Welcome to www.comprofessor.com a.k.a. Lynch Coaching: Media and Communication Prof's News and Views from Art Lynch. This blog exists to stimulate critical thinking, provide information on communication and media, stimulate discussion and share ideas. For additional media and other news see also sagactoronline.com. Thank you and tell your friends. - Art Lynch
Vocabulary posted at end of Unit 2 notes, start to learn and be familiar with
In feedback the process reverses and the transmitter becomes the receiver.
Both side experiences noise (screens, filters, interference) no mater what role they are playing (transmitter or receiver). There is noise that interferes with feedback as well as the initial message channel. Click "read more" below to continue reading this outline and review:
Principles of note cards
Maximum is thumbnail or presentation
Exact Quotes or stats (if not memorized)
Lose them, as you no longer need them
FLASH CARD principle
Full communication model should be understood by now
Transmitter, Receiver (Speaker, Audience)
Noise (screens, filters)
Types of noise
Encode and Decode
(Age, Gender, Psychographic)
Understanding others, tolerance, compromise.
Spacers, fillers, speaking habits
Dress and other habits and how they impact the message and the speech
Distributed- cover all regions
Direct- eye contact must be made
Sustained- 1 or more seconds per person
Dominant (80% of the time or more)
Anchor points: friendly faces in audience, one per “region”
Extemp. w/o notes or appearance of notes (note cards with only key words on acceptable)
Now add to this, move on to…
II. Key Concepts
A.Approach to Speech
B.Differences between speech and written English
3.Order of situation
2.Length and Timing
3.Middle or short time in rehearsing
4.Watch clock to make sure within time length
5.Do not let watching time length keep you from quality…rehearse to assure quality!
6.Gestures and Posture. Movement.
7.Do not take from message, compliment it.
8.Page 124-125 has some hints
D.It’s Only A Class!!!
E.Stages of Topic Development / Thesis
5.Finally rework intro and conclusion, alter thesis if needed
F.Application to Speeches
b.See Speech Evaluation Sheets
G.Thinking outside the box,
1.Open to conflicting/new views and perspectives
2.Exploring the world
3.Understanding other opinions, views, ways of doing things
4.Coming up with new solutions, plans, ideas
H.Why think outside the box?
I.Where to find information on both sides and on possible directions
a.Academic or Juried Sources
J.Some source directions
3.New York Times
4.Wall Street Journal
7.Internet web search
8.Myspace (not private)
14.Non-academic Directory Media
a.Encyclopedia and Dictionaries
b.Atlas and other Directory Media
K.Academic Sources –
c.New York Times,
d.Wall Street Journal
1.an expert in field or someone who has expertise and experience
Or material written historically recording events, feelings or trends
Or raw statistics gathered in an acceptable academic mathematical manner
M.Show all sources, but meet primary and academic requirement in assignment
1.Universal, situational, contextual
2.The study of human moral conduct
3.Right and wrong in human interaction
O.Absolute Truth- Platonic Truth
1.Complete and unqualified, truth is objective and without exception. Not open to discussion or interpretation. Black and white. Clear and final.
1.Philosophers based loosely on Socrates but who took it to negative lengths by tailoring truth to the audience, patrons, public, paying customers, many politicians may be Sophists…
Q.Relative Truth- Truth is subjective, open to interpretation
R.Aristotelian Truth- Relative Truth, varies by situation and environment, comparative, qualified, open to discussion, not the same for everyone.
S.Dogmatism- Rigidity of Belief. Immovable. Not open to discussion. Religious beliefs are a good and strong example, however Dogmatism is not limited to religion…
T.Absolute-Relative Truth Handout
U.Ethnocentrism- The tendency of a group to think or feel that its way of thinking or doing things is somehow superior to any other group. Note that this does not mean that other groups are wrong or do not have a right to their own views. It implies that the primary ground way of doing things or thinking is simply a better or superior way of going.
V.Assimilation – The tendency to think that someone who you perceive as agreeing with or whose Ethos you place highly statements or views are closer to your own than they actually may be. Secondary definition is to become like or a part of someone else’s group or views based on perceived (not necessarily true) similarities
W.Understanding others, the audience, the market
X.Demographics- anything you can put a number to. Identifies tendencies, trends, attitudes, and make-up of a group, individual, audience, market or society.
1.Age- chronological actual age
2.Gender- Male and female tendencies or psychological (Sex is physiological)
a.Psychographics- anything else you can put a number to. Group affiliation, income, household income, education level, people in household, visits to fast food, own a car, own a computer, ethnic affiliation, racial identification, church attended and how often, religious affiliation, and so on
Y.Understanding application of Demographics
1.State of the Union Address – multiple receivers
2.Kennedy Debates- differences in media response
3.47 in Education example- why is Nevada really so low?
4.Swift Boat Demographic- Male, Older (50’s to 80’s), Vets, Military & Military Families
S.Understanding Noise, Screens, Filters
T.Understanding others, examples of demographic differences.
1.Recommend “A Framework for Understanding Poverty” by Ruby K Payne, PhD.
a.Used in education, public administration, social services, sociology, other disciplines
V.Bias – the tendency to feel one way or another about anything. Bias changes.
W.Prejudice – a culturally entrenched bias, very difficult to change
X.Stereotype – communication shorthand that utilizes bias, often reinforced by Media, community, others (South Pacific Example)
Z.Ethnocentrism- the belief that your cultures, beliefs, ways of doing things are somehow superior to everyone else’s. Does not mean theirs are wrong or have no value, only that yours are better, superior and should come before or above all others, Example: US version of Democracy, tolerance in religious beliefs, consumer based society, We are better. We have the best. We are the best. Our way is the right way.
III. The Body of the Speech
A.Strategic Organization: Putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience
1.Why pick topic?
a.Private Purpose: why you want to tackle this subject. There is no need to disclose this unless you choose to. It is the reason you have a passion for and interest in the topic.
b.Public Purpose: what you are willing to share with the audience as to why you are pursuing this topic, The stronger and more interesting the better
c.Thesis statement: a short sentence stating what you intend to prove, show or speak about.
2.Thesis: The concept you wish the audience to understand or an expected outcome stated in a short and simple statement.
3.Conclusion; The expected outcome or summary
4.Research/body: What is discovered along the way
C.Developing A Speech Outline
1.Body first: once you have gone though Scientific Method steps approaching developing the body of the speech first
2.Conclusion next: After body is written, restate the main points and state conclusion, with a feeling of closure or call for action
3.Introduction should be written last, so as to attract attention, build interests and preview main points.
D.Main points: the major points developed in the body of the speech. Most speeches for a class contain two to five main points. More than that could make a speech cluttered. Also, most people do not remember more than two or three points after a speech is completed.
E.Specific Purpose: To inform an audience about something
F.Central idea; the main concept you are building the speech around
G.Number your main points. Use traditional or classic outline format as shown in text and under handouts (Roman number, Capital Letter, number, small letter, and so on….)
H.Strategic Order of Main Points:
1.The most effective order depends on:
2.Six Patterns for Informative Main Point Organization / Designs / Structures
a.Chronological Order: A method of organizing in which the main points follow a time pattern. Could be centuries, years, months, days, hours, minutes, seconds, micro or nanoseconds…
b.Sequential Order: putting things in an order, in which they need to follow. The order may be chronological, in a motivated sequence (reason for the order), in any order you wish to put things to help them be understood, in an order set for a reason or just to keep organized.
c.Spatial: A method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern. A relationship in space. Also could mean using a relationship in terms of size, distance, location, shape,
d.Causal Order: a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship. Related to problem-cause and problem-cause-solution.
e.Problem-Solution Order: a method of speech organization in which the first main point deal with the existence of a problem, second pain point presents a solution. Establish a problem and then show how to solve it. Problem-Cause-Solution, establishes a problem, establishes the probably cause and shows how you solve the problem.
f.Topical Order: a methods of speech organization in which he main potions divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics. Each subtopic becomes the main point for a portion of the speech.
I.Tips For Preparing Main Points
1.Keep Main Points Separate: Make sure the audience understands each point before moving on
2.Try to use the same or similar pattern of words for each main point. The audience will know to tune in and will be able to keep track with mental shorthand if you use this approach.
3.Balance the amount of time devoted to each main point, They do not have to be equal, if a point is too short the audience may think it less important or maybe not needed at all. Justify each point.
J.Supporting Materials: the material used to support a speaker’ ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics and testimony.
1.By themselves main points are only assertions, things you want people to remember or believe.
2.Listeners need supporting materials to believe what the speaker has to say, to accept the message.
3.Examples show specific support in real terms
4.Statistics are numbers; need to be justified and believable, Avoid overuse of numbers as people often have a hard time conceiving of numbers. Make them real. Visual aids and examples help.
5.Testimony is horses mouth (Mr. Ed), someone who has experiences something, first hand experience, stories.
K. Connectives: a world or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.
1.Transitions: a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished on a thought and is moving on to another. (Examples on student CD)
2.Internal Preview: a statement in the body of the speech that let’s the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next. Also called foreshadowing or forward promotion.
3.Internal Summaries: a statement in the body of a speech that summaries the speakers proceeding point or points. Review.
4.Signposts: a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in a speech or that focuses attention on key ideas. Part of the roadmap or contract you lay out when you begin to share information in a speech (refer to CD that came with the text)
5.Connect like ligaments in a body, holding speech together making it unified and coherent.
6.Four Types of Connectives:
a.Transitions (see above)
b.Internal Previews (see above)
c.Signpost (see above)
IV. Beginning and Ending a Speech
1.Identify four objectives of a Speech Introduction
2.Explain seven methods that can be used to gain attention in an introduction
3.Identify the major functions of a speech conclusion
4.Explain the methods a speaker can use to fulfill the functions of the conclusion
2.Relate the Topic to the Audience (WIIFM)
3.Make a favorable impression
4.Helps boost speaker’s self-confidence for rest of speech.
1.Take audience through road map one more time
2.Give speaker one last chance to emphasize main points
3.Creates favorable final impression
4.Sense of closure and/or call for action
D.Four Objectives of a Speech Introduction (may use multiple or one)
1.Gain attention and interest of the audience
a.WIIFM: People pay attention closer to topics that relate to them
b.Always relate the topic to the audience
c.Do what you can to engage audience from the start
2.State the importance of the Topic.
a.Make sure audience understands with an urgency
b.Demonstrate importance of topic from the start
3.Startle the audience
a.Less effective unless used correctly
b.Can be highly effective if used correctly
c.Must be directly related to the speech4.
4.Arouse the curiosity of the Audience
a.People are curious
b.Whet their curiosity, their appetite for more
5.Question the Audience
a.Dangerous because you can lose control or be surprised by answers
b.Single question or sequenced series of questions
c.Lead the audience where you want them to go
d.Make sure firmly related to the content
e.Later in speech must answer or tie in potential answers to questions asked
6.Begin with a Quotation
a.Choose well to add depth, human interests or humor to introduction
b.Most effective if a sentence or two…keep it short.
7.Tell a story
a.Make sure well told
b.Make sure it leads to rest of speech and tied in again later
c.Most people like stories
d.Personifies and humanizes and issue
a.Refer to the occasion
b.Strong personal statement for Ethos
c.Invite audience participation (danger, can lose control)
d.Use audio or visual aid (danger, could confuse or upstage)
e.Relate to previous speaker
f.Relate to high profile current event
g.Relate to a Stock Issue
h.Begin with humor (appropriate and well told)
i.All other methods can be effective provided they relate to the audience, topic and occasion
E.Second objective of a Speech Introduction is to reveal the Subject.
1.Clearly state the subject to avoid confusing the audience (unless calculated reason not to do so)
2.Even if the audience knows the subject, the speaker should usually restate it during the introduction and conclusion
F.The third objective of the introduction is to establish the credibility (Ethos) and good will of the speaker.
1.Being perceived as qualified to speak on the subject
a.First hand experience
c.Secondary or inherited Ethos
2.Let the audience know your credibility
3.Build both primary and secondary Ethos
4.Establish Good Will
a.Show you have the best interests of the audience at heart
b.Important on all speeches, but persuasive it is essential
G.Preview the Body of the Speech
1.Set up a road map to assist audience in following speech
2.Preview major points and any disclaimers
3.Provide a smooth lead-in the body of the speech
4.Preview or present special information
c.Concepts o understand
H.Tips for an effective Introduction
1.Keep introduction relatively brief
2.Always keep introduction and conclusion in mind as you research the speech
3.Use creativity and think outside of the box
4.Write the introduction after completing the body and conclusion of the speech
5.Be flexible to change if research, body, conclusion lead other directions
6.Always support the conclusion by laying groundwork
I.Primary Functions of a Speech Conclusion
1.Signal the end of the speech
a.Leave audiences fulfilled, with a feeling of completion
b.Consider using verbal cues such as “in conclusion”, “one last through”, “and my final comment”
c.Consider more creative ways to conclude that are less obvious, but still understood as a conclusion by the audience
d.Use verbal cues
1.Crescendo, build to the ending
2.Dissolve ending, giving people time to reflect
3.Clean clear conclusion with finality
J.In the conclusion reinforce the audiences understanding or commitment to the central idea of the speech
1.Summarize the main points of the speech
2.Conclude with a quotation (optional, not best ending0
3.End with a dramatic statement
4.End with a call or action
5.Refer back to the beginning of the speech
6.Leave a sense of closure
K.You are in control. Let your creative energy and common sense determine which structures, methods and concepts work for you and for the topic, environment and situation of your speech.
V. Outlining the Speech
1. Understanding why it is important to outline a speech
2. Understanding basic outline structure
3. Understanding preparation, research and presentation (thumbnail) outlines
B. This chapter does requiring reading the textbook more than once.
C. Not all concepts will be reviewed in these notes.
D. Important concepts not from the text will be reviewed in unit notes to come. Outlining and research are essential to College level work.
E. The writing lab can assist with outlining
F. There are examples under Handouts of Web CT
G. I can and will share outlines (with student’s permission)
H. 10 Guidelines for Effective Presentation Outlines
1. Purpose statement
2. Central Idea
3. Label the introduction, body and conclusion clearly
4. Consistent in format, system, decision on type of outline
5. Easy to follow for future research of review
6. Presentation outline uses full sentences
7. Presentation outline shows all sources where used
8. Label transitional, internal summaries and internal previews
9. Include bibliography (References in APA format)
10. Foundation for further research or study by self or others
I. Presentation outline /Thumbnail / Key Word Outline
1. Brief Outline used for speech or speech practice
2. A few key words per major concept only
3. Follow same basic format of preparation outline
4. Legible and easy to see
5. May include underlines or other cues
6. Keep it as brief as possible!
7. Include vocal or other cues you use in the speech
J. Note Cards
1. Transfer only the parts of the presentation outline you find you need after practicing with the outline
2. Keep writing large and words per note card to minimum
3. Flash Card Principle: Discard what you no longer need while practicing
4. Write on cards as needed with easy to scan symbols, colors, highlights
5. If needed (but try not to) full quotes or statistics may be on card
6. See principles of note cards earlier in these unit notes, and in unit 2 notes.
K. Practice, practice, practice
1. Refine speech while practicing
2. Get as comfortable as possible
3. Memorize only what is essential
4. Keep extemporaneous, talking with the audience feel
5.Practice with your presentation aids
6. Practice in the space you will present speech
7. Keep a tight grip on time
8. Be ready for questions and comments
V. Reasons for COM 101:
iii.Web CT participation
iv.Ability to listen and learn
v.Understanding the teacher
3.Anticipate other grading bias / criteria
ii.Ability to advance in job
iii.Ability to lead
iv.Perception of self / and by others
c.By being informed
iv.Ability to make intelligent decisions
v.Understanding of your and others Screens
vi.Ability to work with or influence others
d.Meet Personal goals
i.Own definition of success
ii.Own goals, needs, wants
iii.Self fulfillment and/or satisfaction
iv.Ability to work with or understand others
e.Approach to Speech
f.Stages of Topic Development / Thesis
v.Finally rework intro and conclusion, alter thesis if needed
d.Draft / Selective Service
f.Participation in Forces that Shape Your Lives
i.Example: Home owners associations
ii.Example: Social Debate
iii.Example: Interpersonal Communication
CC.Web CT use in course and in general
Vocabulary Lists and other tools
Plagiarism, copyright, trademarks and other regulations, rules, limitations.
DD.Subject Matter review
Setting- can be physical or non-physical, time, place, etc.
Cognitive Restructuring- It’s only a class. Change the way you think. Remember that the speech is not a performance, it is communication. In communication there are mistakes. Live with it and keep working on improving your skills.
Self Fulfilling Prophecy- If you expect it to be true it may become true.
Be prepared: research, rehearse, pick a subject you already know about, pick a subject you believe in, read, write, read more, write more, edit, practice, edit, research, prepare.