Welcome to www.comprofessor.com a.k.a. Lynch Coaching: Media and Communication Prof's News and Views from Art Lynch. This blog exists to stimulate critical thinking, provide information on communication and media, stimulate discussion and share ideas. For additional media and other news see also sagactoronline.com. Thank you and tell your friends. - Art Lynch
The Demonstration and informative speech, including your outlines, require you review the material in this units posting, and read all of the chapters to date (see unit 5 posting)
The requirements for grading, testing and discussion are cumulative and grow increasingly strict and important as the point level of your assignments grows. Keep that in mind and stay on top of al required reading, research, projects and notes.
Unit 6 introduces you to or further advances your knowledge of outlining, research, eye contact, the use of visual aids, research, informative speaking and reviews key concepts that will appear on the midterm.
You should also be starting on your informative and persuasive speech research and preparation (yes, this early in the term!).
We'll begin with the midterm review...
Click on "read more" to review unit six outline notes and definitions.
I.Midterm Review Part I.
A.Informative Designs, structures and patterns (know them)
B.Communication Model backward and forward, plus examples used in class, lecture notes are important
4.Thumbnail or Keynote / key word outline
5.Note card effect
E.Types of presentation
5.Notes in book concerning each
F.Inclusive and non-inclusive language
G.Simile, metaphor, example, and related terms
H.Bias, stereotype, prejudice
I.Use of presentation software
J.Rules and guidelines for PowerPoint
K.Eye contact is direct, sustained and distributed
L.Use of handouts
N.Signposts and Roadway functions of outlining
O.Different types of listening
P.How to eliminate speech anxiety
Y.All lecture notes
Z.More to come
II.Things to remember:
A.Section number on all documents,
1. Including title of e-mail
2. Title of document: .doc submissions,
3.Subject line on all e-mails,
5.On al papers in the upper right hand corner
B.Time is important. Be on time.
C.Speech length is vital.
D. Day of speech is ready.
E.Sources must be APA, not only in references,
F.But in inside the outline (specifics must be followed).
G.Sources means academic (for minimum).
H.You may use and list non-academic beyond or have more academic than you need.
I.Full outline is full outline per text and examples.
J.All research must be shown and
K.I should be able to give the speech from it.
L.Thumbnail is delivery outline, and must be distributed.
M.Narrative (short abstract) is required.
N.Visuals/ presentation aids must meet standards in text
O.And in notes
P.Grading gets harder.
Q.Must meet standards in Informative or Persuasive Evaluation sheets
R.And all of the requirements in the syllabus for the speech.
S.Extra Credit is listed in the syllabus
III.Using the Angel or Web CT tools
A.The blog (link under Course Content or at http://artlynch.org) is where you can find ideas, (it is optional but valuable)
1.Topics to respond
2.Links to chapter reviews, unit notes, communication topics, media and other tools.
3.A place to post the material you discover during your research,
4.A place to respond with your own views and opinions.
5.Read some of the other introductions from your fellow students, then enter your own.
6.Under "Education" see what the New York Times has to say about why two year college students enter without a clue of what college is and how to get the most from it.
7.Under Media find out about MS and its battle with Apple, radio formats, pirate video and more...
8.Then post your own media stories or comments.
9.Under history and social science, find out about presidential retreats,
10.Why we have been in one century long world war instead of two or three...
11.The achieve contains the best of two years of discussion postings and stories and topics...
12.The discussion may help with your research
13.Or allow you to post interesting things that you find while doing your research...
14.Please do so...it is here for you.
1.Research and Study Material
Resource and Study Materials
Sample outlines, help for each speech, help for research and references
A.Should be direct- look into the eyes of listeners
B.Sustained, at least a half a second for each person you look at
C.Distribute contact to each section of the audience
D.Talk to the audience not to presentation aids, notes, podium, floor, ceiling, wall, papers, etc.
E.Eye contact a minimum of 80% of the time
F.Do not look at visuals, talk to the audience
V.Differences between written English and Oral Communications
A.Use Contractions in speech, avoid them in formal written papers
B.Repeat concepts, thoughts and even words in speech that you would not repeat in written reports
C.While it is OK to use them, the contractions “can’t” and “don’t” should, in most cases, be avoided, as “cannot” and “do not” are stronger signals.
VI.Pausing during a speech
A.For dramatic effect
B.To help signal transitions
C.To give the audience time to react to a humorous comment
D.Before repeating key points or phrases
E.For additional emphasis when needed
VII.Fear of Speaking in Public
A.Is the number two fear of Americans
B.Is reported by 85% of Americans at some level
C.May actually be experienced by 100% of the people to some degree
v.Feeling of being judged
a.Often ranked most important skill for many professions
b.Many workers use informative speaking, in public or interpersonal, “almost constantly.”
2.Wide Range of Other Everyday Situations
a.The ability to convey knowledge and information is valuable in all aspects of life
b.The ability to listen to and identify information is valuable in decision making and framing knowledge
B.Three Criteria for effective informative speaking
3.Made meaningful to the receiver
4.Made interesting to the receiver
C.Goal to share or convey knowledge and/or information
D.Can be persuasive in that it provides new information
1.Goal is not to persuade
2.But any knowledge can shift a persons perspectives
3.Should educate but not advocate
4.Avoid words such as “should” or “ought” or “need”
E.Is about sharing knowledge and ideas
1.For mutual understanding
2.Social or Political purpose
a.Why is its importance for your audience
b.What will be gained through this information
c.How does it effect or interact with human priorities
d.How does it effect or interact with the human condition
3.Education and Enrichment
a.How will audience benefit
b.Will it improve understanding
c.Will it result in a better life or world
d.How does it interface with other information
4.Present reasonable knowledge
5.Present responsible knowledge
6.Present balances information
7.Persuasive only in
a.Advancing information base
b.No strong point of view
c.No call for action
d.Balanced and as unbiased as possible
F.Sharing ideas and information is an integral part of the human condition
1.Only human being have the linguistic and cognitive ability to accumulate, transmit and utilize complex information
2.Shared information is essential to human progress and survival
3.Information is a powerful commodity for individual success
G.Speeches that are primarily informative perform four basic functions
1.Share information and ideas to teach and enhance understanding
2.Reasonable knowledge to share information effectively
3.Value can be considered on how new information is to audience
a.Is topic significant enough for audience to care
b.How much does audience already know about topic
c.What more does the audience need to know
d.Does speaker have significant enough understanding to communicate accurately with the audience
e.Why should the audience listen
f.How does it relate to other issues of importance to listeners
g.Informative function to adapt information to the listeners
4.Informative speeches can persuade
a.By providing information that may shape perspectives or decisions
b.By being selective in what is presented
c.Though the bias of the speaker or editor
d.By favoring or suggesting on interpretation over others
e.By distorting information
f.By interpreting the information for the listener
g.By adding to the information library of the listener
h.By providing new ideas and perspectives to the listener
i.By properly navigating the Nose/filters of the receiver
j.Information can shape the agenda or priority of decision makers
k.Information can shape agendas or perspectives by preparing or laying the groundwork for future efforts to persuade.
l.Information can clarify options
H.Ethical speaking (applies to all forms of speech) involves
3.Covers all major reasonable options
4.Covers all responsible options
7.Keeps in mind the effect on the listeners
8.Takes responsibility for the effect and response of listeners
I.Learning principles can enhance the effectiveness of informative speaking
1.Motivate to learn
a.Relate topic to the needs and interests of the listeners
b.Use direct examples and narratives
2.Techniques to attract and sustain audience interest
a.Intensity of language
b.Artful repetition of key words, phrases, sounds, phrases
g.Strong presentation aids (well used)
h.Contrast (works because opposites attract attention)
k.Invoke ideas and interests
3.Information is useless unless the audience retains it
4.Techniques for retention
c.Relevance (what’s in it for me: WIIFM)
e.Use of visuals
f.Use of acronyms
J.Four major types of informative speaking for complete understanding of the range and mission of informative speaking in communication
a.Paint a clear picture of activities, objects, people, places
b.Rely heavily on artful language use
c.Commonly use special, categorical, comparative designs
d.A mental picture of a topic, person, place, activity, etc.
e.Drawing or creating a picture with words
a.Aim for understanding or Application
b.Usually use sequential design
c.Visual aids are usually required or desirable
d.Show how it is done and often why
e.An explanation of a specific process
f.Actually shows how to do something
a.Appropriate for complex or abstract applications
b.Define critical terms
c.Offer Examples and/or non-examples
d.Seek the understanding of the audience
e.May show how something works
f.May show why something works
a.Short explanations or descriptions
b.Presented in an organized setting
c.Brief and to the point
d.Organized with audience in mind
e.Organized with situational need in mind
f.Organized with need to know in mind
g.Rely on verified facts, figures, testimony
h.Use short examples
i.Presented with confidence
j.Deal with questions forthrightly and honestly
k.Be as informed as possible with questions in mind
K.Another Four types of informative speeches identified in Chapter 14 of the text and reviewed in notes…
a.Describe something viable, tangible and stable in form
b.Speeches about objects need to be sharply focused (you cannot convey everything to all people, have a specific purpose and limit the range of the speech)
c.Speeches may take a variety of organizational forms (see Designs/ Organization below)
a.A process is a systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product.
b.Explain or Describe
How something is made
How something is done
How something works
Or be able to do something themselves
d.Often visual aids are needed
Charts can show process
Physical demonstration of steps in a process
Other as needed (see presentation and visual aids notes)
e.Careful organization needed
Usually step by step in chronological order
May focus on major principles or techniques involved in performing the process, using a Topical organization
Each step in the process must be clear and easy to follow
Transitions between steps must be clear and assure audience understanding of previous and next steps.
Any kind of happening or occurrence
i.Occurrence may be historical event (Pearl Harbor, 9/11)
ii.Occurrence may be historical movement or trend (Civil Rights, Women’s Suffrage, the Abolition of Slavery)
Examples personalize the events (real is best, but hypothetical will work as well)
Humanize the event as much as possible
Show relevance to the audience
Show relevance to current day
iii.Occurrence may be everyday in nature (dancing, waiting on customers, cooking dinner, chronic fatigue syndrome)
i.Convey information concerning beliefs, theories principles or other abstract subjects
ii.Usually in topical order, but not required
iii.Enumerate main features or ideas alternative structure
iv.Define the concept, major elements and use examples to illustrate (third alternative structure)
v.Compare and contrast competing schools of thought or approaches (fourth alternative)
vi.Other (see structures and designs)
vii.Be sure to define concepts clearly, terms in ways the audience can understand. Avoid cluttering with too many technical concepts or taking leaps beyond what is important to your presentation or discussion.
viii.Consider using examples and comparisons to make concepts understandable
b.Speeches may include all of the above or even other elements
L.Designs/ Organization structures
1.See previous week’s note postings
2.See textbook (as always)
3.Use appropriate and best design for your topic / goals
4.All designs may be used but the four best for informative are
a.Effective for describing places, locations or locating subjects within a physical setting
b.Ordered by physical location or size, or special relationship or connection
c.Determine a starting point and proceed in an orderly manner
d.Complete patterns of descriptions to satisfy an audience need for closure
a.Move audiences through time
b.Effective for showing times steps
c.Effective for showing change over time
d.Effective for placing in historical perspective
e.See previous notes and text for types of sequential design
f.Includes random sequence, sequence, motivated sequence and chronological designs
g.Chronological puts main points in order of time
h.Sequential orders main points in terms of place in a particular process or puts them into a numbered order so that the audience may follow a process
a.Appropriate for subjects with natural or customary divisions
b.Suggested that 2 to 5 categories be used
c.Begin and end with the most interesting categories
d.Tie category relationships together
e.See previous notes and text for additional information
f.Main points do not have to have an inherent relation to each other
a.Helpful with new, abstract or difficult subjects
b.Helpful for describing changes
c.Helpful contrasting differing issues and proposals
d.Best to relate one topic to something the audience already understands
e.There are three types of comparative design
1.A literal analogy draws subjects from the same field of expertise
2.A figurative analogy draws subjects form differing fields of expertise
3.Comparison and contact design points to similarities and/or differences
a.Explains a situation, condition, or event in terms of the causes that led up to it.
b.See previous notes and text for types of causation design
M.Steps in preparation for an informative speech
1.Brainstorm on topic selection
2.Select and analyze a topic
a.Choose a worthwhile topic
b.Choose a topic you care about
c.Choose a topic that can meet the requirements for the speech assignment or situation
d.Adapt your topic so that it is interesting and relevant
e.Limit your topic to something that can be handled in the time, situation or environment provided for the speech
f.Determine, private and public purpose
g.Determine thesis (proposed, be open to change)
3.Develop responsible knowledge on the subject
a.Review what you already know
b.Use the library to expand what you know’
c.Use other research tools to develop your knowledge
d.Seek out the required amount of academic and non-academic sources
e.Gather evidence including:
f.Find facts, figures, testimony, examples and narratives to add substance to your speech
4.Adapt the topic to the audience
5.Organize your materials
a.Select the proper structure
b.Determine your main points
c.Usually select between two and five key points
d.Arrange the points to make the speech flow and easy to understand or follow
e.Write the conclusion
f.Write the introduction
a.Prepare a formal outline (with sources shown)
b.Make sure formal outline is detailed and reflects all of your research
c.Shorten the outline
d.Prepare a key word / key note / thumbnail presentation outline
e.Write it out on note cards
f.Practice, practice, practice
g.Reduce the number of note cards if possible
a.At least ten times, more if possible
b.Rule of thumb, one hour per minute minimum practice
c.Practice using presentation aids
d.Keep potential audience, environment, and situation in mind.
e.Remember flash card principle for note cards (eliminate those you do not need).
N.Five Guidelines for effective informative speaking as outlines in the text
1.“Never overestimate the knowledge of your audience and Never underestimate their intelligence.”
a.Do not overestimate what an audience knows
b.Do not talk down to them either
c.Best to explain things clearly and with as much passion and interest as you can for the topic
2.Find ways to relate the subject directly to the audience
a.Know that you need to gain their interests
b.Know that they may not share your interests in the subject
c.Get them interested and keep them interested
i.Consider a creative introduction
ii.Always answer WIIFM (what’s in it for me?)
iii.Find ways to reengage the audience throughout the body of the speech
iv.Give the audience a sense of pride, knowledge or closure in your conclusion
d.Avoid being too technical
i.Keep the audience in mind
iii.Avoid technical terms
iv.Explain the terms and concepts you do use, in plain English
v.Know your audience (see audience analysis)
i.Specific easy to understand and relate to details make a speech more compelling
ii.Colorful descriptions draw listeners in
iii.Internal feelings described vividly and engagingly bring speech to live
iv.Make it real!
v.Comparisons allow the speaker to explain new ideas in concrete familiar terms
vi.Contrast gives listeners a sense of perspective on concepts, events, ideas
i.Use personal illustrations
ii.Try to dramatize the ideas in human terms
iii.Use examples (real of hypothetical, real is always preferred)
IX.Preparing a Thumbnail, Key-Work, Key-Note, Presentation Outline
A.Complete your final outline
B.Underline the key words or phrases in your formal outline
C.Copy the key words or phrases onto new shorter outline format
1.Use the same format as your larger outline
2.Only a few words per major point
D.Copy to note cards
1.One for introduction
2.One for each major body point
3.One for conclusion
E.Copy key citations when needed (try to minimize reading)
F.Do not use full sentences. The shorter the better
G.Only use full sentence if a quote must be exact
H.Cut anything you can remember easily
I.Reduce the amount on the cards as you practice (flash care effect).
K.Use large lettering that is easy to read or find if you get lost
L.On final presentation, use cards only if absolutely necessary
A.This is a learning curve. You should not know and be using APA format.
1.APA can be found in the text.
2.The writing center at the college can help
3.Books on APA are available at the campus and other bookstores
4.There are on-line links under discussion and handouts on Web CT as well as from the CCSN library home page
5.A librarian can assist you
6.Work with other students
B.APA involves the main sources listed as reference, by author and year (see format)
C.APA also involves a very specific means of showing pages and specific location of your references inside your detailed full outline.
D.The required number of references for the assignment must be academic.
E.You may use and list other references as well
F.See previous weeks notes, the textbook, web links and other sources for assistance.
XI.Evidence: Evaluating Facts and Figures
A.Is the information relevant to the issues?
B.Is the information up to date? Recency.
C.Is the information reliable?
D.Can the information be confirmed by an independent source?
E.Have the sources of the data or information been identified?
F.What bias can be identified, and is it significant enough to draw the data or information into question?
G.Co you consider the information trustworthy and competent?
H.Was the information complete and sufficient?
I.Was anything purposely withheld?
J.Is this information or opinion?
K.Are statistics passed off as representing actual differences?
L.Is there a stated margin of error?
M.Was there a clear methodology followed?
N.Do they clarify or muddy understanding of the point?
O.Are they needed and necessary?
XII.Evidence: Evaluating Testimony
A.Is the testimony relevant to the issue?
B.Is the testimony representative of the sources opinion?
C.Is the testimony representative of the sources position?
D.Has the proper type of testimony been used?
E.Have the credentials of the source been presented?
F.Has the source been quoted or paraphrased accurately?
G.If expert testimony is used, is the source and authority on the subject?
H.Is the source objective? If not what do you compensate or reveal bias?
I.Is the testimony recent, still valuable, or out of date?
J.Does the testimony help understanding of the issue or point?
K.Is it needed and necessary?
XIII.Evidence: Evaluating Examples
A.Are the examples relevant to the issue?
B.Do they help clarify the subject?
C.Are the examples an exception or the rule?
D.Are the examples representative of the situation?
E.Are the examples believable? Or far-fetched?
F.Are the examples fresh and interesting?
G.Do the examples fit the mood and spirit of the situation?
H.Are the examples in good taste?
I.Are factual examples and hypothetical examples clearly differentiated?
J.Are they necessary?
XIV.Evidence: Evaluating Narratives
A.Are the narratives relevant to the points they support?
B.Can they be understood clearly?
C.Are they believable and realistic?
D.Do they create a mood consistent with the topic?
E.Are the narratives fresh and interesting?
F.Do the narratives involve the audience and create identification?
G.Are the narratives in good taste?
H.Are the narratives short and to the point?
I.Are the narratives necessary?
A.Will it enhance understanding?
B.Is it easy to understand?
C.Is it needed?
D.Is there enough information on the aid?
E.Is the aid neat and professional?
F.Is the print large enough for the audience to read?
G.Are colors used correctly?
H.Is everything drawn to scale? If not clearly identify differences.
I.Is the necessary equipment available and in working order?
J.Is there an alternative in case of any problems in presentation?
K.How is equipment used? How do you run it properly?
L.Do I need any additional tools (tape, tacks, etc.) to position aids properly?
M.Could speech be done just as well or better without the aids?
N.Are they used properly
O.Are they necessary?
P.See Unit 5 notes
Q.See chapter in textbook
R.Listen carefully to lecture in class
S.Learn from other speakers presentations
XVI.Graphic Message Presentation
1.Simplified representations of items, ideas, thoughts
1.Representation of spaces or geography
2.Good for describing spatial locations
1.Representation of numbers, statistics, relationships, change
2.Pie Graph: shows size or proportion of parts relative to each other of the whole
3.Bar Graph: compares and contrasts items or information
4.Line Graph: illustrates changes of growth rates over time or another third factor.
5.Mountain Graph: illustrates same as line graph but allows comparison of differing factors against each other over time. Also effective when there are extreme variations in data.
1.Summarizes process and relationships
a.Steps of a process
b.Power/responsibility relationships within a hierarchy
a.Presented as a series
b.Shows a process over time or in steps
1.Use words to illustrate information
2.Keep it simple
a.Have no more than six words a line
b.No more than six lines
c.Less is more
a.Use initial letters or prominent letters to help audience remember a concept or idea
b.Always define, since same acronym may have multiple meanings
c.Useful in memorization of ideas or concepts
a.Best to have no more than three columns
b.Best to have no more than six rows of data
c.Show only what you need to
d.Use to illustrate points
1.Large enough to be seen clearly
2.Simple enough to be understood quickly and clearly
3.Must relate strongly to point or story being made/told.
4.Best if kept near speaker
5.Only in view of the audience when being spoken about
G.PowerPoint, Computer Assisted Presentations (see Appendix in textbook and Unit 5 notes)
H.Audio and Visual (see textbook and Week 5 notes)
I.Plagiarism and Copyright (see textbook and Week 5 notes)
J.Review Unit 5 notes and chapter in textbook
XVII.Common Ways to Improve Your Grade This Term
A.Remember this course is offered to assist you
2.Do the work
3.Find ways to apply it to your life
4.Keep notes or records for future use or reference
5.Answer WIIFM (what’s in it for me)
6.Network and interact with instructor and other students
7.Participate in the class, Web CT and in class sessions
8.Work on and develop superior listening skills
1.You are the audience needed for other students
2.You will learn from critique and discussion about other students
3.You will learn from critique and discussion of your own work
4.Notes will be given, lecture is important
5.Be on time
C.Participate in Discussion
1.Live in class
3.Through instructor or other students
4.By the topic and ways you do your speeches
D.Make sure you read and follow the syllabus
4.Section on all documents
E.Do your work on time or early
F.Plan ahead to the end of the semester
G.Make a check list
1.Assignment specific details
2.Evaluation sheet specific details
3.Do your best work
4.Proof and check details, outline, handouts, visuals
1.Read and follow the chapters in the text
2.Read and review all notes, links and examples of outline format
3.Read and follow APA format, consult writing center if needed
4.Send draft to instructor a week in advance
a.Provide instructors with drafts if you feel you need assistance or fine-tuning.
b.Make your questions clear and specific related to what you need help with in the draft submission
c.Allow enough time for draft to be proofed, returned and reworked (three to seven days).
5.Read and review previous weekly and unit notes posted
6.Make sure you are using notation properly
7.Share a draft using Web CT Discussion for student feedback
8.Make sure your full outline is full and complete
a.Can someone else give the speech from your outline
b.Can they do further study based on your references
9.Use APA properly inside your outline
10.Use APA properly in the “Reference list” (not the same as #7)
11.Make sure you have a presentation/key-word outline
12.Make sure you have the proper abstract/narrative
13.Make sure you review the evaluations sheet on Web CT for the speech you are giving
14.Make sure the design(s) or structure(s) are clear and properly used or applied.
1.Make sure you have enough academic references to meet assignment
2.Review syllabus requirements for references
3.Makes sure you are using APA properly in your outlines, in references and in your spoken/ delivered speech.
4.Have too many references
5.List all references, even those that are not academic in nature
6.Make sure you list where your visuals or presentation aids come from
7.Understand the difference between scholarly/academic, directory, and general references.
1.Make sure you review the requirements in the syllabus
2.Plan for the shortest length up to the middle length
3.Rehearse with length in mind
4.Rehearse with your visual/presentation aids
5.Time yourself as you do the speech (watch time)
6.Minimize the temptation to add information while speaking
D.Read and follow suggestions and notes in previous week handouts, discussions and notes
E.Keep current on reading, and read more than once
1.When in syllabus as assigned
2.Prior to lecture
4.When reviewing for exams
5.When preparing speeches
F.Form study and networking groups
G.Use Discussion to widen study and networking groups