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Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Unit 7



Unit  # 7

In Unit 7 we review for the midterm. In addition we will look at further details on the concepts of the course including proofs, codes, the communication model, critical listening and critical thinking, donatives and connotative word meanings and usage, evidence, research and other terms and concepts you need to master for this course.

This review is essential to do well in the course and to fully use the concepts of the course to help make your life better and to understand the communication world around you, and how it impacts you and everyone else. Keep in mind that knowledge is power, education is repetition and that the most anyone can listen is 50%, often far less.

Click on "read more" below for term review outlines, definitions and advice.

Over 80% of the midterm is by the authors of the text. It is not easy.

These unit notes do contain duplication and redundancy, sometimes exact, but more often putting things in different ways. Use these to your advantage or skip past what you may not need to review. These are here to assist you with your studies, your speeches, your understanding of communication and, of course, your midterm and final.

If you have questions, feel free to e-mail me using Angel / Web CT or ask in the classroom.


I.               The Proofs
A.    Ethos
A.   Ethos is the speaker or sources Credibility.
B.    Shown through the perception by the receiver of
1.     Confidence
a.     Minimal nerves
b.     Minimal uncertainty
c.     Demonstrates one or more of the below…
d.     Other
2.     Integrity
a.     Straight forward
b.     Honest
c.     Ability to look at both sides
d.     Commitment
e.     Follows own advice
f.      Other
3.     Likeability
a.     Good will
b.     Personality
c.     Dress and appearance
d.     Eye contact
e.     Open physical expressions
f.      Non-threatening
g.     Smile
h.     Perceived positive intent
i.      Conversational
j.      Relevant
4.     Power
a.     Position
b.     Decisiveness
c.     Celebrity
d.     Other
5.     Competency
a.     Education
b.     Knowledge
6.     Experience
a.     Real or first hand knowledge
b.     Secondary knowledge
c.     Other
7.     Knowledge
a.     Textbook
b.     Education
c.     Experience
d.     Apparent background
e.     Understanding
3. Demonstrates or utilizes
1.     Prestige
2.     Expertise
3.  Solid source dependence
                                                                                       i.     Experience
                                                                                      ii.     All of the items under B and C

B.    Pathos is emotional proof
A.   Gut feelings
B.    “Know it is true” without substantive proof
C.    Pathos exercises the use of
a.     Emotional appeal or attack
b.     Examples
c.     Narratives
d.     Ethnocentrism
e.     Attempts to move people to action
f.      Appeal to personal needs or beliefs
g.     Tools to attempt to change beliefs without objective proof
h.     Other
C.    Logos is the use of logic
A.   May vary by culture, but there is a generally believed logic system base
B.    Logos exercises use
a.     Rational argumentation
b.     Facts and numbers / figures
c.     Flow chart organization
d.     The building on universally accepted truths
e.     Expert testimony
f.      Generally accepted ethical structures
g.     Strong Ethos
h.     Other
D.   Mythos is culturally held beliefs
A.   Uses culturally heritage argumentation
B.    Is based on a shared culture
C.    Used examples and narratives
D.   My include (as examples)
a.     Patriotism
b.     Heroes
c.     Pride
d.     Myths
e.     Shared stories
f.      Historic deeds
g.     Group beliefs
h.     Shared experiences
i.      Unifying identity beliefs
j.      Other
II.             Persuasive Proofs
A.    See previous notes on Aristilian Proofs
B.    See test for further explanation
C.    Also use Web CT handouts and links for further clarification
D.   Proof by Logos / Logic
A.   Uses appeal based on rationality
B.    Relies on facts, figures and expert testimony
C.    Is basic to all ethical persuasion
E.    Proof by Pathos / Emotion
A.   Uses appeals based on emotion
B.    Relies on examples and narratives
C.    May be necessary to move people to action
D.   Is used heavily in marketing and advertising
E.    May boomerang if overused or misused
F.    Should be used in conjunction with ethos and logos
F.    Proof by Ethos / Credibility
A.   Uses appealed based on credibility
B.    Includes
a.     Expert,
b.     Prestige,
c.     And lay testimony
G.   Proof by Mythos / Myths
A.   Uses appeals base on cultural heritage
B.    Relies on examples and narratives
C.    Involves appeal to patriotism, cultural pride, historic deeds, heroes/heroines, etc.
D.   Can help bring audiences together
E.    Can provide useful shortcuts or shorthand


III.           Codes
A.    Verbal
A.   Words
B.    Language
C.    Actual vocabulary utilized
B.    Vocal
A.   How the voice is used
B.    Intonation
C.    Connotation
D.   Enunciation
E.    Pace
F.    Tone
G.   Articulation
H.   Inference
I.      Volume
J.     Cultural norms in use of voice
K.   Other
C.    Visual
A.   Every communication code or queue that is no verbal or vocal
B.    Sight
C.    Sound
D.   Smell
E.    Touch
IV.           Principles of Public Communication
A. Purpose
A.   Message
B.    Intent
C.    Think, know, do, believe
B. Audience
D.   Who
E.    Demographic
a.     Age range
b.     Distribution of gender
c.     Psychographic
F.    Attitudes
G.   Interests
B.    Logistics
A.   Location
B.    Occasion
a.     Ceremonial
b.     Other
c.     Marketing
d.     Tools
e.     Room characteristics
f.      Lighting
g.     Sound
h.     Etc.
C.    Content
A.   Sources
B.    Importance for audience
C.    Support
D.   Meaning
E.    Details
F.    Etc.
D.   Organization
A.   Purpose
B.    Logistics
C.    Audience
D.   Appropriate
E.    Etc.
E.    Credibility
A.   Ethos
B.    Trust
C.    Expertise
D.   Ethics
E.    Other
F.    Performance
A.   Appropriate
B.    Rehearsed
C.    Types
a.     Extemporaneous
b.     Rehearsed
c.     Memorized
d.     Impromptu
e.     Etc.
V.             Critical Thinking and Listening
A.    Think
B.    Analyze
C.    Use all your sense
D.   Think inside and outside the box
E.    Justify ideas, conclusions, decisions
F.    Conscious and unconscious process
G.   A way of analyzing information to arrive on a well reasoned conclusion about value, application and validity
H.   Argumentation
A.   Claim
a.     What you intend to say
b.     Your position or conclusion
c.     What you ask audience to believe or accept
B.    Evidence
a.     How you support your claim
b.     Information
c.     Date
d.     Opinions
e.     Proofs
f.      Can be primary
g.     Secondary
h.     Tertiary
C.    Support
a.     See evidence
b.     Why people believe your claim
D.   Reason
a.     Way of thinking used to persuade or inform
b.     Showing “what is in it for me”
c.     Why an action must be taken or new information considered
E.    Warrant
a.     Explains why evidence should be believed
b.     Demonstrates relationship between claims and evidence
c.     Prompts action
d.     “How did you get to your claim”?
F.    Backing
a.     Solid support of a claim
b.     Why is my idea right, correct?
c.     Supports warrant
d.     Background or history behind claim
e.     See reason and support
G.   Reservations
a.     Showing both sides
b.     Understanding opposing views, options or opinions
c.     Recognizes exceptions to an argument
d.     Addresses and counters major points from opposition
H.   Qualifiers
a.     Strength of argument
b.     Extent to which statement or ideas are or may be true
c.     The degree to which a claim is true
d.     “Possibly”, “likely”, “probable”, “considerable”
I.      Other
VI.           Critical Thinking Skills (partial list)
A.   Claims supported by facts
B.    Who is talking and why
C.    What is their point of view
D.   What is the merit of their point of view
E.    Do they support their arguments with testimony, examples, narrative3s, facts, figures, logic, etc?
F.    Does their argument make sense
G.   Are they paid to say what they are saying
H.   Are there support materials and do they meet the criteria above
I.      Are support materials current, relevant, reliable, etc.
J.     Does the speaker distinguish between facts, inferences, opinions, etc?
K.   Is the language clear, concrete, well chosen and honest
L.    Is emotion used well, honestly and ethically
M.  Doe it acknowledge the other side
N.   Are conclusions supported throughout the speech
O.   Does the argument flow
P.    Does the argument make sense
Q.   Are claims valid
R.    Are premises valid
S.     Are promises achievable
T.    Does it fit in with what you already know
U.   Is it strong enough to change your views of what you know
V.    What is the context
W.  Is it supported by ethos
X.   How valid is the pathos appeal
Y.    Is it logical (Logos)
Z.    Does it fit my cultural believe and context (Mythos)
AA.            How are the codes uses (verbal, visual, vocal)
BB.             Why do I feel the way I do
CC.             Why do they feel the way they do
DD.            Is there possible common ground
EE. Etc.
B.    Language
C.    All word shave multiple meanings
D.   Not all meanings are found in definitions
E.    Meaning can be contextual
F.    Meaning can be cultural
G.   Meaning may not be the same as the word itself
H.   Denotative meanings
A.    Are the “dictionary definition”
B.    Are objective
a.     Exist as an object
b.     Have a reality
c.     Are actual objects, conditions or phenomenon
d.     Express or deal with accepted facts
e.     Deal with conditions accepted as fact
f.      Do not have the impairment of personal feelings or interpretation
C.    Are often black and white
D.   Are usually easy to understand
E.    Seldom carry emotional subtexts
F.    Make known or clear
G.   Explicitly name or describe
H.   Have direct or specific meanings as distinct from an implied or associated idea or meaning
I.      Have logic in the totality of things to which the term is available
I.      Connotative meanings
A.   Are or can be emotional
B.    Are subjective
a.     The substance of ideas
b.     Belonging to reality
c.     Are interpretive
d.     Are not impartial
e.     Involve personal interpretation
f.      Involve personal value judgments
g.     Are not literal
h.     Involve the individual consciousness
C.    May change based on context
D.   Suggest a meaning of the word apart from the thing or action itself
E.    Aside from what the word explicitly names or describes, there are hidden or secondary meanings implied of suggested by a word
F.    Implies
a.     Consequences,
b.     Conditions
c.     Emotion
G.   Are most often action words or require action words to understand
H.   Goes beyond or in addition to literal meaning
I.      Can be used as Trigger Words
a.     Trigger words are words that create an emotional response
b.     Trigger words are effective in persuasion
c.     Trigger words often evoke strong pathos
d.     Trigger words inspire positive or negative emotions
e.     Trigger words provide action


J.     Hearing
A.   Is biological
B.    Is physiological
C.    Is passive
D.   Is all inclusive
a.     Except for handicap or as result of interference
K.   Listening
A.   Is psychological
a.     Involves thought
b.     Involves action
B.    Is active
a.     You must work at listening
b.     You must want to listen
C.    Active listening involves thought
D.   Types
a.     Appreciative
1.     For pleasure
2.     Agreement
3.     Enjoyment
b.     Empathetic
1. To provide support
c.     Comprehensive
1, listening to understand
d.     Critical
1.     Provide evaluation
2.     Analysis
3.     Criticism
4.     To determine value
5.     To decide how to use
6.     To decide where to store
7.     To decide relationships
8.     Other

4.     Barriers to listening
a.     External, internal and cultural noise
b.     Lack of understanding
c.     Conflicting messages
d.     Too many messages
e.     Lack of methods or criteria to decipher or screen
f.      Lack of context
g.     Lack of perceived value
h.     Other


VII.         Narrative Paradigm
A.    Is a concept framed by Walter Fisher, research it…

VIII.       Guidelines for using the principles of evidence
A.    Has to be applicable to the situation being described
B.    Are relative to culture and belief structures
A.   Evidence not apply with all audiences, groups or individuals
B.    One groups “truth” or “correct” may be another’s “wrong” or “false”
a.     Examples: Middle East, Asian Pacific, Immigration Policy Assumptions, etc.

C.    There may be competing principles which need to be considered and accounted for
A.   Example: “eye for an eye” vs. “killing is wrong”
B.    Example: where and when does life begin?
C.    Example: Science vs. Faith
IX.           Surveys
A.    Are tools used to measure and estimate
B.    Are not evidence
C.    May or may not be scientifically conducted
D.   Are dependant on:
A.   Time
B.    Place
C.    Environment
D.   Context
E.    Order of Questions
F.    Wording bias of Questions
G.   Goals or views of those paying for them
H.   Have margins of error
E.    Examples: Polls, marking surveys, public opinion polls, political polls, etc.

X.             Presentation Aids
A.    Used to (as needed only, not at all times)
A.   Clarify points
B.    Support evidence
C.    Emphasize key points
D.   Break down complex information
E.    Appeal to differing styles of learning
F.    Assist in needed repetition and reinforcement
G.   Support points in body of speech
H.   For transitions
I.      See notes in book and in previously posted weekly notes.

XI.           Principles of Good Form
A.    Simplicity
A.   Limit your main points (2 or 3 are suggested by the text)
B.    Phrase main points clearly and succinctly
C.    Repeat points as suggested in text
D.   Use parallel phrasing for emphasis
B.    Balance
A.   The body should be the longest part of the speech
B.    Main points should be balanced
a.     All may be equal in importance or length
b.     Or make sure they do not overwhelm other points
c.     Order is vital to making your point
d.     Main Points may increase or decrease in importance
e.     Main Points may increase or decrease in length
C.    Introduction and Conclusion should be close in length
a.     Make sure you follow suggestions in text
b.     Make sure you look at evaluations sheets on Web CT\
C.    Orderliness
A.   Open with the Introduction
B.    Develop main ideas in the body of your speech
C.    End with a conclusion
D.   Follow a consistent pattern of development


XII.         Language Guidelines
A.    Be clear
A.   Use repetition, paraphrasing, examples, etc.
B.    Use lay or common language
C.    Define terms
D.   Repeat using differing words
B.    Be colorful
A.   Use vivid and intense words
B.    Evoke vivid sensory images
C.    Be concrete
A.   Avoid abstractions unless needed by context
B.    Use specific examples
C.    Use real world examples
D.   Be correct
A.   Look up unfamiliar words
B.    Know and practice correct pronunciations
C.    Understand full meaning and context of what you are saying
E.    Be concise
A.   Use simple, direct sentences
B.    Avoid redundancy
C.    Repeat only to clarify or drive home points
D.   Move on if you feel the audience understands what you are saying,
E.    Repeat only was needed to keep audience interested and understanding your speech
F.    Be culturally sensitive
A.   Respect the diversity of your audience
B.    Avoid offensive language, images or actions
C.    If above is needed, use proper disclaimer prior to speech
D.   If above is needed, warn inside speech when potential offense is about to occur
E.    Check with host, instructor, event coordinator when in doubt.

XIII.       Language Techniques
A.    To help audiences see things use
A.   Similes or metaphors
B.    Synecdoche
C.    Metonymy
D.   Contrasts
E.    Examples
F.    Common experiences
G.   Adverbs and adjectives as appropriate
B.    To arouse emotions use:
A.   Connotative language
B.    Images
C.    Onomatopoeia
D.   Hyperbole
E.    Personification
F.    Identification
G.   Shared experiences or ideas
C.    To temper emotions use
A.   Denotative facts
B.    Facts and figures
C.    Non inflammatory language
D.   Euphemisms
D.   To promote identification use:
A.   Inclusive pronouns
B.    Narratives
C.    Cultural types and ideographs
D.   Archetypal metaphors
E.    Common experiences or ideas
E.    To move people to action use:
A.   The techniques used to arouse emotions
B.    Alliteration
C.    Parallel constructions
D.   Inversion
E.    Antithesis
F.    Strong persuasive designs


XIV.       Extemporaneous Speaking
A.    Without notes
B.    For this class only key phrase or what the book calls presentation notes (keyword/ keynote) may be used
C.     And put them on note cards in large easy to read lettering
D.   Speak naturally and spontaneously
E.    Respond to audience feedback
A.   Be flexible
B.    Plan for response time
C.    Plan to repeat if needed based on feedback
F.    Establish and maintain eye contact
G.   Let your working differ during practice and in the speech
H.   Practice from your key-work or presentation outline
I.      Practice your gestures and movements
J.     Practice you timing
K.   Memorize key quotes or statistics
L.    Practice with your visual aids.
M.  Practice until you can fully respond to your ideas
N.   Practice, if possible, where you will be speaking
O.   Always recheck visuals, particularly electronic
P.    Always be prepared with backup visuals, or to go without
Q.   Begin with your formal outline, then switch to your key-word
R.    Be ready to go even if you forget your notes
S.    Know your topic
T.    Pay attention to time


XV.         Midterm Review General
A.    Spotlight Effect
B.    Prejudice
C.    Bias
D.   Stereotype
E.    Primacy
F.    Slang
G.   Rhetoric
H.   Idiom
I.      Ethnocentrism
J.     Assimilation
K.   Meaning of words, gestures, images
L.    Transitions
M.  Sign Posts, Road Map
N.   Listening
O.   Volume, tone, voice, tone, projection, etc.
P.    Visualization
Q.   Roundtable
R.    Panel Discussion
S.    Forums
T.    Symposiums
U.   Types of informative speaking
V.    Dealing with Speech Anxiety
W.  Habituation
X.    Communication environments
Y.    Types of presentation aids
Z.    Cultural Diversity
XVI.       Midterm Review: Visual Aids
A.    Presentation software
B.    When to use
C.    How to use
D.   Eye Contact and rules for eye contact
E.    Other rules or guidelines for presentation
XVII.     Midterm Review Patterns of Organization / Designs/ Structures
A.    Topical: By sub groups or general headings, two to four in speech, topics.
B.    Categorical: by category. Organize by recognizable groups
C.    Causation: Organize by probable cause and then proposals
D.   Chronological: Organize sequentially by time
E.    Comparative: Compare two or more possible solutions, advocating one
F.    Sequential: Put in an order the audience can follow and remember
G.   Spatial: Relationship in space or by size, location, geography
H.   Motivated Sequence: in order with justification of why it must be in this order
I.      Problem-Cause-Solution: Establish problem, show probable cause and show why solution works using that probable cause.
J.     Problem-Solution: Establish a problem, and then show your solution and how it works
K.   Regulative: Attack alternative solution or solutions
L.    Stock Issue: Address what you know is on the mind of the audience
XVIII.   Midterm Review Audience Analysis and Screens
A.    Demographics
B.    Psychographics
C.    Environment
XIX.       Midterm Review Types of Speaking
A.    Oratory
B.    Written Document / Reading
C.    Memorized
D.   Extemporaneous
E.    Impromptu
F.    Informative
G.   Persuasive
H.   After dinner
XX.         Midterm Review: Outline Formats
A.    Full Sentence Outline
B.    Presentation Outline
C.    Thumbnail or Key Point
D.   Narrative
E.    APA format (inside and at end of outline)
XX. Midterm Review:
A.   Introduction
B.    Body
C.    Conclusion
D.   Differences from interpersonal communication
E.    Mediated communication
F.    Euphemisms
G.   Transparency
H.   Sources and rules for their use
I.      Academic or Scholarly Reference types and rules
J.     Rules for video conferencing and use of video
K.   Spotlight Effect
L.    Visualization
M.  Simile
N.   Metaphor
O.   Parallelism
P.    Alliteration
Q.   Antithesis
R.    Rules for use of handouts
S.     Inclusive language
T.    Exclusive language

XXI.       Midterm Review Part 2
A.    Do not ignore material above or in units 1 to 6
B.    Review all key words in text
C.    Review previous units (1 to 6)
D.   Review your classroom notes
E.    Review notes available on Web CT
F.    Review Jillian’s’ Notes
G.   Review concepts that follow
                                                                                                     i.     It is important to give source attribution on any information you gather that is important to or used in your speech
                                                                                                   ii.     You should give source attribution when you are using someone else’s ideas, bringing in secondary ethos through statistics, quotes, visuals or other means, or for attention or retention outreach to your audience.
                                                                                                  iii.     Statistics need to be explained in human terms, terms the audience can understand or relate to.
                                                                                                  iv.     A statistic never purchased any product, answered any survey, sat in any audience or provided any response of its own.
                                                                                                    v.     A well constructed narrative can be both informative and persuasive
                                                                                                  vi.     Informative Speeches may persuade
                                                                                                 vii.     Persuasive Speeches must inform
                                                                                               viii.     A specific purpose or thesis are statements, not questions
                                                                                                  ix.     A specific purpose or thesis should be short, to the point, clear to and able to be remembered by the audience
                                                                                                   x.     In public speaking you give the source before the quote or information. This allows you to establish source credibility and secondary ethos.
                                                                                                  xi.     Organization is more important than in written communication (where it is also important) because the audience cannot go back and reread something you have presented.
                                                                                                xii.     While Demographics are key to understanding your audience, it is not everything. Since an audience is made up of individuals, the best you can do is estimate the make-up and nature of the audience to assist in your preparation and presentation of material to any given audience.
                                                                                               xiii.     Most speeches have two to five main points. Most audience members remember only one to three major points per presentation, regardless of length.
                                                                                               xiv.     The body of the speech should be prepared (written) first, followed by the conclusion an then the introduction. This does not mean that you start with the body in your research. Always have a thesis or purpose and begin investigation from there.
                                                                                                 xv.     Understand interviewing techniques as discussed in lecture and in the textbook
                                                                                               xvi.     Understand techniques discussed in the textbook and lecture for dealing with nervousness while speaking in public
                                                                                              xvii.     Understand the types of special event speeches, including commemorative.
                                                                                            xviii.     Understand the rules and guidelines for using visual aids
                                                                                               xix.     Be able to identify the types of informative speaking based on the textbook, notes and lecture
                                                                                                xx.     According to the textbook, what are the rules for gesturing during a speech?
                                                                                               xxi.     The study if body motions and gestures is known as kinetics
                                                                                             xxii.     Claims are what you are intending on saying or proving, they are not evidence.
                                                                                            xxiii.     Understand the various forms of graphs, how and when they are used.
                                                                                            xxiv.     Outlining uses a very specific notation system.
                                                                                              xxv.     Understand the designs or patterns of organization for informative speaking.
                                                                                            xxvi.     Understand how to make basic decisions on how to find the most reliable sources, highest in ethos for the audience and reliability (according to the text)
                                                                                           xxvii.     What is a periodical database?
                                                                                         xxviii.     What is an abstract?
                                                                                            xxix.     What is a narrative?
                                                                                             xxx.     What is a presentation or thumbnail outline?
                                                                                            xxxi.     What constitutes academic or scholarly resources?
                                                                                          xxxii.     What constitutes primary resources?
                                                                                         xxxiii.     Read the book again! Pay attention to terms, concepts and the review and questions at the end of each chapter.
                                                                                         xxxiv.     Textbook Study Questions on Web CT may have the wrong pages and chapters (since the book has been updated), but it is invaluable in review for exam and in understanding the concepts. Test yourself in preparation for the midterm, final and speeches.
                                                                                           xxxv.     Chapter Reviews are posted, with more to come this weekend. Use them as well.
                                                                                         xxxvi.     Lecture notes are not detailed enough to help much, but they will give you a start.
                                                                                        xxxvii.     Check postings regularly, including handouts.
                                                                                      xxxviii.     Vocabulary #1 is a must, soon to be followed by Vocabulary #2 (which will contain many of the same terms plus additional terms).
                                                                                         xxxix.     The icons for Proofs, Presentation Aids and Com Theory UM should be useful in review.
                                                                                                  xl.     Some of the links on the Sources icon may be useful as well.
                                                                                                xli.     What are the kinds of evidence identified in the text?
                                                                                               xlii.     Outlining is a method of structuring information according to a set of rules and thinking patterns. It is a notation system.
                                                                                             xliii.     What is a speech of acceptance? What are the rules for such a speech and when would it be appropriate?
                                                                                              xliv.     What is a narrative?
What is state anxiety (trick question on midterm, so study this question)?
                                                                                               xlv.     The language you speak does determine the way you interpret the world around you.
                                                                                              xlvi.     What does it mean to negotiate meaning? Why is this needed?
                                                                                            xlvii.     The definition of ethics as presented in the text is the study of human moral conduct.
                                                                                           xlviii.     A well-constructed narrative can be equally informative and persuasive.
                                                                                             xlix.     The Communication Model (all of it), plus codes, filters/noise, proofs, demographics, psychographics, types of speeches (all), when you use what types of graph (line, pie, bar, mountain, etc.), the structures for informative speaking (spatial, chronological, categorical, sequential, etc.).
                                                                                                     l.     The rules the book gives for proper gesturing.
                                                                                                   li.     Credibility as defined and used in the context presented by the text.
                                                                                                  lii.     A survey is not a key resource for finding evidence. Why?
                                                                                                liii.     What are the resources for finding evidence?
                                                                                                 liv.     What is evidence?
                                                                                                  lv.     In the speech introduction you do not have to identify all of the sources.
                                                                                                 lvi.     When should you identify the sources you are using? In the speech? In the outline?
                                                                                               lvii.     What are the rules for using, questioning, judging and evaluating the World Wide Web / Internet? Why?
                                                                                              lviii.     How do you evaluate sources?
                                                                                                lix.     What are academic sources?
                                                                                                  lx.     What is a verbal road map, and how do you use it?
                                                                                                lxi.     Do you have to identify all of your sources and explain why they are credible? Why or why not?
                                                                                               lxii.     Outlining including, but not limited to, the notation system, thumbnail, references, academic references, APA and MLA.
                                                                                             lxiii.     What percentage of the population has some anxiety over public speaking?
                                                                                              lxiv.     Absolute truth holds that truth is complete and unqualified. Whose concept is absolute truth?
                                                                                               lxv.     Who developed the proofs?
                                                                                              lxvi.     What are the components in the text that define ethical speaking and why?
                                                                                            lxvii.     What percentage of the public, according to the text, is afraid of speaking in public?
                                                                                           lxviii.     Where does public speaking rank among the fears of Americans?
                                                                                             lxix.     Define and be able to identify the use of speeches of consolation, commutation, presentation, acceptance, and all of the other forms specifically identified in the text or lecture.
                                                                                               lxx.     What are the advantages, disadvantages, deference’s between and definitions of extemporaneous, impromptu, manuscript, memorized, etc?
                                                                                             lxxi.     Trait, state, slate and situational anxiety.
                                                                                            lxxii.     What advice does the text give for interviewing a source?
                                                                                          lxxiii.     What advice does the text give for the physical presentation of a speech?
                                                                                           lxxiv.     Persuasive speeches do not necessarily have more evidence or documentation than informative. In fact it can be the opposite.
                                                                                            lxxv.     “Should”, “ought”, “need” and “must” are signs that the speech is persuasive.
                                                                                           lxxvi.     Narrative coherence, narrative congruence, narrative fidelity, narrative consistency, etc.
                                                                                         lxxvii.     According to the textbook, what is the correct structure for stories?
                                                                                        lxxviii.     A well-constructed narrative can be equally informative and persuasive.
                                                                                          lxxix.     What are keywords or keynotes? How do you use these in your preparation for speech?
                                                                                            lxxx.     According to the text a speech should have 3 to 5 main points.
                                                                                          lxxxi.     In the speech introduction you do not have to identify all of the sources.
                                                                                         lxxxii.     When should you identify the sources you are using? In the speech? In the outline?
                                                                                       lxxxiii.     What are the rules for using, questioning, judging and evaluating the World Wide Web / Internet? Why?
                                                                                        lxxxiv.     How do you evaluate sources?
                                                                                         lxxxv.     What are academic sources?
                                                                                        lxxxvi.     What is a verbal road map, and how do you use it?
                                                                                      lxxxvii.     Do you have to identify all of your sources and explain why they are credible? Why or why not?
                                                                                     lxxxviii.     Outlining including, but not limited to, the notation system, thumbnail, references, academic references, APA and MLA.
                                                                                       lxxxix.     What percentage of the population has some anxiety over public speaking?
                                                                                                 xc.     Absolute truth holds that truth is complete and unqualified. Whose concept is absolute truth?
                                                                                               xci.     Who developed the proofs?
                                                                                              xcii.     What are the components in the text that define ethical speaking and why?
                                                                                            xciii.     What percentage of the public, according to the text, is afraid of speaking in public?
                                                                                             xciv.     Where does public speaking rank among the fears of Americans?
                                                                                              xcv.     Define and be able to identify the use of speeches of consolation, commoration, presentation, acceptance, and all of the other forms specifically identified in the text or lecture.
                                                                                             xcvi.     What are the advantages, disadvantages, deference’s between and definitions of extemporaneous, impromptu, manuscript, memorized, etc?
                                                                                           xcvii.     Trait, state, slate and situational anxiety.
                                                                                          xcviii.     What advice does the text give for interviewing a source?
                                                                                            xcix.     What advice does the text give for the physical presentation of a speech?
                                                                                                    c.     Persuasive speeches do not necessarily have more evidence or documentation than informative. In fact it can be the opposite.
                                                                                                  ci.     “Should”, “ought”, “need” and “must” are signs that the speech is persuasive.
                                                                                                 cii.     Narrative coherence, narrative congruence, narrative fidelity, narrative consistency, etc.
                                                                                               ciii.     According to the textbook, what is the correct structure for stories?
                                                                                                civ.     A well-constructed narrative can be equally informative and persuasive.
                                                                                                 cv.     What are keywords or keynotes? How do you use these in your preparation for speech?
                                                                                                cvi.     According to the text a speech should have 3 to 5 main points.
                                                                                              cvii.     What are the principles of evidence? What are the guidelines for using principles as evidence?
                                                                                             cviii.     Visualization, coping statements, goal setting, preparation, self fulfilling prophecy, coping statements, cognitive restructuring, self-talk, practice and confidence as related to the process of giving a speech presented in the text.
                                                                                               cix.     What are the functions presentation aids can serve?
                                                                                                 cx.     What are the three types of informative speaking?
                                                                                               cxi.     What are the suggestions and rules presented in the text on topic selection?
                                                                                              cxii.     Comprehensive listening requires the listener to understand the message.
                                                                                            cxiii.     Define empathetic listening, complete listening, and comprehensive listening.
                                                                                             cxiv.     What is the science of the concrete?
                                                                                              cxv.     What theory was advanced by Saphir-Worp? What does it state and where does it apply?
                                                                                             cxvi.     Ethnocentrism, egocentrism, assimilation, dogmatic, trigger words, donatives meaning, connotative meaning, acronym, semantic noise, internal filters, external filters, cultural filters, encode, decode, message, channel, transmitter, receiver, feedback, multiple messages, transactional model, etc.
                                                                                           cxvii.     The use of, definitions of, examples of all of the terms above.
                                                                                          cxviii.     Long term memory, short term memory.
                                                                                            cxix.     What are the texts suggestions and rules for the use of presentation aids?
                                                                                              cxx.     Adults listen 50% of the time or less. Teens 25% or less, Kids 20% or less…why?
                                                                                            cxxi.     Informative speeches may persuade.
                                                                                           cxxii.     Persuasive speeches must inform.
                                                                                         cxxiii.     What are the benefits of pausing during a speech?
                                                                                          cxxiv.     The rules of and use of contractions during a speech.
                                                                                           cxxv.     Define claims, warrants, truth and facts as explained in the text.
                                                                                          cxxvi.     What are the general rules given by the text for eye contact.
                                                                                        cxxvii.     Study all of the types of speeches in the text including, but not limited to, informative, persuasive, demonstration, acceptance, recognition, etc.
                                                                                       cxxviii.     Self-fulfilling prophecy, coping statements, cognitive restructuring, self-talk, etc.
                                                                                         cxxix.     What are the rules for using presentation aids suggested in the text?
                                                                                           cxxx.     When and why should a speaker pause while giving a speech?
                                                                                         cxxxi.     Evidence is information used to clarity or supports a claim.
                                                                                        cxxxii.     The physiological and psychological indicators discussed in the text.
                                                                                      cxxxiii.     Types of speeches, including special event speeches.
                                                                                       cxxxiv.     All chapters, appendix, subjects that appear on the syllabus where it indicated the midterm (not the date) and topics listed above that listing.
                                                                                        cxxxv.     This is not an easy exam. Understanding general concepts, study groups, review of material and above all rereading the textbook is recommended.
                                                                                       cxxxvi.     Midterm is 100 out of 1,000 points, 10% of your final grade. Final, when you take it, is worth twice as much.

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