Donate Today! Help us help others.

Lynch Coaching


Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Unit 5 Notes: Communication Terms and Review...

Unit # 5 Notes

I strongly suggest you review the material listed after "more" below. It includes most of the material of the term to date for CSN Communication 101 and Public Speaking students...

Reviewing: Chapters to date, handouts to date, Introduction Speech, Demonstration Speech, Outlining, Topics, Delivery, Visual Aids, Research, Informative Speech Designs, Special Occasion Speeches, Communication Theory, Vocabulary, Course Expectations

There is a great deal you should now about the course, outlines, references, presentation and listening skills based on your readings to date. As indicated at the start of class the first six weeks are reading and lecture intensive for the reason of preparing you for the midterm and for your required speeches.

To read more, click on "read more below". Includes notes, definitions and review materials.

Rehearse and Invest in the Class

You should put in at least one hours rehearsal and review per minute of an assigned speech. In addition the general rule of thumb or college is to put in four to six hours work per each credit hour of a course per week (including in class time). You should be investing an average of 12 to 15 hours a week on this course, three hours of which is in class time.

At this point in the term you should be ready to tackle the remainder of your speeches, have selected subjects for all of your speeches, begun research, started you review for the midterm, formed study groups and mastered or understood the concepts in the readings, handouts, lectures and notes to date (including the vocabulary list posted under handouts since the first day of class). When time permits between speeches, at the end of class or when you can meet with the instructor, it is your responsibility to ask questions or to research key concepts and points that may be important to earn the grade you seek in this course. Use Web CT e-mail and always put your name and section number in the subject line. General in person availability are Tuesday and Thursdays from 4:50 to 5:30 PM in room C-228 of the Henderson campus. 12:20 to 2 PM Tuesdays and Thursdays by appointment. Monday and Wednesdays before 8 AM or after 1:50 PM by appointment.

If you have not done so, bring yourself up to date on reading assignments and the handouts (as listed below). You will do better on your speeches and on your midterm and final if you keep up with and understand the reading below.

Reading, Lecture, Notes and Student Learning Responsibilities to date:

Chapters, Handouts and Suggested Read Used to date:
Chapters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16
Unit 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Notes
Why Study Com
Communication Theory UM
Absolute / Relative Truth
Presentation for Success
Presentation Aids
Demo Outline Links
APA Outlining and Reference Help
Speech Apprehension I
Receiver Power
Be Prepared
WIIFM: Other Directed
Outline 101
Topics Research
Research Guide II
Internet Sources
Jillian’s Notes
Vocabulary # 1
Demographic Soc
Topic Ideas
Wikipedia Not and Academic Source

The outline below is here for your further understanding and application in your speeches. Unless reviewed specifically in class, it is not on the midterm or final (some of it is, but we will review specifics in lecture). Sources include your textbook, other texts (including primarily Osborn and Osborn “Public Speaking”), and instructor’s experience.

I.               Solid argumentation or instruction involves strategically engaging a sufficient variety of support materials as required for ethos or poof of assertions, and in researching both sides of an issue using substantive sources.
II.             Thesis
A.   Private Purpose
1.     Personal reason for selecting, researching and presenting a topic
2.     Can be strong opinion or view or simply investigation
3.     May have multiple private purposes
B.    Public Purpose
1.     Reason you use or wish to share with the audience / receiver
2.     May be same a private purpose or less private in nature
3.     Must come across as sincere, honest, open, truthful
C.   Thesis Statement
1.     Clear, concise and easy to understand statement
2.     May not be a question
3.     Narrows topic and point to single main point
4.     Should be the germ of what you wish the audience to remember
5.     Research both in support of and contrary to thesis
6.     Be open to adapting or changing your thesis as you research
IV. Designs or structures:

Categorical: by category. Organize by recognizable groups
Causation: Organize by probable cause and then proposals
Chronological: Organize sequentially by time
Comparative: Compare two or more possible solutions, advocating one
Sequential: Put in an order the audience can follow and remember
Spatial: Relationship in space or by size, location, geography
Motivated Sequence: in order with justification of why it must be in this order
Problem-Cause-Solution: Establish problem, show probable cause and show why solution works using that probable cause.
Problem-Solution: Establish a problem, and then show your solution and how it works
Regulative: Attack alternative solution or solutions
Stock Issue: Address what you know is on the mind of the audience

V.            Criteria for a Good Speech
A.    Meaningful for the audience
1.     WIFFM (what’s in it for me)
2.     WSIC (why should I care)
3.     HCIUT (how can I use this)
4.      etc.
B.    Interest and Importance
1.     for the audience
2.     for the speaker
C.    Relevance
1.     To the speaker
2.     To the audience
3.     For society in general
D.   Ethos of the speaker and the sources
1.     Private purpose
2.     Public purpose
3.     Experience
4.     Etc.
E.    Structure used
1.     Easy to follow
2.     Interesting
3.     Appropriate
4.     Executed well
F.    The audience
1.     Kept their attention
2.     Move to action
3.     Move to learn new things
G.   Appropriate for the event
1.     Time
2.     Place
3.     Situation
4.     Occasion
5.     Goals
6.     Other

VI.          Choosing a topic
a.     Make sure it meets the details of the assignment or task
b.     Make sure it interests you
c.     Make sure you can interest the anticipated audience
d.     Use what you know about it already
e.     Show a passion for the topic
f.      Are sources available
                                               i.     To support what you intend to prove
                                             ii.     To support background on topic
                                            iii.     That are acceptable for the audience
                                            iv.     Other
g.     Keep it simple (do not bite off more than you can chew)

VII.        Thesis Statement
a.     Never speak without a clear purpose
b.     Topic
                                               i.     General overall subject to be examined
                                             ii.     Bring down to manageable size for presentation
                                            iii.     Make as specific as possible
c.     Purpose Statement
                                               i.     Short and to the point
                                             ii.     Not a question
                                            iii.     Relevant to audience
                                            iv.     Important to speaker
                                              v.     Answers
1.     What do I want the audience to remember
2.     What do I want my audience to know
3.     What do I want my audience to feel
4.     What is the value to the audience
5.     What is the value to society
d.     Private Purpose
                                               i.     Why are you selecting this topic
                                             ii.     Why do you want to do this topic
                                            iii.     Why is it important enough to you to do
                                            iv.     How much passion do you have for the topic
                                              v.     You do not need to tell anyone you private purpose unless you choose to.
e.     Public Purpose
                                               i.     Your Stated Goal
f.      Central Idea
                                               i.     Overall point elaborated
                                             ii.     Background or cause for specific thesis statement
g.     Thesis Statement
1.     Be specific
2.     Narrow and to the point
3.     Achievable
4.     Can be understood by audience
5.     Speech can be done in your time allotted
6.     Relevant (what’s in it for me)
7.     Answers “why should I care”

VIII.       : Selecting a Topic and a Purpose
a.      Overall Goals
                                               i.     Explain four methods that can be use in brainstorming
                                             ii.     Understand Private, Public, General and Specific Purpose
                                            iii.     Distinguish between Specific Purpose and General Idea
                                            iv.     Formulate a Specific Purpose Statement, Central Idea Summary and Thesis Statement
b.     Choosing a Topic
                                               i.     Find a Private Purpose for doing your speech (what you really want to say and why you want to say it for your own reason, you need not disclose this to others)
1.     Passion
2.     Experience
3.     Interests
4.     Field of study
5.     Need to learn more for your own reasons
6.     Need to make decisions for your won reasons
                                             ii.     The occasion may determine appropriate topics
                                            iii.     A Speakers qualifications may determine topics
                                            iv.     The nature of the audience may determine what is appropriate
                                              v.     What is the reason to speak, and why are you being asked to speak? What do you hope to accomplish? What will be the end result? Why should the audience listen and care?
                                            vi.     There are several sources for topics
1.     Web CT links provided
2.     Areas you are interested in
3.     Areas you have a passion for
4.     Things you care about
5.     Things the audience may be interested in
6.     Things that are good for society
7.     Things that are good for a specific audience
8.     Links provide through the textbook internet access code
9.     Brainstorming with others
                                           vii.     Brainstorming procedures
1.     Inventory of interests, skills, experiences, etc.
2.     Cluster topics into categories (people, events, processes, plans, policies, etc.)
3.     Browse through encyclopedias, dictionaries, magazines, books and other directory media
4.     Use a subject based search engine on the internet
                                         viii.     Select and begin working on topics as soon as possible
                                            ix.     Do not be afraid to change your mind and your topic, just don’t do it at the last minute
c.     Determining the General Purpose of the Speech’
                                               i.     Inform, persuade, entertain, event, ceremonial, etc.
                                             ii.     Informative Purpose is to teach, inform, educate, help
1.     Communicate information clearly, interestingly, accurately
2.     Have a clear reason for informing, and make sure the audience benefits
3.     Seek to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the listener / audience member
                                            iii.     Persuasive Purpose is to influence, be an advocate
1.     Change the attitudes an/or actions of the audience
2.     Seek to get listeners to believe something
3.     Seek to get listeners to do something
d.     Narrow to a Specific Purpose
                                               i.     Indicate precisely what the audience is to believe, know or do after the speech
1.     Focus on a clearly defined aspect of the topic
2.     Keep it focused as tightly as possible for best results
3.     Express as a single clear short thesis statement
4.     Express as a single infinitive phrase that includes the audience
                                             ii.     Tips for forming a good specific purpose statement
1.     It should be a full infinitive phrase, not a fragment
2.     It should be phrased as a statement, not a question
3.     It should be as specific and to the point as possible
4.     It should avoid figurative language
5.     It should be limited to one distinct idea
6.     It should not be too vague or general
                                            iii.     Ask the following questions
1.     Doe the specific purpose meet the assignment or situation?
2.     Can this specific purpose be accomplished effectively in the allotted time frame?
3.     Is it relevant to the audience?
4.     Can it be made relevant to the audience?
5.     Is the specific purpose too trivial for the audience?
6.     Is the specific purpose too technical for the audience?
7.     Doe this specific purpose accomplish what I want to accomplish?
e.     The Central Idea
                                               i.     Refines and sharpens the specific purpose
                                             ii.     The Central idea is what the speaker wants the audience to remember after all other aspects of the speech have been forgotten
                                            iii.     The Central idea may be what the speaker wants the audience to act upon and believe long after the speech is completed
                                            iv.     The Central idea is a concise statement of what the speaker expects to say in the speech.
                                              v.     It is more precise than the topic or the specific purpose statement
                                            vi.     It sums up the speech in a specific statement
                                           vii.     The Thesis Statement is a statement of the Central Idea, but not the same as the central idea (the central idea goes beyond the thesis)
                                         viii.     The Central Idea encapsulates the main points to be developed in the main points of the speech
                                            ix.     The Central Idea reveals more about the content of the speech than does the specific purpose statement
f.      A Well Worded Central Idea should meet four criteria
                                               i.     Expressed in a full sentence
                                             ii.     Not be in the form of a question
                                            iii.     Avoid Figurative language
                                            iv.     Should be too vague or general

IX.          Research:
a.     The process of gathering and interpreting evidence in support of claims
b.     Needed because
                                               i.     Knowledge evolves,
                                             ii.     Facts change,
                                            iii.     New information is always being discovered
                                            iv.     New interpretations are always developing

X.            Claims:
a.     Statements you want your audience to
                                               i.     Understand
                                             ii.     Remember
                                            iii.     And/or act upon
b.     Speaker must clarify and support their claims

XI.           Evidence through research may be primary, secondary or tertiary.
a.     Evidence is information used to clarify or support a claim
b.    Academic primary evidence 
                                               i.     Includes first hand knowledge or experience,
                                             ii.     Includes original documents or objects,
                                            iii.     Includes juried articles in academic articles or books
1.     Usually through a University or Academic press
2.     That are reviewed by at least three experts in the field
3.     That are reviewed on a “blind test” basis
4.     That are revised to assure accurate and factual material
5.     That may include expert testimony.
6.     That has checks and balances to minimize bias
                                            iv.     May include testimony or narratives from the original sources
1.     Those who have experienced the event or issue considered
2.     Those who have first hand knowledge of the experience or event
3.     Those considered expert witnesses
                                              v.     May include oral or written testimony or narratives
1.     Letters
2.     Personal journals
3.     Original notes
4.     Original documents
5.     Original articles or objects
6.     Actual physical proofs
7.     Complete interviews that minimize bias
8.     Personal well done and professional interview with a primary source
c.     Secondary references include
                                               i.     All other forms of reference that relate to the topic, specific thesis or point being made in a presentation or paper.
                                             ii.     Most books,
                                            iii.     Major news sources
                                            iv.     Major media outlets
                                              v.     Anything related to the thesis, subject, issue, point or sub points
d.     Tertiary sources are other sources not directly related with the point, topic, points or specific thesis of a paper or presentation.

XII.         Directory media are those secondary or tertiary references that are used primarily to provide a foundation for, or general introductory understanding of the topic, thesis, point or subject.
a.      Directory media include, but are not limited to,
                                               i.     Dictionaries,
                                             ii.     Encyclopedia,
                                            iii.     Atlases,
                                            iv.     Many or most commercial internet sources
                                              v.     And any book that provides primarily a source for other references, including those that are academic or primary.
b.     Directory media are not, under most circumstances, considered primary sources.

XIII.       Supporting Materials provide substance, strength, credibility, and appeal.
a.     Arouse Audience interests
b.     Elaborate
c.     Explain
d.     Show the
                                               i.     Meaning of ideas
                                             ii.     Importance for receiver (audience)
                                            iii.     Substantive statements
                                            iv.     Substantiate controversial statements
                                              v.     Substantiate new information
                                            vi.     Substantiate surprising or hard to understand statements
                                           vii.     Credit ideas of others properly and support ideas derived from others or other sources
                                         viii.     Support statements made that are essential to speakers/transmitters arguments or points
e.     Gathered through personal experience, library resources and expert interviews

XIV.       Facts and figures tend to be most objective (judge the source objectively).
a.     Factual statements can stand alone but
                                               i.     Source must be supported or believed by receiver / audience.
                                             ii.     Speaker can or even must interpret their meanings
                                            iii.     Speaker should carefully distinguish facts from interpretive claims derived from the information.
                                            iv.     There are usually multiple ways to interpret “facts”
                                              v.     Speaker must cite reputable sources in support of claims and/or “facts” alleged to be interpreted correctly or true.
                                            vi.     Speaker must be cognizant of potential bias in sources of “factual” information
1.     All sources/writers/individuals select information based on their own filters, bias, objectives or thesis.
2.     Even neutral sources and statements are colored by the culture of the source/reference/writer/ speaker/ individual.
3.     Even objective sources must be selective in deciding what information to present and what to omit.
4.     All of communications is filtered or limited by size, time, potential, bias, culture, intent or perceived intent…etc.
b.     Figures, statistics and numbers are considered numerical “facts” (but may or may not accurately indicate what you are studying in their methodology, collection, statistical error, volume or interpretation.
                                               i.     Figures /statistics
1.     Forms of numerical information that describe some population, event, relationship or real world data collected
2.     Describe size
3.     Describe scope
4.     Make predictions
5.     Illustrate trends
6.     Support or disprove claims
7.     Show relationships
8.     May not be relevant when reexamined
                                             ii.     Speakers may
1.     Unpack or present “meaning” of figures for the audience/receiver
2.     Provide explanation
3.     Provide analysis
4.     Use visual aids to make the figures real or show relationships
c.     Facts and Figures are needed
                                               i.     To support claims
                                             ii.     To make the unfamiliar failure
                                            iii.     To add or support credibility
                                            iv.     To help persuade on controversial topics
d.     Facts and figures can
                                               i.     Be used unethically
                                             ii.     Be misleading
                                            iii.     Be mistrusted by the audience/ receiver
                                            iv.     Be misinterpreted by the source/speaker/transmitter
                                              v.     Be bias
                                            vi.     Be incomplete
                                           vii.     Be derived incorrectly
                                         viii.     Include distortions
                                            ix.     Have omissions through fault or in error
                                             x.     Clutter a speech if too many used or used too often
                                            xi.     Confuse the audience if too many used or used too often
                                          xii.     Be outdated (fallacy or regency)
                                         xiii.     Be too dependant on one source or easy sources
                                         xiv.     Be non-academic or academic in nature
                                           xv.     Can represent possibilities instead of certainties
                                         xvi.     Can be willfully misused by source or resource utilized
e.     Speakers should not
                                               i.     Rely too heavily on one or just a few sources
                                             ii.     Ignore contradictory information or sources
                                            iii.     Seek out only sourced that support their own view or assumptions
                                            iv.     Omit material that is important for interpreting the information
f.      Three devises for turning facts and figures into supporting materials
                                              i.     Definitions
1.     Help audiences understand unpopular ideas
2.     Help audiences understand unfamiliar ideas
3.     Help audiences understand unfamiliar concepts
4.     Should include at least two attempts to translate into terms failure with the audience
5.     May have to be repeated in the speech as needed
                                            ii.     Explanations
1.     May combine facts and figures
2.     Are used to clarify a topic, idea or concept
3.     Can be used to demonstrate how something works
4.     Can be used to show why steps in a plan are needed
                                          iii.     Descriptions
1.     Are word pictures
2.     Can invoke vivid, mood setting images
3.     Are needed for full understanding of image or perspective
4.     Are used for visualization of images, concepts or ideas
5.     Can be overused
6.     Can actually confuse audience is used incorrectly

XV.         Secondary Ethos used by source to support argument through outside expertise, credibility or support audience will/may accept.
a.     Speakers use testimony by citing the words and or ideas of others in supporting their speech or message.
                                               i.     Testimony is a form of evidence that relies on the expertise of others
                                             ii.     Testimony can be spoken, written, recorded or related to audience
                                            iii.     Best if video and/or audio is available
                                            iv.     Support with presentation aids when applicable
                                              v.     See text for additional information on testimony
b.     Speaker may use direct quotation (citing the words of others verbatim) or they may paraphrase materials into their own words (this includes the creative intellectual property or concepts of others).
                                               i.     Speakers should always show/cite their source when quoting testimony
                                             ii.     See definition of plagiarism in the text. You may not plagiarize the words, thoughts, creative concepts or intellectual property of others. Giving credit actually strengthens your arguments.
c.     There are three types of testimony that can be used as supporting material
                                               i.     Expert testimony from those qualified by training, education, experience to qualify or serve as experts.
1.     Adds to the overall ethos of your presentation
2.     Curtail for supporting topics and ideas
3.     Remember that expertise may be area specific. One person may be an expert in one area but not in another, regardless of how well they are known or respected in celebrity.
                                             ii.     Testimony to relate to real-life consequences of an issue / idea / concept.
1.     First hand experience is valued in our culture
2.     The voice of those effected carries weight in our society
3.     Pathos is invoked or reinforced by use of emotional testimony
4.     Lay testimony reinforces identification between listeners and the message.
5.     Testimony can reinforce the objective validity of ideas.
6.     Can bring the life to otherwise removed ideas or events.
                                            iii.     Prestige testimony associates a message with the words of a respected public figure.
1.     Cultural heroes invoke mythos, pathos and ethos.
2.     Be careful as one persons prestige is another’s disrepute
3.     Be aware that prestige or celebrity does not necessarily mean expertise and could be taken as celebrity speaking out of turn.
d.     Testimony needs to be evaluated carefully
                                               i.     Judgment value
1.     Relevant
2.     Somewhat free from Bias
1.     Free from Bias
2.     Or bias is make clear and understood
3.     Regency
1.     Current or recent
2.     Or show how it applies to current issue being discussed
3.     Make clear if the person testifying changes their mind
a.     Example: Global Warming
b.     Example: Anti-War in the 1930’s
c.     Example: Pro-Invasion of Iraq switching to Pro-Withdrawal or anti-war.
4.     Some testimony can actually improve with age (famous people)
a.     Example: Abraham Lincoln
b.     Example: Martin Luther King
c.     Example: Viet Nam pilot
                                             ii.     Appropriate
1.     Fit or tied carefully into topic discussed
2.     Needed for argument or understanding
3.     Not redundant unless redundancy desirable
4.     No misused or misrepresented
5.     On topic or related in way where difference is clear
6.     Only expert testimony can demonstrate factual nature of claims
7.     Prestige enhances topic
8.     Lay testimony used to humanize or make current and real
                                            iii.     Avoid distorting meaning through
1.     Contextual errors
2.     Interpretation errors
3.     Lack of understanding of source intent
4.     Plagiarism
                                            iv.     Support with a variety of experts or sources

XVI.      Use of examples
a.     Enliven oral message by providing it with verbal illustrations and narratives
b.     Clarifies ideas or concepts
c.     Arouse and sustain audience attention and interests
                                               i.     Provides concrete examples
                                             ii.     Puts imagination and thoughts into action
                                            iii.     Personal examples can involve an audience and promote identification
                                            iv.     Common experience, beliefs and values can build bridges between cultures (all demographic differences).
d.     Can help to bridge or “get through” noise/screens/filters
e.     Provides emphasis for important ideas or concepts
f.      Forms of examples:
                                               i.     Brief example mentions specifics to demonstrate a general statement
                                             ii.     Extended examples contain details to allow a speaker to convey a mood or bring an example to life
                                            iii.     Factual examples provide support for ideas
                                            iv.     Hypothetical examples are representational
1.     Make sure they do represent what you are trying to convey
2.     Should be plausible
3.     Real examples should be used when possible
4.     Can be used to avoid embarrassing individuals
5.     Should be representative and not distort
6.     Alert the audience to hypothetical with clues such as “imagine” or “picture this” or “what if”.
g.     Be cautious in use of and evaluation of examples
                                               i.     Relevance
                                             ii.     Believability
                                            iii.     Representative ness
                                            iv.     “Hold water” test
                                              v.     Tasteful
                                            vi.     Propriety in relation to event or environment of speech

XVII.    Narratives
a.     Stories, telling a story to illustrate, make or support a point
b.     Helps make sense of events or concepts
c.     Can promote identification
d.     Function like examples, using same structures and tests explained above
e.     Effective for introduction, transitions or conclusions
f.      Can be woven throughout the speech
g.     Evaluate Carefully
                                               i.     Is it needed
                                             ii.     How much time does it take (worth it?)
                                            iii.     Relevance to audience and topic
                                            iv.     Does it fit the audience
                                              v.     Will it work with an audience
                                            vi.     Have they heard it before
                                           vii.     See story telling chapter in text

XVIII.  Principles
a.     See text for further explanation
b.     Uses ethos and cultural proofs

XIX.      Three Major Techniques
a.     Comparison
b.     Contrasts
c.     Analogy

XX.         Selecting the right supportive materials
a.     Controversial
                                               i.     Facts and statistics
                                             ii.     Strong supporting secondary ethos
                                            iii.     Factual examples
                                            iv.     Expert testimony
                                              v.     Audience consideration of values and ideas
b.     Abstract
                                               i.     Use narratives and examples to bring life
                                             ii.     Comparison
                                            iii.     Contrasts
                                            iv.     Analogies
                                              v.     Develop appropriate feelings
                                            vi.     Develop appropriate contextual application
c.     Technical
                                               i.     Expert testimony to supplement facts and figures
                                             ii.     Definitions
                                            iii.     Explanations
                                            iv.     Descriptions
                                              v.     Comparisons
                                            vi.     Contrasts
                                           vii.     Analogies
                                         viii.     Simplify whenever possible
d.     Arouse Emotions
                                               i.     Lay and prestige testimony
                                             ii.     Examples
                                            iii.     Narratives
                                            iv.     Excite listeners by using comparison contrasts
e.     Defuse emotions
                                               i.     Facts and statistics
                                             ii.     Defuse any emotion
                                            iii.     Expert testimony
                                            iv.     Definitions
                                              v.     Focus on explanations
f.      To bring closer to audience
                                               i.     Localize if possible
                                             ii.     Analogies
                                            iii.     Show why it is important to audience

XXI.      Support Materials
a.     Must be adapted to your audience.
b.     They need to be limited to what is required or necessary so as not to confuse your audience.
c.     Support the main point whenever possible
d.     Avoid tangents
e.     Support each point unless obvious or no objection
f.      Clarify main points
g.     Illustrate main points
h.     Meet academic, cultural and use tests

XXII.    Chapter 13 Using Visual Aids
a.     Visual Aids are actually Presentation Aids and may include
                                               i.     Sight
                                             ii.     Sound
                                            iii.     Smell
                                            iv.     Touch
b.     Objectives of the Chapter
                                               i.     Explain he major advantages of using visual aids in a speech
                                             ii.     Identify and know how to use the kinds of presentation/visual aids available for a speech
                                            iii.     Apply good process guidelines to preparing and presenting aids within a speech
                                            iv.     Select only aids essential to the speech, aesthetics or content.
                                              v.     Apply the information learned to date to presentation aids
c.     Presentation Aids offer advantages
                                               i.     Strengthen the clarity of the message
                                             ii.     Increase listeners interests in the message
                                            iii.     Makes message easier to understand and retain
                                            iv.     Reengages interests at key points in the speech
                                              v.     Enhance a speakers credibility
                                            vi.     Can improve a speakers persuasiveness
                                           vii.     Can help combat stage fright
                                         viii.     Illustrate and support key points
                                            ix.     Provide Logos, Pathos, Mythos or Ethos outside the speakers vocal remarks
                                             x.     Makes the speech more interesting
                                            xi.     Takes up time (if used properly supports with this time)
d.     Kids of Visual Aids
                                               i.     Objects
                                             ii.     Models
                                            iii.     Photographs
                                            iv.     Drawings
                                              v.     Graphs
1.     Line graph for statistical trends
2.     Pie graphs for distribution patterns or relationship to the whole
3.     Bar graphs show comparison between two or more items
                                            vi.     Video
                                           vii.     Audio
                                         viii.     Transparencies
                                            ix.     Slides
                                             x.     Multimedia (computer assisted mediated presentation)
                                            xi.     Guests or other physical examples
                                          xii.     Sometimes you can use your own body as a visual aid
e.     Six Basic Guidelines for Visual Aids
                                               i.     Prepare Visual Aids in Advance
1.     Time to correct, be creative, make decisions
2.     Time to practice with the aid
                                             ii.     Keep it Simple Silly (KISS)
1.     Enhance communication
2.     Do not overdo artistry or wizardry unless relevant to the topic and needed for other reasons
3.     Be clear, straightforward and uncluttered
4.     Include only what needs to be there to make the speaker’s point
                                            iii.     Aids must be seen or heard
1.     Size large enough to be seen
2.     Size of letters and image large enough to be seen
3.     Avoid clutter and small details
                                            iv.     Use Fonts that are easy to read
                                              v.     Do not overdo font use
1.     Less is more
2.     Fewer is better
3.     Keep it easy to read and pleasing to the eye
                                            vi.     Use color effectively
1.     Color can dramatically increase the impact of the presentation
2.     Color carried emotion (Pathos)
                                           vii.     Basic Guidelines for Color Use
1.     Use contrasting colors that can be easily differentiated
2.     Use a limited number of colors
3.     Keep colors consistent
4.     Use color strategically to highlight key points
5.     Avoid yellow, orange or other very light colors except as a highlight
6.     Keep in mind most people have varying degrees of color blindness, so make sure the visual holds up if it were in black and white…
f.      Guidelines when using visual aids during a speech
                                               i.     Avoid using the chalkboard or white board
1.     Speakers may have to turn their back to the audience
2.     May not look as good as alternatives
3.     May lack vividness of prepared visuals
4.     People are anal in judging handwriting, graphics, etc.
                                             ii.     Display visual aids where audience can see them
1.     Do not block aids
2.     Make sure they are easy to see and read
3.     Make sure they can be understood by target audience
4.     Are they necessary…if not, do not use them.

                                            iii.     Avoid passing visuals
a.     Causes noise and takes attention off speech
b.     May not be timed with when you are presenting the point illustrated by the pass around
c.     When in hand audience member may pay more attention to the visual than the message or the speaker
d.     Do not hand out material during the speech
a, Do so before the speech – however make sure it is not something the audience will page through and thus be distracted form your speech
b. Offer material after the speech for those who are interested.

                                            iv.     Display visual aids only when discussing them
1.     Visuals may distract from what you are saying if on view early or after the point where they are utilized in the speech.
2.     Cover or remove aids when not in use
3.     Be consistent in look of similar aids throughout the speech
                                              v.     Talk to the audience, not the visual
1.     Eye contact should be 80% or more with the audience
2.     Audience interests may fade if you are perceived as not talking with them
3.     Never READ off your visual, simply refer to it and memorize or use note cards for what visual says
4.     Keep writing on visual simple so the audience is listening to you and not reading long sections on the visual
5.     Glance at first and then periodically toward the visual
                                            vi.     Explain the aids clearly and concisely
1.     Visual aids are only as valuable as the information you use while presenting them, or the impact they carry in ethos, pathos, mythos or logos
2.     Do not rush the use of the visual, make sure it is seen, understood and supports what you are saying at the time
3.     Explain the major features of the aid and their meaning to the audience
                                           vii.     Practice with the visual aids when preparing for the speech.

XXIII.  Using Power Point
a.     PowerPoint is a Microsoft product, these notes apply to all PowerPoint like systems of presentation, but use the term PowerPoint due to its market dominance
b.     Must take into account not to use as a crutch
c.     Must take into account to avoid briefing (unless the speech is a briefing- see Unit 6 notes on Informative Speaking)
d.     Avoid distracting movements, music and graphics
e.     Do not let the power point be the speech, it is only an aid
f.      Do not put everything on the PowerPoint
g.     Avoid clutter, too much gray matter (verbiage and numbers) and anything that is not referred to vocally and important to the speech
h.     Do use creative integrated features as needed
i.      Do plan and rehearse use of PowerPoint
j.      Use professional quality layout that compliments your speech
k.     Be able to give the speech effectively without the PowerPoint
l.      Do not darken room so that you are not seen clearly by audience
m.   Speak to the audience and not the PowerPoint
n.     Reveal items slightly after you introduce the subject supported (except in the use of humor)
o.     Be sure you do not plagiarize
p.     Make sure you use copyrighted materials properly and within the law
q.     Wide use of PowerPoint (avoid overuse)
                                               i.     94% of professional speakers use PowerPoint
                                             ii.     90% of multi-media presentations are developed using PowerPoint
r.      Plus and Minus
                                               i.     Allows use of a variety of visual aids without having to juggle between them or set up separate equipment
                                             ii.     Allows incorporation of text, photographs, charts, graphs, video, sound and other presentation aids under one system
                                            iii.     Allows for easy professional images (if proofed properly and if design elements are taken into consideration)
                                            iv.     PowerPoint could dominate the presentation (a negative)
                                              v.     PowerPoint may make speaker too dependant on presentation aids
                                            vi.     PowerPoint may lead to the use of aids that are not needed
                                           vii.     PowerPoint can lead to inflexibility in the presentation
                                         viii.     PowerPoint is not easily adaptable to the audience
                                            ix.     Do not use PowerPoint to illustrate every aspect of the speech
                                             x.     Do no look at the PowerPoint more than to glance at it
                                            xi.     Do not let the PowerPoint upstate the speaker
s.     Do not throw together a presentation
                                               i.     Required planning
                                             ii.     Requires rehearsal
                                            iii.     May require changes as speech is developed and practices
                                            iv.     May require changes to adapt to an audience
                                              v.     Make sure the presentation enhances the content of the speech
t.      Review further components and their use in the textbook and in PowerPoint Tutorials
u.     Check for errors. Any error will take away form your Ethos
                                               i.     Spelling
                                             ii.     Statistics
                                            iii.     Color use
                                            iv.     Image order
                                              v.     Etc.
v.     Do request help from other students or professionals when needed
w.    Observe Copyright laws
                                               i.     Obtain permission
                                             ii.     Pay fees if requested
                                            iii.     Fair use provision of copyright law for education
1.     May use portions of copyrighted material for a class
2.     May not receive payment of any kind for presentation
3.     May not post copyrighted material on the open web without written permission form copyright holder
4.     Must credit source in any use, even on closed systems or in a speech use (may be done with written source acknowledgment in find print or in your full outline)
5.     May use three minutes to ten percent, whichever is less, on all film, video or time motion media without obtaining permission, provided above items are observed.
6.     May use ten percent or no more than thirty seconds of music provided source is acknowledged
7.     May use entire photographs or illustrations pro video no more than 15 images or ten percent, whichever is less, of a collection of works.
8.     Must credit sources and use the copyright symbol when presenting material in a PowerPoint or any other presentation aid.
XXII. Review and understand the following:

Demographics include:


Gender (sex is how most people answer, but gender are psychological traits)

Psychographics (anything else you can put a number do or use data to understand, involving an individual, group, audience or market. Examples include individual income, household income, racial or ethnic identification, religious and/or church affiliation or beliefs, size of family, geography, nationality, language spoken, group affiliations, marital status, sexual orientation, etc.

Demographics- numbers (data used to understand an individual, group, audience, or market). Assist in research, presentation, and preparation of communication. Can be reasoned over time or instantaneous in consideration and effect/

Cultural definitions are based on various demographic influences as well as the elements, influences and forces that influence and form an individual, group, audience, or market

Bias- the tendency to feel one way or another about anything. Judgments made as a part of life that can be fixed or easily altered. Thoughts, opinions on almost anything.

Stereotype- a communication shorthand that is a form or and type of bias. Fast decisions on people or things used that make rapid communication possible. Can change over time and/or vary by individual, circumstances, context or other influence.

Prejudice- to pre-judge. Usually a strong culturally entrenched form of bias, difficult to change. Can be negative or positive (example “You’ve Go To Be Taught” from “South Pacific”.

Encode and Decode are not the Codes

Codes are how we encode and decode intended messages:
Verbal- the words or language –
Vocal- how the words or language are said, articulated, spoken
Visual- everything else, including visual, auditory (music, sounds), olfactory (smell), taste, touch, etc.

Proofs are how we get through noise, screens, and filters
How we prove an argument, get others to listen

Proofs: how you prove an argument, how you influence the listener…
Ethos- credibility (experience, education, power, appearance, likeability, etc.)
Pathos- emotion (feelings, emotions, gut, etc.)
Logos- logic
Mythos- culture (beliefs, mythos, shared ideas, culturally held truths)

Encode and Decode are the process in which ideas and concepts are put into symbolic representations to be transmitted and received. These are transmitted and received using the Codes

Codes are how we encode and decode intended messages:
Verbal- the words or language –
Vocal- how the words or language are said, articulated, spoken
Visual- everything else, including visual, auditory (music, sounds), olfactory (smell), taste, touch, etc.

Proofs are how we get through noise, screens, and filters
How we prove an argument, get others to listen

Proofs: how you prove an argument, how you influence the listener…
Ethos- credibility (experience, education, power, appearance, likeability, etc.)
Pathos- emotion (feelings, emotions, gut, etc.)
Logos- logic
Mythos- culture (beliefs, mythos, shared ideas, culturally held truths)

Thumbnail:             Key Word Outline / Presentation outline
A few key words under each organizing letter or number (can be as few as one word) to remind you of where you are. As few as possible. You may even delete numbers or letters if you can remember them. Simply the very basic structure of your outline/speech.  It is not to be read from or utilized except as a reminder if needed. See handout.

Stock Issue:            Focus on questions reasonable people might ask. The elephant in the living room. The gorilla in the closet. What needs to be addressed. The obvious that cannot be avoided. The expected that needs to be dealt with.

Jargon:            Language used within a group, association or profession that may or may not have the same or similar definition outside of the group. Use of jargon should be limited to groups that understand it or explained well to the audience. Avoid jargon that may be offensive or easily misunderstood by others.

Idioms:            Phrases that carry a particular meaning to a particular culture. For example: Home Run, “Cover All the Bases” “Three Pointer”, “Take It to the End Zone”, “Touchdown”, “ASAP”, “See Ya Later”, “Goliath”, “Herculean Feat”

Status Quo:            The current system, prevailing opinion, existing state of affairs, most common beliefs, as always, the way things are…

Presumption:             Assuming the status quo is correct. Comfortable with status quo. Not questioning. Not open to ideas or change. Resistant to conflicting views. Resist conflicting or uncomfortable opinions, ideas, concepts, actions. Allowing screens to determine self-image, truth, concept of reality. Not aware of a need for change. Resentful of attacks on close held beliefs. See opposing views as the enemy or a threat to stability and their personal life. Resent threats to their core beliefs. Tend to only research or study what they already believe in (reinforcement instead of challenge to ideas).

Burdon of Proof:            Speakers responsibility to prove to audience or receiver. Solid arguments that cut through screens/filters/noice/interfereance. Well through out argumentation. Utilize all four proofs (ethos, logos, pathos, mythos). Requires knowing and understanding other side. Should acknowledge and when possible utilize others beliefs.

Prima Fascia:                        On the face of it. At first sight. On it’s Face. Needs support of secondary ethos and use of other techniques to work unless audience already believes. Often used to reinforce those who already feel or think the way you do.

Informative and Persuasive Speaking
Begin serious work on point, informative and persuasive speeches
(Information and ideas in text and handouts on Web CT)

Review all Vocabulary and concepts

Academic or Scholarly Research
Peer Reviewed or Juries Research


Primary sources
Secondary sources
Tertiary sources
Directory media

Topic Selection Criteria
Testimony Tree Diagramming


Emotional Appeals
Personal Knowledge

Academic Press
Juried Sources
Media Sources

World Wide Web / Internet
Web Pac


General Review:

Review what is on Web CT to date

Review Communication Model.

Organization of Speech

Road Map approach
Order (design or structure)
Proper format
APA sources within outline
References (Bibliography or Sources in other formats)

References and Supporting Materials


Primary sources
Secondary sources
Tertiary sources
Directory media

What is substantive and reliable as opposed to a group of assertions?


Linda Ndenga said...

This course ids definitely alot to take in,ESPECIALLY IN 4 WEEKS, but all the links and resources help ALOT. Linda Ndenga

Anonymous said...


COM 101

Anonymous said...

I read, watch and hear everything. I only that I could remember it.
John Allen

Anonymous said...

Com 101 at UNLV was a struggle in a full semester so this class within 4 weeks was a struggle. It wasnt that bad though. you provided many links and clear directions from jump street. Great class over all.

Chynna Greene