistrusted by the audience/ receiver

CXVIII. Be misinterpreted by the source/speaker/transmitter

CXIX.     Be bias

CXX.       Be incomplete

CXXI.     Be derived incorrectly

CXXII.   Include distortions

CXXIII. Have omissions through fault or in error

CXXIV. Clutter a speech if too many used or used too often

CXXV.   Confuse the audience if too many used or used too often

CXXVI. Be outdated (fallacy or regency)

CXXVII.                 Be too dependant on one source or easy sources

CXXVIII.               Be non-academic or academic in nature

CXXIX. Can represent possibilities instead of certainties

CXXX.   Can be willfully misused by source or resource utilized

CXXXI. Speakers should not

CXXXII.                 Rely too heavily on one or just a few sources

CXXXIII.               Ignore contradictory information or sources

CXXXIV.                Seek out only sourced that support their own view or assumptions

CXXXV.                  Omit material that is important for interpreting the information

CXXXVI.                Three devises for turning facts and figures into supporting materials

CXXXVII.              Definitions

A.              Help audiences understand unpopular ideas

B.              Help audiences understand unfamiliar ideas

C.              Help audiences understand unfamiliar concepts

D.             Should include at least two attempts to translate into terms failure with the audience

E.              May have to be repeated in the speech as needed

CXXXVIII.            Explanations

A.              May combine facts and figures

B.              Are used to clarify a topic, idea or concept

C.              Can be used to demonstrate how something works

D.             Can be used to show why steps in a plan are needed

CXXXIX.                Descriptions

A.              Are word pictures

B.              Can invoke vivid, mood setting images

C.              Are needed for full understanding of image or perspective

D.             Are used for visualization of images, concepts or ideas

E.              Can be overused

F.              Can actually confuse audience is used incorrectly


G.              The Body of the Speech



1.              Strategic Organization: Putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience

2.              Scientific Methods

3.              Why pick topic?

a)             Private Purpose: why you want to tackle this subject. There is no need to disclose this unless you choose to. It is the reason you have a passion for and interest in the topic.

b)            Public Purpose: what you are willing to share with the audience as to why you are pursuing this topic, The stronger and more interesting the better

c)             Thesis statement: a short sentence stating what you intend to prove, show or speak about.

4.              Thesis: The concept you wish the audience to understand or an expected outcome stated in a short and simple statement.

5.              Conclusion; The expected outcome or summary

6.              Research/body: What is discovered along the way

H.             Developing A Speech Outline

1.              Body first: once you have gone though Scientific Method steps approaching developing the body of the speech first

2.              Conclusion next: After body is written, restate the main points and state conclusion, with a feeling of closure or call for action

3.              Introduction should be written last, so as to attract attention, build interests and preview main points.

I.               Main points: the major points developed in the body of the speech. Most speeches for a class contain two to five main points. More than that could make a speech cluttered. Also, most people do not remember more than two or three points after a speech is completed.

J.               Specific Purpose: To inform an audience about something

K.             Central idea; the main concept you are building the speech around

L.              Number your main points. Use traditional or classic outline format as shown in text and under handouts (Roman number, Capital Letter, number, small letter, and so on….)

M.            Strategic Order of Main Points:

1.              The most effective order depends on:

N.             Topic

O.             Purpose

P.              Audience

1.              Six Patterns for Informative Main Point Organization / Designs / Structures

Q.             Chronological Order: A method of organizing in which the main points follow a time pattern. Could be centuries, years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds, micro or nanoseconds…

R.              Sequential Order: putting things in an order, in which they need to follow. The order may be chronological, in a motivated sequence (reason for the order), in any order you wish to put things to help them be understood, in an order set for a reason or just to keep organized.

S.              Spatial: A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern. A relationship in space. Also could mean using a relationship in terms of size, distance, location, shape,

T.              Causal Order: a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship. Related to problem-cause and problem-cause-solution.

U.             Problem-Solution Order: a method of speech organization in which the first main point deal with the existence of a problem, second pain point presents a solution. Establish a problem and then show how to solve it. Problem-Cause-Solution, establishes a problem, establishes the probably cause and shows how you solve the problem.

V.              Topical Order: a methods of speech organization in which he main potions divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.  Each subtopic becomes the main point for a portion of the speech.

CXL.       Alternative view of Main Designs, Structures, Organizations

CXLI.     Categorical: by category. Organize by recognizable groups

CXLII.   Causation: Organize by probable cause and then proposals

CXLIII. Chronological: Organize sequentially by time

CXLIV.  Comparative: Compare two or more possible solutions, advocating one

CXLV.    Sequential: Put in an order the audience can follow and remember

CXLVI.  Spatial: Relationship in space or by size, location, geography

CXLVII.                  Motivated Sequence: in order with justification of why it must be in this order

CXLVIII.                Problem-Cause-Solution: Establish problem, show probable cause and show why solution works using that probable cause.

CXLIX.  Problem-Solution: Establish a problem, and then show your solution and how it works

CL.           Regulative: Attack alternative solution or solutions

CLI.         Stock Issue: Address what you know is on the mind of the audience

1.              Tips For Preparing Main Points

2.              Keep Main Points Separate: Make sure the audience understands each point before moving on

3.              Try to use the same or similar pattern of words for each main point. The audience will know to tune in and will be able to keep track with mental shorthand if you use this approach.

4.              Balance the amount of time devoted to each main point, They do not have to be equal, if a point is too short the audience may think it less important or maybe not needed at all. Justify each point.

CLII.       J.     Supporting Materials: the material used to support a speaker’ ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics and testimony.

1.              By themselves main points are only assertions, things you want people to remember or believe.

2.              Listeners need supporting materials to believe what the speaker has to say, to accept the message.

3.              Examples show specific support in real terms

4.              Statistics are numbers; need to be justified and believable, Avoid overuse of numbers as people often have a hard time conceiving of numbers. Make them real. Visual aids and examples help.

5.              Testimony is horses mouth (Mr. Ed), someone who has experiences something, first hand experience, stories.

CLIII.    
K. Connectives: a world or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.

1.              Transitions: a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished on a thought and is moving on to another. (Examples on student CD)

2.              Internal Preview: a statement in the body of the speech that let’s the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next. Also called foreshadowing or forward promotion.

3.              Internal Summaries: a statement in the body of a speech that summaries the speakers proceeding point or points. Review.

4.              Signposts: a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in a speech or that focuses attention on key ideas. Part of the roadmap or contract you lay out when you begin to share information in a speech (refer to CD that came with the text)

5.              Connect like ligaments in a body, holding speech together making it unified and coherent.

6.              Four Types of Connectives:

B.              Transitions (see above)

C.              Internal Previews (see above)

D.             Signpost (see above)





E.              IV. Beginning and Ending a Speech


1.              Objectives

2.              Identify four objectives of a Speech Introduction

3.              Explain seven methods that can be used to gain attention in an introduction

4.              Identify the major functions of a speech conclusion

5.              Explain the methods a speaker can use to fulfill the functions of the conclusion

F.              The Introduction

1.              Get attention

2.              Relate the Topic to the Audience (WIIFM)

3.              Make a favorable impression

4.              Helps boost speaker’s self-confidence for rest of speech.

G.              The Conclusion

1.              Take audience through road map one more time

2.              Give speaker one last chance to emphasize main points

3.              Creates favorable final impression

4.              Sense of closure and/or call for action

H.             Four Objectives of a Speech Introduction (may use multiple or one)

1.              Gain attention and interest of the audience

2.              WIIFM: People pay attention closer to topics that relate to them

3.              Always relate the topic to the audience

4.              Do what you can to engage audience from the start

5.              State the importance of the Topic.

I.               Make sure audience understands with an urgency

J.               Demonstrate importance of topic from the start

K.             WIIFM II

1.              Startle the audience

CLIV.     Less effective unless used correctly

CLV.       Can be highly effective if used correctly

CLVI.     Must be directly related to the speech4.

1.              Arouse the curiosity of the Audience

CLVII.   People are curious

CLVIII. Whet their curiosity, their appetite for more

1.              Question the Audience

CLIX.     Dangerous because you can lose control or be surprised by answers

CLX.       Single question or sequenced series of questions

CLXI.     Lead the audience where you want them to go

CLXII.   Make sure firmly related to the content

CLXIII. Later in speech must answer or tie in potential answers to questions asked

1.              Begin with a Quotation

CLXIV.  Choose well to add depth, human interests or humor to introduction

CLXV.    Most effective if a sentence or two…keep it short.

1.              Tell a story

CLXVI.  Make sure well told

CLXVII.                  Make sure it leads to rest of speech and tied in again later

CLXVIII.                Most people like stories

CLXIX.  Personifies and humanizes and issue

1.              Other Methods

CLXX.    Refer to the occasion

CLXXI.  Strong personal statement for Ethos

CLXXII.                  Invite audience participation (danger, can lose control)

CLXXIII.                Use audio or visual aid (danger, could confuse or upstage)

CLXXIV.                Relate to previous speaker

CLXXV.                  Relate to high profile current event

CLXXVI.                Relate to a Stock Issue

CLXXVII.              Begin with humor (appropriate and well told)

CLXXVIII.            All other methods can be effective provided they relate to the audience, topic and occasion

A.              Second objective of a Speech Introduction is to reveal the Subject.

1.              Clearly state the subject to avoid confusing the audience (unless calculated reason not to do so)

2.              Even if the audience knows the subject, the speaker should usually restate it during the introduction and conclusion

B.              The third objective of the introduction is to establish the credibility (Ethos) and good will of the speaker.

1.              Being perceived as qualified to speak on the subject

CLXXIX.                First hand experience

CLXXX.                  Research

CLXXXI.                Secondary or inherited Ethos

1.              Let the audience know your credibility

2.              Build both primary and secondary Ethos

3.              Establish Good Will

CLXXXII.              Show you have the best interests of the audience at heart

CLXXXIII.            Important on all speeches, but persuasive it is essential

A.              Preview the Body of the Speech

1.              Set up a road map to assist audience in following speech

2.              Preview major points and any disclaimers

3.              Provide a smooth lead-in the body of the speech

4.              Preview or present special information

CLXXXIV.             Definitions

CLXXXV.               Key points

CLXXXVI.             Concepts o understand

A.              Tips for an effective Introduction

1.              Keep introduction relatively brief

2.              Always keep introduction and conclusion in mind as you research the speech

3.              Use creativity and think outside of the box

4.              Write the introduction after completing the body and conclusion of the speech

5.              Be flexible to change if research, body, conclusion lead other directions

6.              Always support the conclusion by laying groundwork

B.              Primary Functions of a Speech Conclusion

1.              Signal the end of the speech

CLXXXVII.           Leave audiences fulfilled, with a feeling of completion

CLXXXVIII.         Consider using verbal cues such as “in conclusion”, “one last through”, “and my final comment”

CLXXXIX.             Consider more creative ways to conclude that are less obvious, but still understood as a conclusion by the audience

CXC.       Use verbal cues

A.              Crescendo, build to the ending

B.              Dissolve ending, giving people time to reflect

C.              Clean clear conclusion with finality

D.             In the conclusion reinforce the audiences understanding or commitment to the central idea of the speech

1.              Summarize the main points of the speech

2.              Conclude with a quotation (optional, not best ending0

3.              End with a dramatic statement

4.              End with a call or action

5.              Refer back to the beginning of the speech

6.              Leave a sense of closure

E.              You are in control. Let your creative energy and common sense determine which structures, methods and concepts work for you and for the topic, environment and situation of your speech.


F.              V. Outlining the Speech

1.              Objectives

2.              Understanding why it is important to outline a speech

3.              Understanding basic outline structure

4.              Understanding preparation, research and presentation (thumbnail) outlines

5.              This chapter does requiring reading the textbook more than once.

6.              Not all concepts will be reviewed in these notes.

7.              Important concepts not from the text will be reviewed in unit notes to come. Outlining and research are essential to College level work.

8.              The writing lab can assist with outlining

9.              There are examples under Handouts of Web CT

10.          I can and will share outlines (with student’s permission)

11.          10 Guidelines for Effective Presentation Outlines

G.              Purpose statement

H.             Central Idea

I.               Label the introduction, body and conclusion clearly

J.               Consistent in format, system, decision on type of outline

K.             Easy to follow for future research of review

L.              Presentation outline uses full sentences

M.            Presentation outline shows all sources where used

N.             Label transitional, internal summaries and internal previews

O.             Include bibliography (References in APA format)

P.              Foundation for further research or study by self or others

1.              Presentation outline /Thumbnail / Key Word Outline

Q.             Brief Outline used for speech or speech practice

R.              A few key words per major concept only

S.              Follow same basic format of preparation outline

T.              Legible and easy to see

U.             May include underlines or other cues

V.              Keep it as brief as possible!

W.            Include vocal or other cues you use in the speech

1.              Note Cards

X.              Transfer only the parts of the presentation outline you find you need after practicing with the outline

Y.              Keep writing large and words per note card to minimum

Z.              Flash Card Principle: Discard what you no longer need while practicing

AA.          Write on cards as needed with easy to scan symbols, colors, highlights

BB.          If needed (but try not to) full quotes or statistics may be on card

CC.          See principles of note cards earlier in these unit notes, and in unit 2 notes.

1.              Practice, practice, practice

DD.         Refine speech while practicing

EE.          Get as comfortable as possible

FF.           Memorize only what is essential

GG.          Keep extemporaneous, talking with the audience feel

HH.         5.Practice with your presentation aids

II.             Practice in the space you will present speech

JJ.             Keep a tight grip on time

KK.         Be ready for questions and comments


CXCI.     Information can clarify options

CXCII.   H.   Ethical speaking (applies to all forms of speech) involves

1.              Responsible knowledge

2.              Reasonable knowledge

3.              Covers all major reasonable options

4.              Covers all responsible options

5.              Is fair

6.              Is objective

7.              Keeps in mind the effect on the listeners

8.              Takes responsibility for the effect and response of listeners

B.              Learning principles can enhance the effectiveness of informative speaking

1.              Motivate to learn

CXCIII. Relate topic to the needs and interests of the listeners

CXCIV. Use direct examples and narratives

1.              Techniques to attract and sustain audience interest

CXCV.   Intensity of language

CXCVI. Artful repetition of key words, phrases, sounds, phrases

CXCVII.                 Acronyms

CXCVIII.               Novelty

CXCIX. Physical activity

CC.          Verbal activity

CCI.        Strong presentation aids (well used)

CCII.      Contrast (works because opposites attract attention)

CCIII.    Vocal changes

CCIV.     Stress relevance

CCV.       Invoke ideas and interests

1.              Information is useless unless the audience retains it

2.              Techniques for retention

CCVI.     Repetition

CCVII.   Key points

CCVIII. Relevance (what’s in it for me: WIIFM)

CCIX.     Well organized

CCX.       Use of visuals

CCXI.     Use of acronyms

CCXII.   Humor

CCXIII. J.     Four major types of informative speaking for complete understanding of the range and mission of informative speaking in communication

1.              Description

CCXIV. Paint a clear picture of activities, objects, people, places

CCXV.   Rely heavily on artful language use

CCXVI. Commonly use special, categorical, comparative designs

CCXVII.                 A mental picture of a topic, person, place, activity, etc.

CCXVIII.               Drawing or creating a picture with words

1.              Demonstration

CCXIX. Aim for understanding or Application

CCXX.   Usually use sequential design

CCXXI. Visual aids are usually required or desirable

CCXXII.                 Show how it is done and often why

CCXXIII.               An explanation of a specific process

CCXXIV.                Actually shows how to do something

1.              Explanation

CCXXV.                  Appropriate for complex or abstract applications

CCXXVI.                Define critical terms

CCXXVII.              Offer Examples and/or non-examples

CCXXVIII.            Seek the understanding of the audience

CCXXIX.                May show how something works

CCXXX.                  May show why something works

1.              Briefings

CCXXXI.                Short explanations or descriptions

CCXXXII.              Presented in an organized setting

CCXXXIII.            Brief and to the point

CCXXXIV.            Organized with audience in mind

CCXXXV.              Organized with situational need in mind

CCXXXVI.            Organized with need to know in mind

CCXXXVII.          Rely on verified facts, figures, testimony

CCXXXVIII.        Use short examples

CCXXXIX.            Presented with confidence

CCXL.    Deal with questions forthrightly and honestly

CCXLI.  Be as informed as possible with questions in mind


CCXLII.                  Developing Your Speech


CCXLIII.                Length:


CCXLIV.                The length of a speech is important

CCXLV.                  In the “real world” timing could be crucial to an event

CCXLVI.                Shoot for minimum to middle length, as most of the time you may say more than you intended or can stretch. Danger is if you forget portions of your speech and cannot find a way to reach the minimum length.


CCXLVII.              Name:


CCXLVIII.            Use your name at least once or twice, to humanize and personalize the speaker.


CCXLIX.                First Step:


CCL.       Private purpose – your reason for being interested in and wanting to do the speech. The stronger the better. Passion and unseen Ethos and Pathos comes from this.


CCLI.     Public purpose- the reason for doing the speech topic that you reveal to the audience. Your passion and interests are then revealed to support your speech. Can be the same as private, but make sure no one is endangered or hurt, including yourself, if you reveal the private reason. Strongest choice is usually to reveal the private reason.


CCLII.   Thesis Statement- Your short, one sentence statement that says what you want to say. The stronger, the better.


CCLIII. Next: Use scientific method of thesis, conclusion, doing research in between, Change the conclusion or admit you were wrong if that is what you find out.


CCLIV.  Finally, prepare the speech, as indicated in four chapters of the text,

CCLV.    Body first.

CCLVI.  Conclusion than

CCLVII.                  Introduction.


CCLVIII.                Now do the outlines and above all practice the speech.


CCLIX.  You do not have to say everything that is in your full outline.


CCLX.    Communication Model Additional Info


CCLXI.  The Power of the Receiver: Using Screens to control information flow

A.              Property. You own your attention and can store it wherever you wish. You have CONTROL.


B.              Mobility. You can securely move your attention wherever you want whenever you want to. You have the ability to TRANSFER your attention.

C.              Economy. You can pay attention to whomever you wish and receive value in return. Your attention has WORTH.

D.             Transparency. You can see exactly how your attention is being used. You can DECIDE whom you trust. When you give your attention to any entity.


CCLXII.                  Any transmitter must understand the codes, noise / filters / screens, objectives and objections of the intended receiver.


CCLXIII.                In a world of mixed, multiple, constant and intrusive messages it is best for both the transmitter and receiver to remember the powers of property, mobility, economy and transparency in communication transactions.


CCLXIV.                Presentation Aids


CCLXV.                  Presentation Aids are visual, auditory or other material used to enhance or clarify your presentation information. Be sure to review the Rules for Using Presentation Aids located on pages 1054 t 105 in your text. Ask instructor questions in advance of working on aids. Plan and rehearse you aids and allow time for drafts, changes and comfort of presentation. Make sure your aids are ethical, add to the presentation, and support a point or the overall message of the presentation. Do a disclaimer if necessary (always see instructor in advance or risk point loss or possible failure on the speech). Remember CCSN’s basic rules concerning aids as presented in first lecture. See syllabus.


1.              When to use

2.              When appropriate

3.              Supports major point or idea

4.              Illustrates difficult to understand concepts

CCLXVI.                Visual Design and execution are important

A.              Maximum Impact

B.              Avoid too much information

C.              Avoid clutter

D.             Choose material carefully

E.              Balance variety with coherence

F.              Use large lettering

G.              Serif on printed boards, san-serif best on computer visuals

H.             Upper case best, with capital larger

I.               Colors are key, avoid red, yellow and light colors for lettering

J.               Colors provide mood, setting, contrast

K.             Do not become overly PowerPoint dependent


L.              Presentation Aids may and should increase the clarity of the speech.

1.              May or can supplement abstract messages with sensory representations

2.              Enhance understanding

3.              Add authenticity

4.              To add variety

5.              Increase attention

6.              Renew attention

7.              For transitions

8.              To improve delivery

9.              To create or increase lasting impact

10.          Neat, attractive, well thought our aids enhance credibility


M.            2.     Presentation aids are almost mandatory in most presentation settings

N.             Keep audiences focused and interesting

O.             Entertain or answer What’s In It for Me

P.              Media society is use to multiple media I inputs and images

Q.             Greeks identified visual or presentation aids as a primary element of communication


CCLXVII.              Kinds of aids available are limited only to your imagination

A.              People

CCLXVIII.            Speaker (not counted as an aid in your speech, but may be utilized)

1.              Gestures, actions, movement to illustrate ideas or transitions

2.              Dress and personal grooming to enhance or reinforce speech

3.              Personal Ethos

CCLXIX.                Other People

A.              Demonstrate described activities

B.              Illustrate specific points or concepts

C.              Testimony (not too long and not make points for you)

D.             Must be willing and know what is expected of them

E.              Objects and Models

CCLXX.                  Small enough to carry but large enough to see

CCLXXI.                Kept out of sight until uses in the speech

CCLXXII.              Inanimate make for better presentations than living things (live can distract or even demand attention).

CCLXXIII.            Be wary of dangerous, illegal of rotationally offensive objects

CCLXXIV.             Make sure it helps make or illustrate a key point

CCLXXV.               Models substitute when objects are too large, unavailable, hard to see, too valuable, too fragile, too dangerous or too complex to bring to presentation or to accurately represent the points and intent of the objects use in a presentations

CCLXXVI.             Models are representative and usually made to scale

CCLXXVII.           Models make it easy for everyone to see and understand

CCLXXVIII.         Models are used often in museum


CCLXXIX.             Graphics or graphic visual aids

A.              Know when to use each type illustrated in the text

B.              Select only what best assists in accurately illustrating or supporting your point.

C.              Sketches or diagrams offer simplified explanations or representation


D.             Maps are good for special

1.              Keep maps simple and to scale

2.              Keep maps free of extraneous information

3.              Carefully and purposefully worked into the presentation

CCLXXX.               Help create and set a feeling of place and scale


A.              Graphs make statistical information more understandable

1.              Pie Graphs show the size and proportion of a subject’s part in relation to each other and to the whole

2.              Bar graphs show comparison and contrasts between two or more related items or groups.

3.              Line graphs help to illustrate changes over time

4.              Line graphs are useful in indicating trends of growth or decline

5.              Line graphs can illustrate relationships between any two factors

6.              When plotting more than one line be certain that the audience can distinguish the lines and understand how they represents differing trends or elements.

7.              Mountain Graphs are variations of line graphs that fill in the area below the line. It is best used to accentuate the difference between two lines on the same graph or to enhance the strength of a growth or declining trend.


B.              Charts provide summaries of processes and relationships

1.              Often charts are overly simplistic and should be used not as evidence but as a representation of possible interpretations

2.              Flow charts are used to show steps in a process

3.              Flow charts can also be used to show power and responsibility relationships

4.              Do not clutter up a flow charts, instead use sequenced charts shown in succession.

5.              Charts can use icons, pictographs or other visually symbolic representations


C.              Textual Graphics are lists of phrases, words or numbers

1.              Key terms can assist audience in following complicated issues

2.              Bulleted lists work well with other graphics

3.              Bulleted lists help viewers prioritize and understand structure

4.              Acronym use letters from words (usually first letters) to implant ideas in the minds of the audience that makes the speech more memorable.

5.              Acronyms may also represent organizations, ideas, idioms, jargon or shorthand for complex conceptualizations in a variety of subjects.

6.              Acronyms must be explained at least once anytime they are used, because the same acronym may have differing meanings to different groups


D.             Photographs and Pictures have advantages and disadvantages

1.              Can have distracting details

2.              May be too small or too subtle

3.              Distracting when passed around instead of large display

4.              Can take attention away from the speaker when not best time to do so

5.              May cause differing thoughts or emotions in different audience members

6.              Can be altered or taken out of context

7.              “Is worth a thousand words”

8.              Can be memorable and help reinforce concepts or points in a presentation


CCLXXXI.             Media For Presentation Aids

A.              Flip Charts

B.              Posters (use stock or board to keep stiff, non distracting and easy to see

C.              Poster Boards (same idea)


D.             Handouts

1.              Use only when needed

2.              Can distract by having people read ahead or having too much information

3.              Best used with professional groups accustomed to working with handouts during presentations or who require detailed written presentations

4.              Can be offered after speech for less of a distraction

CCLXXXII.           Never distribute handouts during the presentation (before or after only)

A.              Chalk board (not counted as aid in your COM 110 speeches, but may be used as needed or desired).

1.              Allows spontaneous adaptation to audience feedback

2.              Can be made as current and topical as necessary

3.              Can showcase bad handwriting or spelling skills

4.              Dirty or dusty process

5.              May lead speakers to put their backs to the audience

6.              Helps focus audience attention

7.              Make sure letters and graphics are large enough to be seen and understood

8.              Do not overuse chalkboard


B.              Overheads

1.              Best for a larger audience

2.              Do not completely darken the room

3.              Make sure they can be read and seen by audience

4.              Keep them simple and easy to read

5.              Use of pen allows revision or highlight during presentation

6.              Allows eye contact with the audience while slides are overhead

7.              Simple and easy to use visual reinforcement of the speech

8.              Do not overuse

9.              Can require speaker to stand by projector, limiting movement range and podium use

10.          Always check equipment ahead of time and be ready to go on without overheads if necessary (true of all presentation aids).

11.          Do not substitute overheads for actual speaker to audience contact or presentation.


C.              Slides

1.              Best in a large presentation situation

2.              Must darken room, limits notes and eye contact

3.              Clearer and crisper than overheads

4.              Best for photographic presentations or art work

CCLXXXIII.         Cost and availability may become an issues


A.              Audio

1.              Strong potential pathos and mythos

2.              Can assist in mood, flow and pace

3.              Can authenticate

4.              Excellent way for secondary ethos (interviews, etc.)

5.              Can gain or maintain audience interests

6.              Use with specific care to subject matter

7.              Do not talk over lyrics or words

8.              Take care with volume,

9.              Take care with language,

10.          Keep in mind audience sensibilities


B.              Video

1.              Strongest potential

2.              Must be specific and to the point being made

3.              Keep length from dominating speech

4.              Can authenticate presentation

5.              Adds variety to presentation

6.              Appealing to video generation

7.              Sound, movement, light, graphics included

8.              Can transport the audience to other locations

9.              Potential strong for pathos and mythos

10.          Potential strong for secondary ethos

11.          Keep short and carefully cued and edited

12.          Be ready to go if video equipment fails or not available


C.              Computer Generated

1.              Danger of overuse

2.              Danger of ethical misuse

3.              Danger of distracting from speaker

4.              Strong ability to merge other aids

5.              Strong ability to make smaller images seen

6.              Strong ability to reinforce points graphically

7.              Easy and abundance of tools available

8.              Most all presentation tools can be augmented, altered, prepared, edited or in other ways complimented or polished using computers

9.              Can bring text, pictures, artwork, slides, video, audio, animations and other material into a cohesive presentation

10.          Should reveal graphic after initially mentioning point supported by graphics

11.          Should not let the computer presentation be or upstage the speaker or speakers entire presentation


D.             Substantive presentation takes priority over any and all presentation tools


CCLXXXIV.         Presentation Presentation Aids should adhere to the basic principles of design

A.              Visible to the entire audience

B.              Easy to read and understand by the entire audience

C.              Emphasize the central idea or main points of the presentation


D.             Pleasing and balanced to the eye (or ear)

1.              Focal point should balance graphic and textual materials

2.              Adequate margins

3.              Use of color should be complimentary and easy to read


E.              Sourced. Site sources for information presented on or for the images used in a presentation aid (ethical and legal responsibilities).

F.              Color

1.              Attention and interests

2.              Can influence moods and impressions

CCLXXXV.           Examples red excites, blue indicates power and stability, green comfort, etc.


CCLXXXVI.         3.     Keep in mind that some audience members may be color blind

A.              Colors should stand out from background

B.              Colors can sway opinion, emotions, priorities

CCLXXXVII.       The impact of color may vary by culture


A.              Selection, preparation and use of presentation aids takes time and planning

1.              Should have rough and practice drafts just as with the rest of the speech

2.              Abandon use if aid does not support or work in the flow of a speech

3.              All aids should support specific points or overall theme of speech

4.              Aids should compliment the speaker and the speech, not distract

5.              Avoid clutter with too much information, unneeded materials or too many aids in a single presentation for the time allotted or topic selected

6.              Practice using the aid, integrate it into the presentation

7.              Text it out in the room or space where it will be used

8.              Check on all electronic or other support aids needed for your presentation aid to work.

9.              Do not display your aid until you are ready to use it.

10.          Make sure your aid can be seen or heard (watch where you stand, site lines, etc,)

11.          Point to or indicate the aid was needed, but do not overuse or distract in doing so.

12.          Do not leave your audience searching or wondering about the aid

13.          Explain as needed

14.          Do not distribute materials during a speech

15.          Do not pass around items or photographs during a speech

16.          Do not use too many presentation aids in a single speech

17.          Plan the time it takes to use the aid into your presentation time

18.          Make sure you can have quick set up and tear down of your aids or material

19.          Think of the staging of the aids as theater and ask if they would help or distract you if you were watching instead of giving the presentation

20.          Do no read your aids, let the audience read or use them.

21.          Do not let your aid get in the way of your eye contact or other public speaking skills or tools.


CCLXXXVIII.     Ethic include use of presentation aids

CCLXXXIX.         Truthful and non-harmful (declaimer or do not use if harmful).

CCXC.   Alert audience if any images have been altered

CCXCI. Does the image represent an underlying truth?

CCXCII.                 Is there a valid reason for its use?

CCXCIII.               Has the image been manipulated, and if so by whom, why and does it remain truthful?

CCXCIV.                Context. Does it hold up in context? Has it been taken out of context?

CCXCV.                  Be healthily skeptical about images and other presentation aids

CCXCVI.                (Commissar’s image, Internet contextual miss-representation, sequential manipulation, others)

CCXCVII.              Should not take the place of other evidence or support for claims.

CCXCVIII.            Remember that images carry ethical responsibity and can harm or willfully mislead



CCXCIX.                Ethics


CCC.       Freedom of Speech does not guarantee freedom from consequence.


CCCI.     All Speech or any communication can change the lives or attitudes of listeners.


CCCII.   You are not free to willfully harm others, in speech or action.


CCCIII. Freedoms are not rights, but privileges. They can be abused or even taken away when they interfere with the rights of others.


CCCIV. Define ethics.


CCCV.   The study of human moral conduct or the branch of philosophy that addresses the right and wrong in human conduct.


CCCVI. A set of moral principals.

CCCVII.                 Moral, correct, right, proper, just, righteous, honorable, decent, upright, principled, fair, honest, good, virtuous, noble.

CCCVIII.               Varies by culture and individual, but generally a map or plan to determine right from wrong, truth from falsehood, acceptable form unacceptable.


CCCIX. Ethics

A.              Truthful and non-harmful (declaimer or do not use if harmful).

B.              Should not take the place of other evidence or support for claims.

C.              Alert audience if any images have been altered

D.             Does the image represent an underlying truth?

E.              Is there a valid reason for its use?

F.              Has the image been manipulated, and if so by whom, why and does it remain truthful?

G.              Context. Does it hold up in context? Has it been taken out of context?

H.             Be healthily skeptical about images and other presentation aids

CCCX.   (Commissar’s image, Internet contextual misrepresentation, sequential manipulation, others)



CCCXI. Remember that images carry ethical responsibility and can harm or willfully mislead.



CCCXII.                 Truth as objective or subjective.


CCCXIII.               Differentiate between absolute, platonic, relative and Aristotelian truths. See text.


CCCXIV.                Who were the Sophists?

CCCXV.                  What is the relationship between culture and truth?

CCCXVI.                Who is dogmatism?

CCCXVII.              What is ethnocentrism?

CCCXVIII.            Define Ethos, Pathos, Logos and Mythos.

CCCXIX.                Give a more detailed definition of Ethos.

CCCXX.                  How can you incorporate ethics, morals and rights into your speaking?


CCCXXI.                Dogmatic

CCCXXII.              Rigidity of belief, example are basic religious beliefs (but dogmatism is not limited to religion and all religious beliefs are not necessarily dogmatic).

CCCXXIII.            Given to asserting to imposing personal beliefs opinions on others.

CCCXXIV.            Doctrinal in structure or belief. Doctrine exercised.

CCCXXV.              Based on prior principles.

CCCXXVI.            Making unsupported acceptations.

CCCXXVII.          Arbitrary, categorical, dictatorial, pontifical, imperious, peremptory, overbearing, authoritarian, autocratic, uncompromising, high-handed, self-righteous, insistent, Assertive, arrogant, domineering, obdurate, stubborn, intolerant, opinionated, pushy, non-moving in belief, imposing beliefs on others, unquestioning beliefs.


CCCXXVIII.        Ethics Continued

A.              Ethical Communication enhances human worth and dignity by enhancing worth and dignity through fostering truthfulness, fairness, responsibility, personal integrity, and respect for self and others.- NCA

B.              Ethics apply to both the speaker and the audience.

C.              Ethics involve contributing positive communication

D.             Critique should be both positive and negative

E.              Negative is never to attack, belittle, undermine or to create or reinforce false information or images. Negative critique is to help the speaker or listener look at their own views or styles and find ways to improve. Points out what is wrong does not have to be attack or harmful.

F.              Core Values

CCCXXIX.            1.Truth

CCCXXX.              2.Ethics

CCCXXXI.            3.Honesty

CCCXXXII.          4.Reason

CCCXXXIII.        5.Avoid plagiarism

A.              Improve listening skills

B.              Freedom of expression

C.              Diversity of expression

D.             Cultural diversity

E.              Diversity of perspective

F.              Tolerance of Dissent

G.              First Amendment of the Constitution

1.              –isms (sexism, ageism, racism, etc.) build walls and as such are unethical in public speaking









CCCXXXIV.         he Speakers Body
A. Poise- stature, grade, attitude, perceived dignity and integrity, perceived interests. Appearance- visual appearance, clothing, reflects how much you care or do not care. Enthusiasm- select topic you care about, you know about, care…

B. Kinesics- The4 study of body motions as systematic move of communication.
C. Posture, facial expression, gestures, eye contact, clothing, hygiene all impact the audience’s ability to receive, believe and respond to a message
D. Non-verbal can carry greater weight and greater Ethos than words or speaking voice
E. Personal Appearance
ii. You are seen before and during your presentation
iii. Bias, stereotype and prejudice are often visual based
iv. Appropriate for topic
v. Show respect for audience
vi. Be yourself, but remember the above do apply
vii. Evoke a favorable first impression
viii. Know your audience
ix. Know the situation
F. Gestures
x. Motions of a speakers hands or arms during a speech
xi. Be natural, but do not distract from content and message
xii. Use gestures to emphasize points, transitions, concepts
xiii. Gestures should not draw attention to themselves and away from the speech and the message of the speech
xiv. Appear natural and spontaneous
xv. Help to clarify and reinforce your ideas
xvi. Be suited to the audience and the situation

G. Eye Contact
1. Eye Contact is direct visual contact with the eyes of another person
2. Should be
a. Direct- looking into the eyes of intervals in the audience
b. Deliberate- 
c. Distributed- cover the overall area of the audience, if not every individual
d. Sustained- at least a half second (2 or 3 suggested) at a time
e. 80% or more of the time
f. Appropriate and contextual
3. Strong non-verbal communication
4. “The Windows of the Soul” principle
a. Audiences look into a speaker’s eyes for clues about the speaker’s truthfulness, intelligence, confidence, feelings and ethos
b. Attitude is often communicated by the eyes
c. Differing cultures look for differing clues, so a knowledge of the culture of those being addressed is important for proper interpretation and protocol
5. Rules vary by culture, protocol, situation
6. Not just looking at audience, but how you look at them
7. Eye Contacts helps
a. Capture and maintain an audience’s attention
b. Establish speaker credibility / ethos
c. Allows speakers to see and respond to feedback






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