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Sunday, October 16, 2011

Chapt 11: Presentation Aids

Chapter 11: Integrating Presentation Media

This chapter summary is written by the authors of the authors of the text, "Public Speaking, the Evolving Art (ISBN-13:978-0-534-636727-9). It is a summary and should not take the place of reading the textbook or using the other resources provided on Angel by the publisher, course instructor or school.

Chapter Summary

Speakers use presentation media to draw attention to their topic, illustrate an idea, evoke an emotional reaction, clarify points, support an argument, and assist with audience recall. General guidelines for designing effective visual media include keeping it simple, emphasizing only key ideas, showing what you can't say, using close-ups of photographs and other images, combining variety with coherence, and using large, readable lettering.



Click on "read more" below to find out more about sources, and for valuable links.


Traditional visual and audio media such as overhead transparencies, flip charts and posters, white boards and chalkboards, document cameras, video, handouts, models, and sound recordings allow you to enrich your speech. Digital slides have become a frequently used form of presentation media. Although some speakers rely too much on digital slides, the versatility of software programs such as Keynote and PowerPoint offer tremendous flexibility in creating dynamic visual and audio materials.

By treating your presentation media as essential components of your speech that require careful preparation and delivery, you can maximize their impact and avoid common problems associated with their use. The key to success in using presentation media is balance: Give media the proper support role in your speech. With all the resources available to you today, remember that you are the best delivery system for communicating ideas to your audience.

Note that presentation aids includes photographs, video, music, smells, sights, flip charts, posters, overheads, models, demonstrations and other media besides electronic. Do not become too PowerPoint dependent, or for that matter dependant on any one media.
Always be ready to present your speech without an aid or all of your aids, as technical limitations, lost luggage and other events may require adaptation and presentation without any one or multiple outside support aids.

Key Notes (links follow) 

On Presentation Aids.

Review the Textbook.
Search Internet for ideas, clarification, samples

Presentation and Visual Airs, keep it simple, easy to read, large enough and simple to understand. Digital cameras, computers, flip charts, posters (foam backing best), photo enlargements, title cards (use but do not count), overheads, pass outs, pass-around (not usually a good idea), models, music, food, drink, samples, pamphlets. Etc.

Must be key to speech and actually used, not just presented to meet requirements.

Visual aids should reinforce and support what you are presenting. They usually will be used ore exposed after introducing the concept they support or reinforce.

PowerPoint is acceptable, but you should never read the actual power point screen, you should be talking about the concept just prior to it being exposed to the audience, should avoid unneeded flash or distractions from your points and speech and should use an additional visual or presentation aid (other than power point) for any presentation. Avoid using computer presentation if possible and always arrange in advance, as computer access in some classrooms may be limited. Always bring your own computer and a connection to the television in the classroom as a back up should projector not be available at the time requested. Remote controls are also recommended.

Screen any questionable material with teacher in advance. Use disclaimer if needed.

Presentation Aids are visual (sight), auditory (sound), olfactory (smell) materials used to enhance or clarify your speech. Objects, posters, photographs, video, CD’s, performance, overheads, graphs, charts, handouts, slides, Power Point, flip charts, demonstrations, etc.

Visual Aids are the subset that can be seen. Objects, posters, graphs, etc.

Icons: visual representations of an idea, location or thing.

Using presentation aids:

Emphasize or explain key points or overall topic.

Break down complex information.

Simplify complex images or unseen images.

Substitute when necessary for having actual objects or samples.
People have different learning styles.
Use differencing senses, modes of thinking, and differing skills at communication.

Visual learners need to see information to best comprehend it.

Auditory learners need to hear the information.

Kinesthetic learners

Presentation Aids


Presentation Aids are visual, auditory or other material used to enhance or clarify your presentation information. Be sure to review the Rules for Using Presentation Aids located on pages 1054 t 105 in your text. Ask instructor questions in advance of working on aids. Plan and rehearse you aids and allow time for drafts, changes and comfort of presentation. Make sure your aids are ethical, add to the presentation, and support a point or the overall message of the presentation. Do a disclaimer if necessary (always see instructor in advance or risk point loss or possible failure on the speech). Remember CCSN’s basic rules concerning aids as presented in first lecture. See syllabus.

1.     When to use

A.    When appropriate
B.    Supports major point or idea
C.    Illustrates difficult to understand concepts
  1. Visual Design and execution are important
A.    Maximum Impact
B.    Avoid too much information
C.    Avoid clutter
D.   Choose material carefully
E.    Balance variety with coherence
F.    Use large lettering
G.   Serif on printed boards, san-serif best on computer visuals
H.   Upper case best, with capital larger
I.      Colors are key, avoid red, yellow and light colors for lettering
J.     Colors provide mood, setting, contrast
K.   Do not become overly PowerPoint dependent

3.     Presentation Aids may and should increase the clarity of the speech.

A.    May or can supplement abstract messages with sensory representations

B.    Enhance understanding

C.   Add authenticity

D.   To add variety

E.    Increase attention

F.    Renew attention

G.   For transitions

H.   To improve delivery

I.      To create or increase lasting impact

J.     Neat, attractive, well thought our aids enhance credibility


2.     Presentation aids are almost mandatory in most presentation settings

A.    Keep audiences focused and interesting

B.    Entertain or answer What’s In It for Me

C.    Media society is use to multiple media I inputs and images

D.   Greeks identified visual or presentation aids as a primary element of communication


  1. Kinds of aids available are limited only to your imagination
    1. People
a.     Speaker (not counted as an aid in your speech, but may be utilized)
1.     Gestures, actions, movement to illustrate ideas or transitions
2.     Dress and personal grooming to enhance or reinforce speech
3.     Personal Ethos
b.     Other People
1.     Demonstrate described activities
2.     Illustrate specific points or concepts
3.     Testimony (not too long and not make points for you)
4.     Must be willing and know what is expected of them
    1. Objects and Models
a.     Small enough to carry but large enough to see
b.     Kept out of sight until uses in the speech
c.     Inanimate make for better presentations than living things (live can distract or even demand attention).
d.     Be wary of dangerous, illegal of rotationally offensive objects
e.     Make sure it helps make or illustrate a key point
f.      Models substitute when objects are too large, unavailable, hard to see, too valuable, too fragile, too dangerous or too complex to bring to presentation or to accurately represent the points and intent of the objects use in a presentations
g.     Models are representative and usually made to scale
h.     Models make it easy for everyone to see and understand
i.      Models are used often in museum

  1. Graphics or graphic visual aids
    1. Know when to use each type illustrated in the text
    2. Select only what best assists in accurately illustrating or supporting your point.
    3. Sketches or diagrams offer simplified explanations or representation

    1. Maps are good for special
1.     Keep maps simple and to scale
2.     Keep maps free of extraneous information
3.     Carefully and purposefully worked into the presentation
4.     Help create and set a feeling of place and scale

    1. Graphs make statistical information more understandable
1.     Pie Graphs show the size and proportion of a subject’s part in relation to each other and to the whole
2.     Bar graphs show comparison and contrasts between two or more related items or groups.
3.     Line graphs help to illustrate changes over time
4.     Line graphs are useful in indicating trends of growth or decline
5.     Line graphs can illustrate relationships between any two factors
6.     When plotting more than one line be certain that the audience can distinguish the lines and understand how they represents differing trends or elements.
7.     Mountain Graphs are variations of line graphs that fill in the area below the line. It is best used to accentuate the difference between two lines on the same graph or to enhance the strength of a growth or declining trend.

    1. Charts provide summaries of processes and relationships
1.     Often charts are overly simplistic and should be used not as evidence but as a representation of possible interpretations
2.     Flow charts are used to show steps in a process
3.     Flow charts can also be used to show power and responsibility relationships
4.     Do not clutter up a flow charts, instead use sequenced charts shown in succession.
5.     Charts can use icons, pictographs or other visually symbolic representations

    1. Textual Graphics are lists of phrases, words or numbers
1.     Key terms can assist audience in following complicated issues
2.     Bulleted lists work well with other graphics
3.     Bulleted lists help viewers prioritize and understand structure
4.     Acronym use letters from words (usually first letters) to implant ideas in the minds of the audience that makes the speech more memorable.
5.     Acronyms may also represent organizations, ideas, idioms, jargon or shorthand for complex conceptualizations in a variety of subjects.
6.     Acronyms must be explained at least once anytime they are used, because the same acronym may have differing meanings to different groups

    1. Photographs and Pictures have advantages and disadvantages
1.     Can have distracting details
2.     May be too small or too subtle
3.     Distracting when passed around instead of large display
4.     Can take attention away from the speaker when not best time to do so
5.     May cause differing thoughts or emotions in different audience members
6.     Can be altered or taken out of context
7.     “Is worth a thousand words”
8.     Can be memorable and help reinforce concepts or points in a presentation

  1. Media For Presentation Aids
    1. Flip Charts
    2. Posters (use stock or board to keep stiff, non distracting and easy to see
    3. Poster Boards (same idea)

    1. Handouts
1.     Use only when needed
2.     Can distract by having people read ahead or having too much information
3.     Best used with professional groups accustomed to working with handouts during presentations or who require detailed written presentations
4.     Can be offered after speech for less of a distraction
5.     Never distribute handouts during the presentation (before or after only)

    1. Chalk board (not counted as aid in your COM 110 speeches, but may be used as needed or desired).
1.     Allows spontaneous adaptation to audience feedback
2.     Can be made as current and topical as necessary
3.     Can showcase bad handwriting or spelling skills
4.     Dirty or dusty process
5.     May lead speakers to put their backs to the audience
6.     Helps focus audience attention
7.     Make sure letters and graphics are large enough to be seen and understood
8.     Do not overuse chalkboard

    1. Overheads
1.     Best for a larger audience
2.     Do not completely darken the room
3.     Make sure they can be read and seen by audience
4.     Keep them simple and easy to read
5.     Use of pen allows revision or highlight during presentation
6.     Allows eye contact with the audience while slides are overhead
7.     Simple and easy to use visual reinforcement of the speech
8.     Do not overuse
9.     Can require speaker to stand by projector, limiting movement range and podium use
10.  Always check equipment ahead of time and be ready to go on without overheads if necessary (true of all presentation aids).
11.  Do not substitute overheads for actual speaker to audience contact or presentation.

    1. Slides
1.     Best in a large presentation situation
2.     Must darken room, limits notes and eye contact
3.     Clearer and crisper than overheads
4.     Best for photographic presentations or art work
5.     Cost and availability may become an issues

    1. Audio
1.     Strong potential pathos and mythos
2.     Can assist in mood, flow and pace
3.     Can authenticate
4.     Excellent way for secondary ethos (interviews, etc.)
5.     Can gain or maintain audience interests
6.     Use with specific care to subject matter
7.     Do not talk over lyrics or words
8.     Take care with volume,
9.     Take care with language,
10.  Keep in mind audience sensibilities

    1. Video
1.     Strongest potential
2.     Must be specific and to the point being made
3.     Keep length from dominating speech
4.     Can authenticate presentation
5.     Adds variety to presentation
6.     Appealing to video generation
7.     Sound, movement, light, graphics included
8.     Can transport the audience to other locations
9.     Potential strong for pathos and mythos
10.  Potential strong for secondary ethos
11.  Keep short and carefully cued and edited
12.  Be ready to go if video equipment fails or not available

    1. Computer Generated
1.     Danger of overuse
2.     Danger of ethical misuse
3.     Danger of distracting from speaker
4.     Strong ability to merge other aids
5.     Strong ability to make smaller images seen
6.     Strong ability to reinforce points graphically
7.     Easy and abundance of tools available
8.     Most all presentation tools can be augmented, altered, prepared, edited or in other ways complimented or polished using computers
9.     Can bring text, pictures, artwork, slides, video, audio, animations and other material into a cohesive presentation
10.  Should reveal graphic after initially mentioning point supported by graphics
11.  Should not let the computer presentation be or upstage the speaker or speakers entire presentation

    1. Substantive presentation takes priority over any and all presentation tools

  1. Presentation Presentation Aids should adhere to the basic principles of design
    1. Visible to the entire audience
    2. Easy to read and understand by the entire audience
    3. Emphasize the central idea or main points of the presentation

    1. Pleasing and balanced to the eye (or ear)
1.     Focal point should balance graphic and textual materials
2.     Adequate margins
3.     Use of color should be complimentary and easy to read

    1. Sourced. Site sources for information presented on or for the images used in a presentation aid (ethical and legal responsibilities).
    2. Color
1.     Attention and interests
2.     Can influence moods and impressions
Examples red excites, blue indicates power and stability, green comfort, etc.

3.     Keep in mind that some audience members may be color blind
4.     Colors should stand out from background
5.     Colors can sway opinion, emotions, priorities
6.     The impact of color may vary by culture

    1. Selection, preparation and use of presentation aids takes time and planning
1.     Should have rough and practice drafts just as with the rest of the speech
2.     Abandon use if aid does not support or work in the flow of a speech
3.     All aids should support specific points or overall theme of speech
4.     Aids should compliment the speaker and the speech, not distract
5.     Avoid clutter with too much information, unneeded materials or too many aids in a single presentation for the time allotted or topic selected
6.     Practice using the aid, integrate it into the presentation
7.     Text it out in the room or space where it will be used
8.     Check on all electronic or other support aids needed for your presentation aid to work.
9.     Do not display your aid until you are ready to use it.
10.  Make sure your aid can be seen or heard (watch where you stand, site lines, etc,)
11.  Point to or indicate the aid was needed, but do not overuse or distract in doing so.
12.  Do not leave your audience searching or wondering about the aid
13.  Explain as needed
14.  Do not distribute materials during a speech
15.  Do not pass around items or photographs during a speech
16.  Do not use too many presentation aids in a single speech
17.  Plan the time it takes to use the aid into your presentation time
18.  Make sure you can have quick set up and tear down of your aids or material
19.  Think of the staging of the aids as theater and ask if they would help or distract you if you were watching instead of giving the presentation
20.  Do no read your aids, let the audience read or use them.
21.  Do not let your aid get in the way of your eye contact or other public speaking skills or tools.
Ethic include use of presentation aids
Truthful and non-harmful (declaimer or do not use if harmful).
Alert audience if any images have been altered
Does the image represent an underlying truth?
Is there a valid reason for its use?
Has the image been manipulated, and if so by whom, why and does it remain truthful?
Context. Does it hold up in context? Has it been taken out of context?
Be healthily skeptical about images and other presentation aids
(Commissar’s image, Internet contextual miss-representation, sequential manipulation, others)
Should not take the place of other evidence or support for claims.
Remember that images carry ethical responsibility and can harm or willfully mislead


Links

Powerpoint Pointers



Death By PowerPoint



Public Speaking Advice: Lt Col Robert F Cain


Conversations with History 
Harry Kreisler created the "Conversations with History" series, produced by the Institute of International Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. Begun in 1982, the project includes more than 400 interviews. Videotaped on the Berkeley campus, many interview pages include photos and RealPlayer video segments. View a few of these conversations to get a sense of the ways in which presentation media can capture an audience's imagination.
http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/conversations/ 
Online PowerPoint Tutorial
Designed by the Department of Computer Science at the University of Rhode Island, this online tutorial covers the basics of using PowerPoint.
http://homepage.cs.uri.edu/tutorials/csc101/powerpoint/ppt.html
Powerpointless?
Links to articles, guidelines, and opinions on using PowerPoint.
http://sooper.org/misc/ppt/
The Gettysburg PowerPoint Presentation
Peter Norvig, Director of Search Quality and Director of Machine Learning at Google, developed these PowerPoint slides of the Gettysburg Address. Also includes information on how Norvig constructed the presentation.
http://www.norvig.com/Gettysburg
The PowerPoint FAQ
Sponsored by PowerPoint PowerTools, this searchable site has practical information, tutorials, advice, help, and tips on using PowerPoint.
http://www.pptfaq.com

2 comments:

Leslie Gomez- COM. 4041 said...

Visuals can make or break a speech. This is good advice for future reference.

Trevino01 said...

Visuals are huge when doing a speech. You must make sure that you talk about them while doing your speech though. Some people use visuals and bring them up to the presentation, but don't end up talking about them. You should never do that.