This chapter summary is written by the authors of the authors of the text, "Public Speaking, the Evolving Art (ISBN-13:978-0-534-636727-9). It is a summary and should not take the place of reading the textbook or using the other resources provided on Angel by the publisher, course instructor or school.
Organizing and Outlining Your Speech
Organizing your speech effectively helps you provide a clear message for your audience. Every speech includes four key parts: introduction, body, transitions, and conclusion.
The body of the speech comprises most of what you'll present: your main points and supporting materials. The working outline, with a rough sketch of your specific purpose, thesis, and initial ideas for main points, guides you in making the final selection of the main points for your speech. As you select and then develop your main points, apply the principles of clarity, relevance, and balance. Your main points must support your specific purpose and clearly indicate the response you want from your audience. In addition, main points must be relevant both to your topic and to one another, and they must be balanced in terms of their relative importance.
Six patterns of organization are commonly used to organize a speech: chronological, spatial, topical, narrative, cause-and-effect, and problem-solution. The chronological pattern orders points in a time-based sequence. The spatial pattern indicates the physical or directional relationship among objects or places. The topical pattern divides a subject into its components or elements. The narrative pattern entails a dramatic retelling of events as a story or series of stories. The cause-and-effect pattern demonstrates how a particular action produces a particular outcome. Finally, the problem-solution pattern describes a problem and then offers possible solutions to the problem. An effective pattern of organization complements your topic, specific purpose, and audience.
Transitions link together the elements of your speech. Types of transitions include ordering, reinforcing, contrasting, chronology, causality, and summarizing or concluding. Transitions provide signposts for audience members so they know where you are in your speech. Internal summaries are longer transitions that remind listeners of the points covered previously. Key places to use transitions are between the introduction and the first main point, between main points, and between the last main point and the conclusion.
The complete-sentence outline is where you record all the parts of your speech. The most detailed outline you'll produce for your speech, the complete-sentence outline includes your topic, general purpose, specific purpose, thesis, introduction, main points, subpoints, conclusion, transitions, and references. You'll revise and rework this outline as you research your speech and identify appropriate supporting materials. Developing this comprehensive outline clearly identifies each bit of information you want to include in your speech and helps you visualize the order of your ideas.
|See also course content tab where you will find student outline samples, Power-Points, Lessons on the parts of the speech and more...|