Sunday, February 1, 2015
Why learn to speak in public?
Why learn to speak in public?
Introduction to Public Speaking and Communication Model’
1. Understand the value of a course in public speaking and applications in students life of the communication model
2. Understand the long tradition of communication studies
3. Identify the major similarities and differences between public speaking and everyday conversation (interpersonal communication)
4. Understand that nervousness is normal, and even desirable
5. Investigate methods of using or controlling nerves, making it work for you as a speaker
6. Understand the elements of the communication process and how to use them in everyday life
7. Understand to adapt to and grow stronger from cultural diversity
8. Understand ethnocentrism, when to use it and how to avoid it
B. Public Speaking is vital
1. Spreading, using and resolving ideas, influence and knowledge
2. Public speaking touches everyone and every aspect of life
a. Helps gain success in every aspect of life
b. Vital as a means of civic engagement
c. Can be a form of empowerment
1. Career advancement, understanding communication is a key resource
2. Career advancement, being able to speak to groups is a key asset.
3. Understanding and using Communication will lead to improvement in:
a. Grades, Academics
b. Success (Money and otherwise)
c. Understanding others and the world around you
d. Marketing and being marketed or sold to
e. Civic Responsibility (more later)
a. Organizing thoughts
b. Tailoring message to the audience
c. Response to and adapting to feedback
d. Seeking Maximum Impact
5. Differences from one on one interpersonal communication
a. Public Speaking is structured
b. Public Speaking requires more formal language
1. Appropriate to audience
2. Best to communicate complete concepts and ideas
3. You are being judged by listeners
4. Your ethos is directly involved in communication (more later)
D. History and players in public speaking (see text)
E. Similarities between public speaking and everyday conversation
1. Thoughts are organized, logically, emotionally or culturally
2. Structured with a need to engage, reengage and motivate
3. Time, environment, group interaction and relationships come into play
4. Message is tailored to the audience
5. Message is situational and fixed in a time or place
6. Message is meant and designed for maximum impact
7. Messages adapts to feedback
8. All parties leave changed in one way or another by the interaction
F. Public Speaking requires a different method of delivery
1. Language use
2. Structures or Designs
3. Goals and Expected Outcomes
4. Time limits or frames are vital
5. Feedback is usually not in the form of interruptions, but non-verbal in nature
6. Effective speakers develop their own method of delivery, avoiding distractions, being too informal or too formal (dependant on situation), avoiding distracting mannerisms and verbal habits…
G. Dealing with Nerves
1. Prepare, prepare, prepare
2. Practice, practice, practice
3. Think Positive
4. Use the Power of Visualization
5. Understand that nervousness is normal
6. All professionals, experienced speakers and actors, feel some form of stage fright or nerves, and learn to use them to their advantage or for their character persona.
7. Understand how to compensate for and cover your nerves
8. Do not expect perfection
9. Acquire speaking experience
10. It’s only a Speech, no the end of the world!
H. Methods to deal with nerves
1. Realize it is normal
2. Realize it happens to everyone
3. Realize that this is only a speech, a minor part of your life
4. Gain experience where you can
5. Be prepared and in the right frame of mind
d. Self confidence
g. Think Positive
h. Be well rested
i. Use physical exercise if it works for you
j. Breathing exercises are used by many speakers prior to a speech
k. Be confident about your introduction and conclusion
l. Forget the past and keep moving forward
m. Focus on the end goal, result, point
n. Repeat if needed, as repetition is normal
o. Be ware that what you see and feel is not the same as the audience
p. Realize that unlike written words, speech does not remain, so your mistakes and much of what you say will be gone and over, leaving only your overall point and the impact of your speech
q. Make eye contact
r. Use presentation aids (often called visual aids)
s. Understand learning styles and their use
t. Concentrate on the message, on communicating with your audience, and not yourself or your nerves or words you had planned to say. The message is what is important.
I. Listening and Critical Thinking
a. Adults listen 50% or less
b. Teenagers listen 25% or less
c. Listening is a voluntary active process, it is psychological
d. Hearing is physiological
e. You can learn to listen
f. Studies show that those who practice listening skills are less likely to develop memory loss in any form
g. Studies show that those who practice listening skills get better grades, higher pay and achieve their goals more often than those who do not.
h. Critical thinking requires active listening
i. Critical thinking involves being able to access the strengths and weaknesses of an argument
j. Critical thinking involves being able to distinguish between the fact, theory and opinions of an argument
k. Critical thinking allows for thinking outside of the box
l. Critical thinking allows for compromise and growth
m. Critical thinking involves being able to judge the credibility of sources
n. Critical thinking requires accessing the quality of evidence
o. Critical thinking involves discerning relationships between ideas
p. Critical thinking involves priorities on what to remember and in what context
q. Critical thinking allows for fewer mistakes and reduces trial and error in everyday life
r. Critical thinking DOES NOT MEAN NEGATIVE THINKING!
s. Critical thinking is a normal process that requires practice and reinforcement
t. Critical thinking is an active process
J. The Communication Process
1. Speaker/ Sender/ Transmitter
a. The source of the message
b. Requires technical skills
c. Requires enthusiasm and active stimulation
d. Involves intent
e. Requires understanding the Receiver
f. Requires decisions on how to send message
g. Requires knowledge, processing preparation and understanding
2. Channel/ media
a. How the message is sent
b. Tolls used to send message
c. Media or Medium utilized in encoding and decoding message
d. Means by which the message is communicated
e. One of more channels may be used
f. May involve technical support or intervention
g. Could be as simple as eye contact
a. Whatever is being communicated
b. Intended and unintended messages can be transmitted
c. Verbal and non-verbal transmissions
d. May or may not be interpreted properly by receiver
4. Listener/ Receiver/ Audience
a. Every message is filtered through the listeners frame of reference
b. Listeners frame of reference is the sum total of their experiences, goal, knowledge, values, attitudes and beliefs.
c. No source and receiver have the exact frame of reference
d. A message and its transmission must be adapted to the audience
e. Noise gets in the way of the communication
a. Message sent by listener to the speaker, receiver to the transmitter
b. The receiver becomes the transmitter
c. The transmitter become the receiver
d. Because all communication is transactional (involving a transaction of information, feelings or ideas) feedback operates under the same principals and rules as the original transmission and channel
e. Feedback may be immediate or delayed
f. Noise/ Screens/ Filter interfere with both the original transmission and the feedback
g. Successful speakers adjust their message based on careful studied reception of feedback
6. Interference/ Screens/ Noise / Filters
a. Anything that impeded the communication of a message
b. Can be internal or external
c. May also involve internal and external cultural filters
d. External comes from outside, physical or psychological, of the speaker or listener
e. Internal involves anything, physical or psychological, involving what is inside the sender or receiver, speaker or listener.
f. External may be noise, lighting, major events, size or shape of room, sound, temperature, other speakers and so forth
g. Internal may be poor listening skills, lack of concentration, the other 50-% of what is going on in your brain, physical ailments or disabilities, fatigue and so forth.
h. Successful speakers overcome interference in a wide range of ways, numerous times during their message
a. Selecting symbols to communicate a message
b. Determining how to transmit the message
c. Combination of verbal, vocal, visual and other
d. Anticipating the receiver
a. Understanding symbols uses to communicate a message
b. Understanding the intent of the message
c. Understanding and translating verbal, visual and other codes
d. Anticipating the intent of the sender
a. How a message is encoded
b. Verbal are the words used, the vocabulary
c. Vocal is how the words are said or transmitted, vocal tones, inflections, etc.
d. Visual is everything else, all sight, sound, smell, tactile touch, etc.
a. Ethos - credibility, real and perceived
b. Logos – logic, common pattern of thought to a group
c. Pathos – emotional appeals
d. Mythos – myths, common stories and shorthand by culture
a. Explains an individual, group, audience, market or culture
d. Gender or sex
e. Psychographic (anything else you can put a number to
a. The experiences and background of an individual, group, audience, market or culture
b. The common communication short hands of a group
c. The common beliefs or ideas of a group
d. May be geographic, biological, psychological, sociological, etc.
13. Semantics -language
14. Transactional – two way involving passing of information, community, feeling or idea
a. Time, place and circumstances of communication
b. Reason for communication
c. Environment of communication
d. Methods of communication
16. Negotiated Meaning- determining common ground on what a concept, idea, thought or object means
1. Understanding Diversity
2. How Diversity impacts Messages
a. The tendency of a group to believe that its way of thinking, doing things or culture is somehow better or superior to anyone else’s.
b. Does not mean others are not respected or valid
c. Ours is better, our way is right
d. Nationalism. Religious evangelism. Democracy, Etc.
e. Can play a positive role in creating group pride
f. Can play a negative role in creating perception of being superior
g. Can lead to positive growth or to prejudice and hostility
4. Bias, Prejudice, Stereotype (see earlier in outline and also end of this weeks notes)
a. Bias is a tendency to feel one way or another about a person, place, object or idea. It is can usually be easily changed and may change by circumstance or environment
b. Prejudice is a strong culturally entrenched bias. It is not easily changed.
c. Stereotype is a bias that is used as a communication shorthand to quickly make judgments or understand and image or event. It is normal and may be prejudicial (difficult to change), situational or simple bias in its base. Television, film, commercials, first impressions all use stereotyping.
d. All bias, prejudices and stereotypes are value neutral; they may be good or bad based on the individual, situation, environment or circumstances of an event (communication).
e. Avoid prejudice in public speaking as it can create noise/filters/screens
5. Be aware and sensitive to today’s multi-cultural world
6. Be aware that thoughts, ideas, interpretations, mores, morals, ethics and attitudes are directly effected by culture and enculturalization
7. See the text. The subject is or can be highly controversial.
L. Other Key Terms
1. Stage Fright
3. Positive nervousness
6. Frame of Reference
Intro into basic course concepts
M. Communication Model
- Intent of Transmitter,
- What was meant to be communicated
3. Medium. Media
4. Message, intended message
7. T2 (not Arnold!)
- Words, actual language, vocabulary
- How you say the words, voice, inflection, etc.
d. - Everything else, see, hear, smell, touch, etc.
- How we prove and argument, why we believe things
f. Ethos, Credibility, Power, Likeability, Trust, Source, Expertise, Position
g. Logos, Logic (some variance by culture)
h. Pathos, Emotion, Emotional Appeal
i. Mythos, Cultural, Cultural shorthand, David v. Goliath, Patriotism. Flag, etc.
12. Screens, Noise, Filters, Interference, anything that gets in the way of the message
13. Internal Screens,
- Whatever happens inside your mind or body to interfere with understanding the message as intended, or to interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood
- Internal noise is what is occurring inside the transmitter or receiver. For example an event earlier in the day or in the life of the individual could change the way they interpret or send signals. Physical, psychological, cognitive forms of interference may impact how message is encoded or decoded, interpreted or received. Disabilities, health, fatigue, hunger, external events impact on how you feel or think, and unrelated thoughts are examples of internal noise.
14. External Screens
- Whatever happens outside of your mind or body to interfere with understanding the message as intended, or to interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood.
- External noise is what occurred outside of the sender or receive. This could include sound, smell, lighting, temperature, time of day, events occurring at the same time as the message, other messages conflicting or concurrent with the intended message, environment, etc.
15. Cultural Screens
- Differences in culture (including Demographic, Psychographic differences) that interferes with understanding the message as intended.
- Differences in culture interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood.
- Cultural noise comes from the self-identity, backgrounds, beliefs and culture of the sender and/or the receiver.
- Messages can have differing meanings. Protocol, prolific, etc.
16. Semantic Noise, not understanding the words, not understanding the language
- Not one of the three forms of screens or noise, because semantic can cross internal, external and cultural boundaries and it simply means tat symbols (usually words) are not being transmitted or interpreted the same between parties in the communication transaction,
17. Demographics as way of understanding yourself and your audience
b. Gender (Sex)
c. Psychographics and Culture