Donate Today! Help us help others.

Lynch Coaching

Translate

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Unit 2 Notes

COM 101 Unit 2
Art Lynch



These note supplement the lecture, other handouts and the textbook. They do not replace either.

Please send your lecture and text notes for other students to benefit from, add to, or respond to under the “notes” portion of discussion.

There will be repetition in the notes, lecture and textbook. If you are the type turned off by repetition, keep in mind that many students learn from multiple exposures from multiple sources. If you can take advantage of the repetition to become as close to an expert on the topics discusses as you can in a one semester 101 classroom. You will not regret it.

Use the links on Angel, your own Internet and reading exploration, trial and error and the experience and knowledge of your fellow students to grow and excel in this course, and in future courses.

All students must post an introduction on Angel using course mail.

Click on "read more" below for a review of materials from the first few weeks of class.


Selecting Topics well in advance- be willing to change
Picking the correct topic for each speech

College Appropriate Topics and/or level of insight and research

What’s in it for me: WIIFM
What’s in it for me, from the audience’s perspective.

Identify your audience and let them know why they should listen
Respond to your audience, transactional, two-way communication
Be open to the views, opinions perceptions and backgrounds of others
(If only to be able to communicate your views or ideas effectively)



Use of text.
Read prior to class scheduled
Do the video and question exercises (my e-mail is Createcom@mac.com)
Read again after lecture
Read prior to midterm
Review while preparing for each speech
Much of text not lectured on, but will be used in exams
And application must be shown in speeches.
Student must review terms at start of each chapter
And
Vocabulary list found on Angel
Do review PowerPoint chapter summaries.


“Tips for success in this course”….
Attendance
Attitude
Complete all Assigned Readings On Time
Class (and Angel) participation
Invest time on speech development
Practice your speech
Review Feedback
Talk about what you know, but support it with sources
Begin Introduction or Storytelling Speeches
Understand the Communication Model and its elements
Understand the Codes- verbal, visual, vocal
Understand the Aristotelian Proofs- Ethos, Logos, Pathos, Mythos
Understand Cicero (Chapter 1 in text) and the Five Arts.
Understand Listening, compromise, understanding, questioning
Use the Angel to its maximum to help you understand concepts and apply them
Read Angel and the text
Do outside research on concepts you may no full understand or which interests you


I. Get to know and use the “Read It, Watch It, Use It, and Review It system set up and recommended by the text. My e-mail is Createcom@gmail.com or Createcom@mac.com.

II. Listening is the important part of communication

III. Public Speaking helps in a wide range of environments, areas of your lives and in the overall health of society.

IV. Ethics: We influence others whenever we speak. We have an ethical responsibility to tell the truth, not deliberately mislead, to fight against polarization and work toward open communication and cooperation.

V. Types of Outlines

A. Working: What you put together as you research and develop your speech (page 25 in text)
B. Complete Sentence or Full Outline shows all of your research, even material you do not use in your speech. Must show references where they are used and at the end of the outline in APA format.
C. Presentation Outline used in rehearsing and delivering the speech. Eventually shortened to a keynote, thumbnail or single point outline, which is then transferred to note cards and may be used during your extemporaneous speech.

VI. Tolerance for dissent (how does this apply in today’s health care, war and other debates and are all sides tolerant?)



VII. Bias
A. Bias – the tendency to feel one way or another about anything. Bias changes. May be positive or negative, or neutral in nature. Is a natural state of being and impossible to avoid, but it can be minimized.
1. Prejudice –
a. a subset of prejudice
b. a strong culturally entrenched bias,
c. very difficult to change
d. may be positive or negative
2. Stereotype –
a. communication shorthand that utilizes bias, often reinforced by
Media, community, others
VIII. Truth and Ethics
A. Ethics-
1. The study of human moral conduct
2. Right and wrong in human interaction
B. Absolute Truth- Platonic Truth
Complete and unqualified, truth is objective and without exception. Not open to discussion or interpretation. Black and white. Clear and final.
C. Sophists- Philosophers based loosely on Socrates but who took it to negative lengths by tailoring truth to the audience, patrons, public, paying customers, Many politicians may be Sophists…
D. Relative Truth- Truth is subjective, open to interpretation
E. Aristotelian Truth- Relative Truth, varies by situation and environment, comparative, qualified, open to discussion, not the same for everyone.
F. Dogmatism- Rigidity of Belief. Immovable. Not open to discussion. Religious beliefs are a good and strong example, however Dogmatism is not limited to religion…
G. Narrative Paradigm- Walter Fisher theory for evaluating stories.
1. Narrative Coherence- do stories make sense, do characters act consistently
2. Narrative Fidelity- do stories “ring true”, hit a responsive cord, do we identify



IX. Ethnocentrism- the belief that your cultures, beliefs, ways of doing things are somehow superior to everyone else’s. Does not mean theirs are wrong or have no value, only that yours are better, superior and should supercede all others, Example: US version of Democracy, tolerance in religious beliefs, consumer based society, we are better. We have the best. We are the best. Our way is the right way.

X. Demographics- anything you can put a number to. Identifies tendencies, trends, attitudes, make-up of a group, individual, audience, market or society.
Age- chronological actual age
Gender- Male and female tendencies or psychological (Sex is physiological)
Psychographics
Psychographics- anything else you can put a number to. Group affiliation, income, household income, education level, people in household, visits to fast food, own a car, own a computer, ethnic affiliation, racial identification, church attended and how often, religious affiliation, and so on…
XI. Fear of Speaking
A. Public Speaking is the number two fear of Americans.
B. 85% of Americans have some fear of speaking (others say 100%). 40% of Americans list fear of speaking as number one fear
C. State anxiety is uneasiness caused by a situation.
D. Physiological indicators- body, physical, others can see it, impacts internal
E. Psychological indicators- cognitive congestion, brain freeze, mind, thought
F. Negative Self Talk- self-defeating talk, self-defeating prophesy
G. Cognitive Restructuring- it’s only a class, changing the way you think, think positive
H. Self-fulfilling Prophecy- what you will is likely to happen…



XII. Academic Sources – Scholarly Sources
Scholarly (another way of putting it)
Juried
University Press
Academic Journals
New York Times, Wall Street Journal
Primary – an expert in field or someone who has expertise and experience
Or material written historically recording events, feelings or trends
Or raw statistics gathered in an acceptable academic mathematical manner

XIII. Delivery…

A. A speaker should have something to say and know how they are going to present or say it.
B. Good delivery is an art
1. It conveys a speakers message clearly
2. Interestingly
3. Without distractions
4. And successfully
5. Most audience prefer delivery that combines a certain degree of formality with the best attributes of good conversation
a. Directness
b. Vocal expressiveness
c. Facial expressiveness
d. A lively sense of communication
e. Being open to feedback and responsive
C. Good Delivery means
1. It is understood by the audience
2. Does not call attention to itself
3. Conveys the speakers ideas,
4. Does not mean you shout, over do language, show off
5. Does not mean you are an orator (although that is a form of delivery)
6. Does not mean you memorize or read the material
7. Is transactional, two way
8. Is extemporaneous in nature
9. Communicates
10. Avoids distractions, includes eye contact, is open to feedback, is understood, communicates the message to the target audience
D. Good Delivery and goals of the Chapter
1. Good delivery is important for successful communication
2. Good Delivery raises you ethos and therefore your potential power and influence
3. Understand the major characteristics of effective speech delivery
4. Identify four methods of delivering a speech
5. Explain the eight aspects of voice usage that are critical to public speaking
6. Discuss the four aspects of physical action that are most important to a public speaker
7. Explain the five step method for practicing extemporaneous speech delivery
8. Identify the two stages in preparing for a question and answer session
9. Explain the six things a speaker should keep in mind when responding to questions
10. Good Delivery is an art, craft and skill. Learn the tools and then give them the best of what it you, your own personality and approach.
E. Nonverbal communication
1. Is based on what is not said, but seen or heard
2. Is based on a person’s use of voice and body
3. Is not based on the words
F. Manuscript
1. A speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience
2. Best used in situation that require absolute accuracy of wording
3. Often sounds more formal and less spoken language in content
4. Can be stilted
5. Does not respond to feedback
6. Does not adapt to the audience
7. Runs risk of losing place and getting lost in content presentation
8. Is one way, initially, therefore not as transactional
9. There are times messages must be delivered word for word
10. Timing, pace, inflection are critical in reading a manuscript out loud
11. Written message must be strong and easy to understand without the speaker
12. Required a profession to make it sound conversational rather than dictation
13. Practice eye contact, use a teleprompter (if available), sound natural and conversational
14. Steps in preparation for reading a manuscript out loud
a. Rehearse out loud until it sounds natural
b. Rehearse until you are able to make as much eye contact as possible
c. Make sure the final copy of the manuscript is legible at a glance
d. Talk with the audience rather than to them
e. As conversational as possible, given fixed wording.
G. Memorization
1. Requires great acting or oratorical skills
2. May not sound natural and conversational
3. Risk of losing place or forgetting content
4. Remember eye contact
5. Requires skill at recovery if mistakes are made
6. Required memorization and practice time
7. Best for very short speeches and statements
8. Can be incorporated into a manuscript, extemporaneous or impromptu delivery to make that delivery stronger (memorize key parts or quotes)
H. Impromptu
1. A speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation
2. A speech presented without notes or with notes jotted down just prior to speech
3. Requires focus on topic and content that is familiar to the speaker
4. Requires strong personal ethos
5. Does not have to be perfect, in fact works better if seems “off the cuff”
6. Key Simple steps
a. State your point or the point you are responding to
b. State the point you wish to make
c. Support your point
1. Statistics
2. Examples
3. Testimony
4. Use one or more of the proofs
5. Other
d. Summarize your point
6. You may use a quick thumbnail or key point presentation outline, and quick notes
7. Ethos is strongest if you do it without notes
e. Judge the formality of the occasion and act accordingly
f. Maintain eye contact
1. Direct, look at each or a good sample of audience members
2. Distributed, cover the audience
3. Sustained, 2 or more seconds per eye contact, some sources say half second or more
4. Maintain contact with someone at least 80% of the time
5. Do not look over their heads or stare into space
g. We all do impromptu speeches in every day interpersonal contact
h. You may use a quick outline to keep you on track
i. Keep aware of time allotted, usually shorter is better on impromptu
j. Try to remain calm and conversational, control your nerves
k. Concentrate on a clear deliberate pace, easy for audience to follow and understand
l. Use signposts such as “first”, “next’, ‘Second’, ‘finally’, ‘in review’, etc.
I. Extemporaneous Speaking
1. Method to be used in this course for all but the “impromptu” speech
2. “Without notes” *but some are usually allowed
3. A carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes.
4. Conversational Quality
a. Presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous, no matter how many times it has been rehearsed or presented.
5. Is responsive to direct audience feedback
6. Is responsive to changes in environment, technical changes and other unforeseen or observed on the spot events and influences
7. Can be adapted to situations, while still following a basic structure and making key reorganized points
8. Adaptable to a wide range of situations and circumstances
9. Should sound spontaneous
10. Not memorized, read, or made up on the spot (exceptions for short periods)
11. Prepared ahead of time
12. Greater structure and control than Impromptu
13. Greater flexibility than Manuscript
14. Do no appear to use notes (some possible)
15. Can mean “without notes”
16. Use signposts as a roadmap to assist audience in following your speech (remember that most people do not listen all the time and miss at least 50% of what you are saying, so repetition and signposts are needed.)
17. Exact words are chosen at the time of speech
18. Some key words or expressions may be remembered and used
19. Is structured for audience to follow and remember
20. Review the five-step method for practicing extemporaneous delivery, found in the textbook.
XIV. Chapter 12, The Speakers Voice
A. Your voice is unique, do not try to be someone else
B. You can control and manipulate certain vocal qualities to increase the potential for successful communication, influence or to overcome any deficiencies
C. It is a tool and not a wall or obstacle
D. Volume
1. The loudness or softness of a speaker’s voice
2. Microphones and other technology have changed value of loud voice
3. Projection good in larger rooms if not amplified by acoustics or microphones
4. Keep in mind that you need to be heard, understood and that vocal qualities can impact or effect people’s perceptions of you and your message.
5. Too soft is not heard or taken as uncertainty and lack of commitment
6. Too loud can be taken as boorish or too “in your face”
E. Pitch
1. The highness or lowness of a speaker’s voice
2. Effective speakers vary their pitch to create interests, convey importance, convey meaning, or to spur or generate emotional response (Pathos).
3. Pitch can affect the meaning of words or sounds
4. Inflections are changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker’s voice
5. Inflections can communicate emotion, importance, relevance or reliability
6. Inflections impact and reflect emotions
7. Monotone is the use of a constant pitch or tone of voice.
F. Rate
1. The speed at which a person speaks
2. US average is 125 to 150 words per minute
3. Too fast ad meaning is lost
4. Too slow and audience may be bored
5. Depends on the words and dynamics of the speaker
6. Best rate depends on
a. Vocal attributes of the speaker
b. Mood he or she is trying to create
c. Composition of the audience
d. Context of particular point being made
e. The nature of the occasion
7. Avoid racing, slow down but do not drag
8. Observe other speakers, particularly professionals, to understand and develop a sense of when and how to use rate variation and pauses.
G. Pause
1. A momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech.
2. Can be used to signal the end of a thought, to give an idea time to sink in, to give the audience time to react, or to lend dramatic impact to a statement
3. Pauses should be used to
a. Emphasizes points
b. Allow a point to sink in
c. For dramatic effect
d. To allow time for laughter or anticipated response
e. Indicate a transition
f. Allow the audience to catch up
g. Look for non verbal feedback
4. Pauses are tied to the timing of the speech
5. Pauses can make or break a well orchestrated speech
6. A vocalized pause is a pause that occur when a speaker fills the silence between n worlds with vocalized fillers like “uh”, “um”, “like”, “err”, “f—k”, etc.
H. Vocal Variety
1. Changes or modulations in a speakers rate, pitch, timing, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness.
2. Be conversational, very few people lack variety in conversation
3. Know your main points and be sure you emphasize them
4. Speakers who possess strong vocal variety come across as lively, dynamic and communicative.
5. Speakers who lack vocal variety come across as flat, dull and uncommunicative.
6. Try vocal exercises in the text book for practice
I. Pronunciation
1. Errors will erode a speaker’s ethos
2. Use alternative words if correct pronunciation is not an option
3. Always ask or check to make sure you have words correctly, as a wrong decision could impact your ethos
4. Pronunciation is the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language
5. Be aware of regional or cultural differences
6. Nevada, Chicago examples
J. Articulation
1. The physical production of particular speech sounds
2. Work on making your sounds clear enough to be understood without bias, prejudice or physical interference
3. Audience must be considered in dealing with articulation
4. How crisply and distinctly we form particular speech sounds
5. Some problems come from physical deformities and can be compensated for no corrected without medical intervention
6. Most errors are caused by laziness, failing to concentrate on forming the words and phrases correctly
K. Dialect
1. Dialects are:
a. Accents,
b. Grammatical patterns,
c. Vocabulary distinctive to particular races or regions
d. Learned behavior
2. A variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary
3. Cultural in nature
4. Pen, soda, ask, etc.
5. No dialect is inherently better or worse than any other
6. However common communication requires minimizing distractions or barriers
7. Audience consideration must be made to minimize dialectic distractions
8. Actors are coached how to simulate but not duplicate a dialect, so that audiences who are not familiar to listening to that dialect can still understand what they are saying.
9. Be yourself, but be aware of compensation you need to make for your audience to follow and understand you

IX. The Speakers Body
A. Poise- stature, grade, attitude, perceived dignity and integrity, perceived interests. Appearance- visual appearance, clothing, reflects how much you care or do not care. Enthusiasm- select topic you care about, you know about, care…

B. Kinesics- The4 study of body motions as systematic move of communication.
C. Posture, facial expression, gestures, eye contact, clothing, hygiene all impact the audience’s ability to receive, believe and respond to a message
D. Non-verbal can carry greater weight and greater Ethos than words or speaking voice
E. Personal Appearance
ii. You are seen before and during your presentation
iii. Bias, stereotype and prejudice are often visual based
iv. Appropriate for topic
v. Show respect for audience
vi. Be yourself, but remember the above do apply
vii. Evoke a favorable first impression
viii. Know your audience
ix. Know the situation
F. Gestures
x. Motions of a speakers hands or arms during a speech
xi. Be natural, but do not distract from content and message
xii. Use gestures to emphasize points, transitions, concepts
xiii. Gestures should not draw attention to themselves and away from the speech and the message of the speech
xiv. Appear natural and spontaneous
xv. Help to clarify and reinforce your ideas
xvi. Be suited to the audience and the situation

G. Eye Contact
1. Eye Contact is direct visual contact with the eyes of another person
2. Should be
a. Direct- looking into the eyes of intervals in the audience
b. Deliberate-
c. Distributed- cover the overall area of the audience, if not every individual
d. Sustained- at least a half second (2 or 3 suggested) at a time
e. 80% or more of the time
f. Appropriate and contextual
3. Strong non-verbal communication
4. “The Windows of the Soul” principle
a. Audiences look into a speaker’s eyes for clues about the speaker’s truthfulness, intelligence, confidence, feelings and ethos
b. Attitude is often communicated by the eyes
c. Differing cultures look for differing clues, so a knowledge of the culture of those being addressed is important for proper interpretation and protocol
5. Rules vary by culture, protocol, situation
6. Not just looking at audience, but how you look at them
7. Eye Contacts helps
a. Capture and maintain an audience’s attention
b. Establish speaker credibility / ethos
c. Allows speakers to see and respond to feedback

XV. Practicing Delivery
A. See the text and try the system presented
B. Be flexible as content, environment, audience all change
C. Do not self analyze as you go along, just relax!
D. Always practice out loud
E. Always practice with your notes (giving them ups as you no longer need them)
F. Always use some form of short presentation, thumbnail or key note outline
G. Finally use only the outline
H. Ideally you will no longer need notes or outlines, or simply a minimum
I. Polish and refine the delivery using friends, family, mirror (not recommended) or video. Do not be over self-critical!
J. Dress rehearsal as close to the conditions of the actual event as possible
K. Double-check all visuals, notes and tools
L. Start your work early, be prepared well in advance.
M. Understand the material to the best of your ability
N. Care about the topic and the material, it will show in your speech

XVI. Audience Q&A
A. Read the text section
B. Be prepared for Q&A in every speech
C. Listen in lecture
D. For classroom, avoid being overly formal
E. Contextual in nature
1. Can cause major problems based on your profile
2. Should sound honest, sincere and open
3. Major test of your ethos
4. Relax, tension can be seen by audience and taken as insecurity
F. Remain in control, as the speaker, do not give up control of conversation or situation
G. Prepare answers to anticipated or possible questions
H. Write down possible questions and answers
I. Practice delivering the answers
J. Be flexible
K. Be honest
L. “To the best o my understanding”, “I am not sure of the answer’, ‘From what I have learned” or simply ‘I will look into that and let you know” are acceptable
M. The more you do no know upon questions, the lower your ethos, so do not be shy about answers, just honest.
N. Managing the Q&A is an important skill
1. Do not invite questions during a speech, it will throw you off
2. Do not invite questions unless the event requires it
3. Keep a positive attitude
4. You can use Q&A to clarify questions and reengage the audience
5. If hostility occurs, respond open and honestly but never confront, be defensive or argumentative
6. Realize others have their views and ask that they respect yours
7. Do not get into an argument or fight, simply acknowledge a difference of opinion or feelings.
O. Listening skills are essential for good Q&A, by speaker as well as the audience
P. Answers should be directed to the entire audience and no just the questioner.
Q. Questions should be answered honestly, openly, straightforwardly and in as short a manner as possible (without being abrupt)
R. Keep it on track
1. Best to have one question and one follow-up from any single questioner
2. Best to keep track or question times, and answer times
3. Do not get argumentative and avoid being drawn into an argument
4. When time is running out announce only one or two more questions and then stick to that decision.


XVII. Speaking on Special Occasions
A. Basics
1. Guidelines for effective speeches of
a. Introduction
b. Presentation
c. Acceptance
d. Commemorative
e. After-dinner
f. Informative
g. Persuasive
h. Story Telling
i. All other forms of public speaking
B. Speech Goals
1. Inform or persuade at appropriate events and times
2. Many events do not lend themselves to teaching or persuasion
3. Most speeches are ceremonial, event specific, or to meet other very specific social needs
4. Always keep in mind the audience and why they are there
5. Always keep in mind your role in the ceremony or event
6. Always be respectful of time
7. Always be respectful of other guests
C. Speech of Introduction-
1. A speech that introduces the main speaker to the audience
2. Build enthusiasm for the main speaker
3. Build enthusiasm for the speakers topic
4. Establish a welcoming climate that will boost the speakers Ethos
5. Not a stand-up comedy routine, but jokes may work
6. Be brief
7. Make sure your remarks are accurate. Do not blow anything out of proportions. Do not set unrealistic expectations
8. Adapt to the situation or occasion. Situational to location, event, time, audience.
9. Adapt to the audience and why they are there
10. Adapt remarks to the main speaker. Do not upstage or steal their steam. Be respectful. Often it is best to run comments past the speaker in advance.
11. Try to create a sense of anticipation and drama
D. Speech of Presentation
1. A speech that presents someone a gift, a reward or some other form of public recognition
2. Keep it short
3. Highlight accomplishments
4. If a competition is involved, praise all the competitors (do not make the speaker do this unless they choose to).
5. Depend on audience knowledge and situation of presentation
E. Speech of Acceptance
1. Acceptance speech is a speech that gives thanks for a gift, award, or some other form of public recognition
2. Do not list all the things you did to earn the award
3. Be open, honest and if appropriate, humble
4. Thank those who are honoring you
F. Commemorative Speech
1. A commemorative speech is a speech that pays tribute to a person, group, institution, event or idea.
2. Praise, celebration or remembrance
3. Eulogies, Holidays, Events, dedication are examples
4. Purpose is not to inform but to inspire, move, impact
5. Ethos, Pathos, Mythos are major proofs used
6. Usually avoid advocating or persuasion
7. Language is very important
G. After Dinner Speech
1. An after dinner speech is a speech to entertain that makes a thoughtful point about its subject in a lighthearted manner
2. Is not stand-up comedy (in most cases)
3. Usually not persuasive or argumentative
4. Meant to leave the audience with a thought
5. Meant to leave the audience feeling good about attending
6. Carefully read chapter on these speech types, particularly commemorative and after dinner.

XIII. General Notes and Vocabulary: Start a list of definitions as we advance through the term using the words at the back of each chapter and the following lists and notes).

Arrangement
Audience
Audience-centered communication
Channel
Context
Delivery
Environment
Feedback
Transmitter
Channel
Message
Receiver
Encode
Decode
Noise
Invention
Memory
Narrative
Pervasive Communication Environment
Public Speaking
Rhetoric
Speaker
Style
Communication climate
Copyright
Cultural diversity
Cultural norms
Culture
Dialogue
Ethical communication
Ethnocentrism
Assimilation
External noise
Internal noise
Cultural noise
Fair use
Hate speech
Hearing
Listening
Information overload
Listening anxiety
Monologue
Oral citations
Plagiarism
Acceptance speech / Speech of Acceptance
Aware Presentation
Presentation Speech
Eulogy
Forum
Nominating Speech
Oral report
Panel discussion
Round table discussion
Small group
Speech of introduction
Speech of tribute
Symposium
Videoconferencing


Polarization (example on Angel - Handouts)
Swift Boat
State of the Union
Political Advertising
Car Sales

Bias – the tendency to feel one way or another about anything. Bias changes.
Prejudice – a culturally entrenched bias, very difficult to change
Stereotype – communication shorthand that utilizes bias, often reinforced by
Media, community, others

South Pacific Example

-ism’s

Ethnocentrism- the belief that your cultures, beliefs, ways of doing things are somehow superior to everyone else’s. Does not mean theirs are wrong or have no value, only that yours are better, superior and should supercede all others, Example: US version of Democracy, tolerance in religious beliefs, consumer based society, we are better. We have the best. We are the best. Our way is the right way.

Exploring the world
Why
BBC
NPR
New York Times
Wall Street Journal
AP
Internet radio
Internet web search
Myspace (not private)
Multiple-sourcing
Balanced sourcing
Academic sourcing

Academic Sources –
Scholarly (another way of putting it)
Juried
University Press
Academic Journals
New York Times, Wall Street Journal
Primary – an expert in field or someone who has expertise and experience
Or material written historically recording events, feelings or trends
Or raw statistics gathered in an acceptable academic mathematical manner

Demographics- anything you can put a number to. Identifies tendencies, trends, attitudes, make-up of a group, individual, audience, market or society.
Age- chronological actual age
Gender- Male and female tendencies or psychological (Sex is physiological)
Psychographics
Psychographics- anything else you can put a number to. Group affiliation, income, household income, education level, people in household, visits to fast food, own a car, own a computer, ethnic affiliation, racial identification, church attended and how often, religious affiliation, and so on…

Middle Class example
Poverty Example
Understanding Noise, Screens, Filters

Understanding application of Demographics
State of the Union Address
Kennedy Debates
47 in Education example
Swift Boat Demographic

Differences between speech and written English
Contractions
First person
Order of situation
Repetition
Sourcing

Communication Anxiety (students responsible for chapter)
Key points on Communication Anxiety:
Cognitive Restructuring

Speech Delivery
Memorized
Manuscript
Impromptu
Extemporariness

Conversational
Television Talk and News Generation

Eye Contact (introduce)
Page 126 pointers

Distributed- cover all regions
Direct- eye contact must be made
Sustained-
Dominant (80% of the time or more)

Anchor points: friendly faces in audience, one per “region”

Extemp is without notes, but for the class notes are allowed
Page 119 shows how to boil down to just keynote/thumbnail/delivery notes

Principles of note cards (Page 120)
Short
Minimum
Maximum is thumbnail or presentation
Exact Quotes or stats (if not memorized)
Lose them, as you no longer need them
FLASH CARD principle

Middle or short time in rehearsing
Watch clock to make sure within time length
Do not let watching time length keep you from quality…rehearse to assure quality!

Gestures and Posture. Movement.
Do not take from message, compliment it.
Page 124-125 has some hints

Facial Expressions
Vocal Quality
Contractions

Poise- stature, grade, attitude, perceived dignity and integrity, perceived interests
Appearance- visual appearance, clothing, reflects how much you care or do not care
Enthusiasm- select topic you care about, you know about, care…

Public Speaking is the number two fear of Americans.
85% of Americans have some fear of speaking (others say 100%)
40% of Americans list fear of speaking as number one fear

Americans listen 50% or less (teenagers 25% or less)
Listening is a skill that must be developed, practiced, learned and used.

State anxiety is uneasiness caused by a situation.
Physiological indicators- body, physical, others can see it, impacts internal
Psychological indicators- cognitive congestion, brain freeze, mind, thought
Negative Self Talk- self-defeating talk, self-defeating prophesy
Cognitive Restructuring- it’s only a class, changing the way you think, think positive
Self-fulfilling Prophecy- what you will is likely to happen…

Narrative Paradigm- Walter Fisher theory for evaluating stories.
Narrative Coherence- do stories make sense, do characters act consistently

Narrative Fidelity- do stories “ring true”, hit a responsive cord, do we identify

Ethics
The study of human moral conduct
Right and wrong in human interaction

Absolute Truth- Platonic Truth
Complete and unqualified, truth is objective and without exception. Not open to discussion or interpretation. Black and white. Clear and final.

Sophists- Philosophers based loosely on Socrates but who took it to negative lengths by tailoring truth to the audience, patrons, public, paying customers, Many politicians may be Sophists…

Relative Truth- Truth is subjective, open to interpretation

Aristotelian Truth- Relative Truth, varies by situation and environment, comparative, qualified, open to discussion, not the same for everyone.

Dogmatism- Rigidity of Belief. Immovable. Not open to discussion. Religious beliefs are a good and strong example, however Dogmatism is not limited to religion…

Communication
Negotiation of Meaning
Transactional Model of Communication
Sender Intent
Receiver Intent
Symbol System
Channel
Communication Setting

State Anxiety
Physiological Indicators
Psychological Indicators
Negative Self-Talk
Self-Pressuring
Self-Criticism
Catastropizing
Cognitive Restructuring
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Coping Statements
Visualization

Illusion of Transparency
Relabeling
Speech Anxiety
Spotlight Effect
Technophobia
Visualization


Presentation Setting
Physical Environment
Social Themes
Day One Study Terms


Communication
Stereotype
Bias
Prejudice
Transmitter
Sender
Medium
Media
Channel
Receiver
Feedback
Screens
Filters
Noise
Interference
Internal Screens
External Screens
Cultural Screens
Bell Curve
Demographics
Psychographics
Gender
Negotiation of Meaning
Transaction
Intent
Encoding
Decoding
Codes
Verbal
Visual
Vocal
Proofs
Ethos
Pathos
Logos
Mythos

Setting
Environment
Ethnocentrism
Denotative
Connotative
Trigger Words
World Wide Web
URL
Search Engines
e-mail use
junk mail
subject line
APA
MLA
Chicago style
Visual Aids
Reading speech
Memorizing speech
Extemporaneous
Impromptu
Presentations
Introduction Speech
Acceptance Speech
After Diner Speech
Roast
Special Event Speaking
Tribute Speaking
Informative
Persuasive
Demonstration
Thumbnail
Key Word Outline
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
Political Correctness
Citizenship
Civic Responsibility

Social Roles and Relationships
Memorized Speeches
Manuscripts
Impromptu Speaking
Extemporaneous Speaking
Conversational Style
De4livery Notes
Working Outline
Keyword Approach
Principles of Note Cards
Card or Page Limit
Rehearsal Schedule
Gestures
Posture and Movement
Eye Contact
Anchor Points
Facial Expressions
Vocal Quality
Contractions
Appearance3
Demeanor
Poise
Appearance
Enthusiasm

Narrative Paradigm
Narrative Fidelity
Narrative Coherence
Story Conflict
Story Climax
Story Resolution

WIIFM, What’s in it for me?

Special Occasion Speeches
Speech of Introduction
Speech of Presentation
Speech of Acceptance
After Dinner Speaking

APA Style
MLA Style
Footnotes
References/Bibliography

Outlining
Sourcing
Narrative (two definitions)

No comments: