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Friday, May 19, 2017

Public Speaking: Getting Started

Do not print this unless you really feel you need to. Read it first on-line to help prepare for and understand course material and assignments. 

For week # 1…(Ignore chapters as they refer to a previous edition of a specific text book and may not be the testable material for any given class. This is a guideline and for additional information, not required material for any single course.)

Prepare your first speech.

Take notes in class or if you are not a note taker, refer to the following document.

Education is repetition, delivered for a variety of learning styles and needs.

Unit notes will include repetition and redundancy within them, often expanding or explaining in different ways as they progress.

You should consider that in an oral presentation you may need to repeat concepts in different ways, reinforce concepts at different places within the speech, and summarize things you may already have said.

Do not be afraid of repeating yourself, or of the frequent repetition you may find in these unit notes. Education is repetition. We learn by repeat exposure (and my helping others, so please feel free to form study groups).

These unit notes are provided as an on-line supplement to lecture, text, experience and other course materials. They review, enhance, expand and explain concepts and issues in an outline format that extends beyond the material in the textbook. They are meant to be read, scanned, looked-up or ignored depending on your learning style and what you wish to gain from this course.

The material in these unit notes represent a collection of concepts and explanations from numerous textbooks, the experience of the instructor and answers to questions asked by previous students. This has been assembled to assist you in fully understanding the concepts of the course. Feel free to ask questions, point out corrections or add to this material.

If there is material in these notes not covered in a way you can remember and understand in the text or in lecture, feel free to ask specific questions to the instructor.

These unit notes are provided to assist you with speeches, on the examinations, and in your general understanding of the concepts of the course as you move forward in life. These will assist, however the unit notes do not replace the text.

You will be bombarded with information early in the term. This is to allow you to do better on your speeches and to take the time to reinforce and understand the material when you take the exams, apply the concepts in class and remember them for future course work in other areas of study. The second half of the term will be dominated with your speeches. Believe it or not, most students find themselves enjoying the course long before the end of the semester.

There is a great volume of material in the text, these notes and handouts. In addition you will need to learn to do comprehensive college level research.

This course requires reading, searching, thinking and practicing, if you wish to gain a satisfactory grade and earn the three college credits.

There is a reason this course is required for many majors and most major universities. You need a functional knowledge of communication and public speaking to advance in your education.

Read all the way though, then return to study what you may not understand or need to reinforce from your own perspective.

There is repetition within these notes, as well as within the text and lecture.

Repetition within your speeches may also be a positive force, as education is repetition. Most people require multiple exposures to ideas, concepts, facts, beliefs and information to retain, process and put these concepts to use.

There will be many pages of handouts available. How you use them is up to you. They are there to assist in your success in this course and use of the concepts or your own profit, pleasure and understanding of the world around you, future courses and in interaction with others.

I am here for you.

Art Lynch

Nevada State

Click on "read more" below to continue and to review/read notes.

I.               Assignments
A.    See Syllabus
B.    Study Communication Theory, Anxiety, Delivery, Storytelling, Special Occasions plus notes in class and this Unit One Study Sheet
C.    Post self-introduction on Angel
D.   Familiarize yourself with CSN on-line, Angel, and Internet
E.    Turn in contact and information form
II.             101 Courses Are Foundation for School and Life Success
A.    101 courses are introductions to not only the field, but to college and how to survive and prosper.
B.    You must use the college requirements and learn the methods utilized at your school.
C.    Notes, outlining, references, testing techniques, etc.
D.   Assistance available through student services.
E.    Use of computer, Angel, Word, Internet and so on.
F.    Use of library, outside references, sources, tools.
G.   Basic Research skills for life
H.   Organizing thoughts
I.      Outlining
J.     Presenting your ideas effectively
III.           Lecture Content
A.    Some numbers- current news/info
B.    Bell Curve
C.    Syllabus
D.   Magic T
E.    Code Talkers (Wind Talkers),
F.    Enigma Code,
G.   Knowing what will be on the test(s)
H.   Application of knowledge and information
I.      Private reasons for doing well in course
1.     Grade
2.     Transferable credits
3.     Promoting your professional self
4.     Presenting ideas to decision makers
5.     Becoming a decision maker
6.     Creating change in the workplace and the world
7.     Becoming a functional force in meetings, in society
8.     Developing active listening skills
9.     Thinking outside the box
10.  Overcoming fears
J.     Public reasons for doing well in this course
1.     Your degree
2.     Becoming a critical thinker
3.     Functioning as an informed citizen
4.     Raising the level of public discourse
5.     Promoting ethics and social improvements
K.   Benefits
1.     Benefits include grades,
2.     Success and/or $’s,
3.     Civic duty and responsibility
4.     And personal.
L.    Disclaimers (see instructor)
1.     Drugs and Alcohol prohibited
2.     No pornography
3.     No weapons on campus
4.     No proselytizing if religion used
5.     No showing how to break a law
6.     No advocating overthrow by force of government
7.     No obscenity unless needed
M.  Rules *
1.     Basic rules (see instructor for details and interpretation)
a.     No pornography
b.     No drugs or alcohol in class
c.     No breaking or showing how to break the law
d.     No advocating the violent overthrow of the government
e.     No weapons may taken into the classroom
f.      Avoid unneeded language (see syllabus)
g.     No evangelizing (although Religion is allowed)
h.     No plagiarism
i.      Use of language must be civil and no as an attack against individuals in the class or other than “public eye”
j.      Pay attention to lecture, school policies in any college presented material and general common sense.
k.     No gum or food in class (see instructor)
l.      No children or animals in class (see instructor)
m.   Professional appearance (see instructor)
2.     Push the envelope but keep civil discourse in mind and do not violate the rules above (see instructor for “fine lines”.
3.     Be on time with assignments
4.     Attend all class sessions (see syllabus)
5.     Turn in all written materials before you do your speech
6.     Read text, these notes and ask questions on concepts in the course
7.     Be respectful of the instructors and others in the classroom
8.     The instructor is always right (as long as you are in this class, anyway).

  9.  NO TEXTING, PHONE CALLS, FACEBOOK, etc. while in class. Turn off your phones now. Check them during breaks or after class for messages.

10. No entering the room while anyone other than the instructor is at the front of the room, unless invited to do so. Nothing distracts a novice speaker more than interruptions, including phones ringing, buzzing, vibrating or the noise and light of a door opening and closing or a person crossing to their chair (even when it is right next to the door)

N.   Who are you and whom are you talking or communicating with?
O.   How do you negotiate a meaning through your and the receivers screens/filters/noise?
P.    How do you receive messages?
Q.   How, when and how effectively do you listen to messages?
R.    Caveman and Cave Dog narrative/ example
S.    Public Speaking is the #2 fear of Americans. Death/Heights.
T.    The role of and interaction of the Social Sciences
U.   The digital divide
V.    Use of research
W.  Ethics of speech
X.    Education is repetition
Y.    Informative speeches may persuade
Z.    Persuasive speeches must inform
AA.                  Classical and Contemporary Theories of Rhetoric
BB.                  Practical day to day application and understanding
CC.                  Speaking in the classroom and society
DD.                 Understanding Communication Theory, how it impacts your lives.
EE.             Use Appendix and added CSN Content
FF.            Review preface in your text to prepare yourself on how to use the      text and what is coming this semester
IV.           Components of a Speech Transaction
A.    Situation and Context
B.    Speaker / Transmitter / Source
C.    Channels / Media
D.   Message
E.    Symbols / Semantics
F.    Encode
G.   Decode
H.   Feedback
I.      Noise / Interference / Screens / Filters
J.     Internal Noise
K.   External Noise
L.    Cultural Noise
M.  All three forms of noise are interconnected and interact
N.   Semantic Noise is not one of the three forms of noise, it means the signals or symbols of a transmission are not being understood properly due to outside factors (the other three forms of noise)
O.   The components of a speech transaction occur simultaneously and are interdependent
P.    All communication is transactional, involves a two-way passage of information, emotion, intent.
V.             Intro into basic course concepts
A.    Communication Model
1.     Transmitter,
-                         Intent of Transmitter,
-                         What was meant to be communicated
a.     Sender,
b.     Source
c.     Speaker
2.     Channel,
3.     Medium.  Media
4.     Message, intended message
5.     Receiver,
6.     Listener,
7.     T2 (not Arnold!)
8.     Feedback
9.     Encode
10.  Decode
11.  Codes
a.     Verbal,
-       Words, actual language, vocabulary
b.     Vocal,
-       How you say the words, voice, inflection, etc.
c.     Visual,
d.     -            Everything else, see, hear, smell, touch, etc.
e.     Proofs,
-       How we prove and argument, why we believe things
f.      Ethos, Credibility, Power, Likability, Trust, Source, Expertise, Position
g.     Logos, Logic (some variance by culture)
h.     Pathos, Emotion, Emotional Appeal
i.      Mythos, Cultural, Cultural shorthand, David v. Goliath, Patriotism. Flag, etc.
12.  Screens, Noise, Filters, Interference, anything that gets in the way of the message
13.  Internal Screens,
-       Whatever happens inside your mind or body to interfere with understanding the message as intended, or to interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood
-       Internal noise is what is occurring inside the transmitter or receiver. For example an event earlier in the day or in the life of the individual could change the way they interpret or send signals. Physical, psychological, cognitive forms of interference may impact how message is encoded or decoded, interpreted or received. Disabilities, health, fatigue, hunger, external events impact on how you feel or think, and unrelated thoughts are examples of internal noise.
14.   External Screens
-       Whatever happens outside of your mind or body to interfere with understanding the message as intended, or to interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood.
-       External noise is what occurred outside of the sender or receive. This could include sound, smell, lighting, temperature, time of day, events occurring at the same time as the message, other messages conflicting or concurrent with the intended message, environment, etc.
15.  Cultural Screens
-       Differences in culture (including Demographic, Psychographic differences) that interferes with understanding the message as intended.
-       Differences in culture interfere with transmitting the message in a way that will be understood.
-       Cultural noise comes from the self-identity, backgrounds, beliefs and culture of the sender and/or the receiver.
-       Messages can have differing meanings. Protocol, prolific, etc.
16.  Semantic Noise, not understanding the words, not understanding the language
-       Not one of the three forms of screens or noise, because semantic can cross internal, external and cultural boundaries and it simply means tat symbols (usually words) are not being transmitted or interpreted the same between parties in the communication transaction,
17.  Demographics as way of understanding yourself and your audience
a.     Age
b.     Gender (Sex)
c.     Psychographics and Culture
B.    The Communication Process
1.     Speaker/ Sender/ Transmitter
a.     The source of the message
b.     Requires technical skills
c.     Requires enthusiasm and active stimulation
d.     Involves intent
e.     Requires understanding the Receiver
f.      Requires decisions on how to send message
g.     Requires knowledge, processing preparation and understanding
2.     Channel/ media
a.     How the message is sent
b.     Tolls used to send message
c.     Media or Medium utilized in encoding and decoding message
d.     Means by which the message is communicated
e.     One of more channels may be used
f.      May involve technical support or intervention
g.     Could be as simple as eye contact
3.     Message
a.     Whatever is being communicated
b.     Intended and unintended messages can be transmitted
c.     Verbal and non-verbal transmissions
d.     May or may not be interpreted properly by receiver
4.     Listener/ Receiver/ Audience
a.     Every message is filtered through the listeners frame of reference
b.     Listeners frame of reference is the sum total of their experiences, goal, knowledge, values, attitudes and beliefs.
c.     No source and receiver have the exact frame of reference
d.     A message and its transmission must be adapted to the audience
e.     Noise gets in the way of the communication
5.     Feedback
a.     Message sent by listener to the speaker, receiver to the transmitter
b.     The receiver becomes the transmitter
c.     The transmitter become the receiver
d.     Because all communication is transactional (involving a transaction of information, feelings or ideas) feedback operates under the same principals and rules as the original transmission and channel
e.     Feedback may be immediate or delayed
f.      Noise/ Screens/ Filter interfere with both the original transmission and the feedback
g.     Successful speakers adjust their message based on careful studied reception of feedback
6.     Interference/ Screens/ Noise / Filters
a.     Anything that impeded the communication of a message
b.     Can be internal or external
c.     May also involve internal and external cultural filters
d.     External comes from outside, physical or psychological, of the speaker or listener
e.     Internal involves anything, physical or psychological, involving what is inside the sender or receiver, speaker or listener.
f.      External may be noise, lighting, major events, size or shape of room, sound, temperature, other speakers and so forth
g.     Internal may be poor listening skills, lack of concentration, the other 50-% of what is going on in your brain, physical ailments or disabilities, fatigue and so forth.
h.     Successful speakers overcome interference in a wide range of ways, numerous times during their message
7.     Encode
a.     Selecting symbols to communicate a message
b.     Determining how to transmit the message
c.     Combination of verbal, vocal, visual and other
d.     Anticipating the receiver
8.     Decode
a.     Understanding symbols uses to communicate a message
b.     Understanding the intent of the message
c.     Understanding and translating verbal, visual and other codes
d.     Anticipating the intent of the sender
9.     Codes
a.     How a message is encoded
b.     Verbal are the words used, the vocabulary
c.     Vocal is how the words are said or transmitted, vocal tones, inflections, etc.
d.     Visual is everything else, all sight, sound, smell, tactile touch, etc.
10.  Proofs
a.     Ethos - credibility, real and perceived
b.     Logos – logic, common pattern of thought to a group
c.     Pathos – emotional appeals
d.     Mythos – myths, common stories and shorthand by culture
11.  Demographics
a.     Explains an individual, group, audience, market or culture
b.     Numbers
c.     Age
d.     Gender or sex
e.     Psychographic (anything else you can put a number to
12.  Cultural
a.     The experiences and background of an individual, group, audience, market or culture
b.     The common communication short hands of a group
c.     The common beliefs or ideas of a group
d.     May be geographic, biological, psychological, sociological, etc.
13.  Semantics -language
14.  Transactional – two way involving passing of information, community, feeling or idea
15.  Situational
a.     Time, place and circumstances of communication
b.     Reason for communication
c.     Environment of communication
d.     Methods of communication
16.  Negotiated Meaning- determining common ground on what a concept, idea, thought or object means
C.    Multiculturalism
1.     Understanding Diversity
2.     How Diversity impacts Messages
3.     Ethnocentrism
a.     The tendency of a group to believe that its way of thinking, doing things or culture is somehow better or superior to anyone else’s.
b.     Does not mean others are not respected or valid
c.     Ours is better, our way is right
d.     Nationalism. Religious evangelism. Democracy, Etc.
e.     Can play a positive role in creating group pride
f.      Can play a negative role in creating perception of being superior
g.     Can lead to positive growth or to prejudice and hostility
4.     Bias, Prejudice, Stereotype (see earlier in outline and also end of this weeks notes)
a.     Bias is a tendency to feel one way or another about a person, place, object or idea. It is can usually be easily changed and may change by circumstance or environment
b.     Prejudice is a strong culturally entrenched bias. It is not easily changed.
c.     Stereotype is a bias that is used as a communication shorthand to quickly make judgments or understand and image or event. It is normal and may be prejudicial (difficult to change), situational or simple bias in its base. Television, film, commercials, first impressions all use stereotyping.
d.     All bias, prejudices and stereotypes are value neutral; they may be good or bad based on the individual, situation, environment or circumstances of an event (communication).
e.     Avoid prejudice in public speaking as it can create noise/filters/screens
5.     Be aware and sensitive to today’s multi-cultural world
6.     Be aware that thoughts, ideas, interpretations, mores, morals, ethics and attitudes are directly effected by culture and enculturalization
7.     See the text. The subject is or can be highly controversial.
D.   Other Key Terms
1.     Stage Fright
2.     Adrenaline
3.     Positive nervousness
4.     Visualization
5.     Listener
6.     Frame of Reference
VI.           Transactional Communication,
A.    All communication involves a transaction
B.    Communication is irreversible
C.    Communication is power
D.   We judge people by their communication skills
E.    How we judge varies by culture
F.    The Greeks
a.     Democratic Concepts
b.     Proofs
c.     Codes
d.     Absolute Truth
e.     Relative Truth
f.      Other
G.   Polarization, and how communication can help depolarize
H.   Disclaimers, use of
1.     Rules of CCSN and the course
a.     No weapons, pornography, deliberate attack, drugs or alcohol
b.     Turn off cell phones,
c.     No gum,
d.     No food,
e.     Control your beverages
I.      Cost of Education
J.     Introduction to use of numbers and statistics
VII.         Communication changes over time, environment, culture
1.     Definitions of words change
2.     Understanding gestures changes
3.     Audiences prefer conversational tone
4.     Audiences prefer visual stimulus
5.     Audiences can fact check on-line
6.     Audiences are more questioning and less trusting
7.     Minor mistakes are noticed and remembered more
8.     Speaking may not involve video transmission, mediation, and other factors that may not have been a factor in the past
9.     It is easier for audiences to record or photograph than in the past
10.  Mass media has influenced audience preconceptions
VIII.       Skills
A.    Listening
B.    Being open minded
C.    Understanding why people differ
D.   Bridging the differences
E.    Understanding what influences you
F.    Understanding how to influence others
G.   Research
H.   Outlining
I.      Presentation
J.     Dealing with question and answers
K.   Informing
L.    Persuading
M.  Proper Special Even Speech
N.   Ethics
O.   Understanding cultural diversity
P.    Presenting ideas and information effectively
Q.   Applying multiple skills effectively
IX.           Elements to be Aware of : Opportunities and Challenges
A.    Ethics
1.     The standard of what is right and wrong
2.     A basic moral code which keeps society functioning properly
3.     By sending a message you do impact the knowledge, view, perceptions and actions of others
a.     Do no harm
b.     Be truthful
c.     Be honest
d.     Be aware of your impact on others
4.     Mediated communication ethical challenge
a.     Plagiarism
b.     Impact
c.     Truth or lack of truth in content
d.     Diversity and depth of content
e.     Ability to “pod” or “cocoon”
B.    Critical thinking skills
1.     Assess the validity of information
2.     Used by both speaker and audience
3.     Assess, evaluate, select and use ethically and effectively
4.     Must be open to and consider contrasting information or views
C.    Cultural Sensitivity
1.     Be aware of cultural perspective and sensibility of audience
2.     Be aware of Noise, screens, filters, and situation context
D.   Visual and Presentation Aids
1.     Learn and use software
2.     Lear and use other tools
3.     Be able to use traditional aids
4.     Be aware that audience tolerance of mistake has decreased
5.     Professional in appearance and use
6.     Used at proper times
7.     Used for correct purpose
8.     Grabs attention of audience
9.     Informs, persuades or impacts audience
X.             Contexts of Human Communication
A.    Interpersonal Communication:
1.     Two or more people interacting with each other as unique beings
B.    Group Communication
1.     Three or more people interacting to accomplish a task, reach a shared goal or reach a compromise solution
C.    Organizational Communication
1.     Between or within organization for the objective of achieving common goals
D.   Mass Communication
1.     Originates with a media organization
2.     Transmitted to a large, fairly anonymous and diverse audience
3.     Or transmitted using electronic means to a non-exclusive audience
4.     Or provided (such as in print or outdoor) for selection by a broad range of individuals choosing to receive the message
E.    Public Speaking
1.     An individual speaking or presenting to a group
2.     Speaking or presenting to an audience over which the speaker has minimal control
3.     Speaking or presenting with the intent of informing, entertaining, persuading or in other ways impacting audience members
4.     Speaker has the primary responsibility for content
5.     Time is limited or restricted for presentation
XI.           Public Speaking skills are used everyday
A.    Serves social, political and communal purposes
B.    Informal in
1.     Group meetings,
2.     Classrooms,
3.     Attempts to persuade
4.     Attempts to inform
5.     With strangers, family and friends
6.     As part of civil duty and responsibility
C.    Formally
1. Class presentations
2. Work presentations
3. Community presentations
4. Formal family events
5. Religious or other group events
XII.         Public Speaking: Underlying Need to Speak in Groups
A.    Public Speaking is an evolving art
1.     Style used and expectations vary by audience and event
2.     Listening skills have deteriorated
3.     Attention spans are reduced
4.     Formality is less required than in past
5.     Perception of Ethos has changed
6.     Speakers are expected to use visual aids correctly
7.     Speakers in some situations are expected to entertain
8.     Audiences have access to sources, fact-checking and additional information during and after the speech
9.     Oral Communication is and always has been instantaneous
10.  Oral Communication can be taped, photographed and redistributed easier than in the past
B.    Public Speaking and all Oral Communication remain a basic human interaction
1.     Social
2.     Practical
3.     Communal purposes
C.    Comparison over the ages of ways public speaking has changed (table 1.1)
D.   Developing Multiple Communication Skills
1.     Skills can be used in other areas of life or in other work
2.     Builds Confidence
3.     Helps overcome anxiety
4.     Become better listeners
5.     Research
6.     Oral presentation
7.     Understanding persuasion
8.     Understanding others
9.     Adapt to audiences, situations, context
E.    Patterns of Speech Organization (explained in later lessons)
1.     Chronological
2.     Sequential
3.     Spatial
4.     Categorical
5.     Cause-Effect
6.     Problem-Solution
7.     Others
XIII.       Back to basics. Why learn to speak in groups or in public?
A.    Objectives
1.     Understand the value of a course in public speaking and applications in students life of the communication model
2.     Understand the long tradition of communication studies
3.     Identify the major similarities and differences between public speaking and everyday conversation (interpersonal communication)
4.     Understand that nervousness is normal, and even desirable
5.     Investigate methods of using or controlling nerves, making it work for you as a speaker
6.     Understand the elements of the communication process and how to use them in everyday life
7.     Understand to adapt to and grow stronger from cultural diversity
8.     Understand ethnocentrism, when to use it and how to avoid it
9.     Understand the concepts in the textbook
10.  Understand how to apply all of these concepts to speaking in public
11.  Using the tools for your own self-understanding and advancement.
B.    Public Speaking is vital
1.     Spreading, using and resolving ideas, influence and knowledge
2.     Public speaking touches everyone and every aspect of life
a.     Helps gain success in every aspect of life
b.     Vital as a means of civic engagement
c.     Can be a form of empowerment
C.    Power
1.     Career advancement, understanding communication is a key resource
2.     Career advancement, being able to speak to groups is a key asset.
3.     Understanding and using Communication will lead to improvement in:
a.     Grades, Academics
b.     Success (Money and otherwise)
c.     Understanding others and the world around you
d.     Marketing and being marketed or sold to
e.     Civic Responsibility (more later)
4.     Skills
a.     Organizing thoughts
b.     Tailoring message to the audience
c.     Response to and adapting to feedback
d.     Seeking Maximum Impact
D.   Differences from one on one interpersonal communication
a.     Public Speaking is structured
b.     Public Speaking requires more formal language
1.     Appropriate to audience
2.     Best to communicate complete concepts and ideas
3.     You are being judged by listeners
4.     Your ethos is directly involved in communication (more later)
E.    History and players in public speaking (see text)
F.    Similarities between public speaking and everyday conversation
1.     Thoughts are organized, logically, emotionally or culturally
2.     Structured with a need to engage, reengage and motivate
3.     Time, environment, group interaction and relationships come into play
4.     Message is tailored to the audience
5.     Message is situational and fixed in a time or place
6.     Message is meant and designed for maximum impact
7.     Messages adapts to feedback
8.     All parties leave changed in one way or another by the interaction
G.   Public Speaking requires a different method of delivery
1.     Language use
2.     Structures or Designs
3.     Goals and Expected Outcomes
4.     Time limits or frames are vital
5.     Feedback is usually not in the form of interruptions, but non-verbal in nature
6.     Effective speakers develop their own method of delivery, avoiding distractions, being too informal or too formal (dependant on situation), avoiding distracting mannerisms and verbal habits…
XIV.       Changes over time, location and culture
A.    Listening Skills, Attention Spans vary by time, group, culture
1.     Lincoln Douglas Debates lasted hours, audience of farmers
2.     Billy the Kid was classically educated
3.     1960’s Debates and State of Union watched, listened to
4.     Retention skills diminishing with decline in reading
5.     Multi-Cultural effects (good and bad)
6.     Decline or evolution of vocabulary
7.     Use of verbal, vocal and visual shifts
8.     Various other education research finding
B.    Need for visual aids and entertaining or reengaging audience
1.     Maintain attention and comprehension
2.     Reinforce narrative on multiple levels
3.     Amplify examples
4.     Explain concepts
5.     Use ethos, pathos, logos and/or mythos
6.     Should be geared to audience
C.    Conversational tone
1.     Not the same as conversation
a.     Less colloquial
b.     One way verbal
c.     Slightly above level of audience
d.     Use contractions
e.     Use personal pronouns
f.      Inclusive
2.     Similar to conversation
a.     Vocabulary at audience level or explained
b.     Use of repetition to reinforce, explain
c.     Adapts to feedback from audience
d.     Gives impression of one-on-one conversation
e.     Eye contact (explained elsewhere in course)
D.   TV impact on public speaking
1.     Appear to be talking to each viewer individually
2.     Not cemented to podium
3.     Use of gestures
4.     Eye contact
5.     Jerry Springer, Jay Leno
6.     George Carlin, stadium, TV studio
E.    Internet impact on public speaking
1.     Immediacy expected
2.     Current information and events expected
3.     Audience may be more informed
4.     Audience may have stronger opinions or views
5.     Audience has shorter attention span
6.     Audience can research what you say during the speech
7.     Audience can check your facts
8.     Audience can do further research later
9.     Speech may be taped for later on-line review
F.    Need to do Public Speaking and Groups over Video or Audio links
1.     Video conferencing becoming common
2.     Video of live events becoming more common
3.     Video extension of interpersonal now a reality
XV.         Seven stages of developing and presenting a speech
A.    Purpose: Overall Goal
1.     Determine the purpose of the speech
a.     Why did you select topic
b.     Is it appropriate to the audience
c.     What do you hope to accomplish
d.     See private, public, general and specific in future notes
B.    Be audience centered in selecting a topic and doing your speech
1.     Audience centered communication
2.     Audience adaption
3.     Target your message to a particular audience, time and place
4.     The same exact speech cannot be used with different audiences
5.     All speeches are organic and need to change based on audience, feedback, situation, location, time, goals and so on…
C.    Topic
1.     Meets your purpose
2.     Adapted to audience
3.     Selected and polished through research
4.     Willing to change based on research and new developments
D.   Gathering Information
1.     Begin with yourself: information you have knowledge on
2.     Have a passion and interests in the topic
3.     Seek help from others (librarian suggested, one with an MA)
4.     Use differing sources, not just internet
5.     Use academic sources (defined in later unit and lecture)
6.     Seek out
a.     Books
b.     Periodicals
c.     Videos
d.     Audio
e.     Microfiche
f.      Data bases
g.     Abstracts
7.     Be strategic
a.     Plan your search
b.     Stay on focus or shift topic
c.     Think of how audience will perceive source
d.     Think of how instructor will perceive source
e.     Other
E.    Identify Main Points
1.     Organize ideas
2.     Group information
3.     Organization and outline in text and in later units and lectures
F.    Practice
1.     BS is not rewarded as term continues
2.     Many methods, one in the text
a.     Complete sentence (not favored by this course)
b.     Short reminder points
c.     Decide if extemporaneous, memorized, manuscript, oratorical (explained later in this course)
d.     Extemporaneous required in this course (without notes or with a few key notes to remind you0
3.     Practice with note cards, eliminating them as you grow comfortable
4.     Practice Needed for
a.     Length,
b.     To minimize missed materials,
c.     To assist in finding place
d.     To help reduce nerves
e.     To reinforce knowledge of topic
f.      To support ethos
g.     To advance as a speaker and communicator
G.   Managing the Tools and Your Speech
1.     Voice (to be discussed later in the text, in later unit notes and lecture)
2.     Body (also to be discussed later)
3.     Audience Analysis: understanding your audience
4.     Topic: knowing your subject and being organized
5.     Presentation Media (practice with it)
6.     Time
7.     Make sure you
a.     Do a speech appropriate for the occasion
b.     Use your note card when you must but only glace at them
c.     Make and keep eye contact (direct, sustained, distributed, deliberate and at least 80% of the time)
d.     Make sure the audience can hear and understand you
e.     Volume, tone and other factors appropriate for your subject
f.      Use gestures
1.     Appearing natural
2.     Appropriate
3.     Natural
4.     Purposeful
5.     Comfortable
g.     Arrive early
h.     Check out room, equipment and environment
i.      Practice or dry run all technical equipment
1.     Adapt or change if needed
2.     Be read for anything to go wrong, have backup
j.      Analyze and understand your audience
k.     Monitor your time
1.     Be ready to end early
2.     Be ready to stretch length
3.     Be ready to adapt to audience
4.     Make sure main points are made
5.     Make sure you have time for summary and action
XVI.       Speech Selection / Topics / Ideas
A.    Interesting to you
B.    You should know about subject enough to start research
C.    Have a passion about subject (if possible)
D.   Interesting to your audience
E.    Current
F.    New information for your audience
G.   Appropriate for the situation
H.   Appropriate for the time allotted
I.      Manageable
J.     Worthwhile
K.   Select based on requirements of speech
1.     Most confident, use early in term
2.     Lots of information, save for last two speeches
3.     Major passion that requires a action, use as last speech
4.     Think about your personal time allotment.
5.     Research all term on all speeches, not last minute!
6.     Ask how you can inspire, inform, transform the audience.
L.    Selecting a topic
1.     Make a personal inventory of what you know or are interests in
2.     Talk to friends,
a.     Things they can tell you that you know about
b.     Things they are interested in, common interests
c.     Sources they can assist you with
3.     Brainstorm
a.     Friends
b.     Classmates
c.     Yourself
4.     Read
a.     Textbook
b.     These notes
c.     Handouts
d.     Research (how much is out there related to what you want to day, which is not the same as the overall topic!
M.  Resources for inventing your speech
1.     Always begin with your own experience, interests and knowledge
2.     Look at general or directory sources of knowledge
3.     Look into academic or juried sources of knowledge
4.     Interview experts or primary sources
5.     Conduct computerized searches
6.     Consider specialized sources of information
7.     Utilize librarians, professors, those there to assist you.
8.     Never be afraid to ask!
N.   Steps in Organizing A Speech
1.     Open with impact, engage the audience
2.     Focus on your thesis statement
3.     Connect with your audience
4.     Preview the body of your speech
5.     Present your main points
6.     Repeat key points (road-map)
7.     Summarize your main points
8.     Close with impact
O.   Ways to Close a Speech Effectively
1.     Present a short memorable quotation
2.     Use an anecdote or a story
3.     Make a direct appeal (a call for action)
4.     Return to your opening
5.     Reengage your audience
6.     Reinforce the reason for your speech
7.     Make sure the audience knows what is in it for them
P.    Methods of Delivery
1.     Manuscript
2.     Memorized
3.     Impromptu
4.     Extemporaneous (required in this course)
Q.   Matching Purposes
1.     Persuasive: To have a class develop a favorable impression or consider an action on an issue or idea of importance to you.
2.     Entertaining: To have the audience share an enjoyable experience.
3.     Informative: To teach, expand knowledge, grow
R.    Informative Speeches may persuade
S.    Persuasive Speeches must inform
T.    All communication influences, intentional or not
U.   We are all influenced by communication, whether we wish to be or not
XVII.     Dealing with Nerves
1.     Prepare, prepare, prepare
2.     Practice, practice, practice
3.     Think Positive
4.     Use the Power of Visualization
5.     Understand that nervousness is normal
6.     All professionals, experienced speakers and actors, feel some form of stage fright or nerves, and learn to use them to their advantage or for their character persona.
7.     Understand how to compensate for and cover your nerves
8.     Do not expect perfection
9.     Acquire speaking experience
10.  It’s only a Speech, no the end of the world!
B.    Methods to deal with nerves
1.     Realize it is normal
2.     Realize it happens to everyone
3.     Realize that this is only a speech, a minor part of your life
4.     Gain experience where you can
5.     Be prepared and in the right frame of mind
a.     Research
b.     Organization
c.     Planning
d.     Self confidence
e.     Practice
f.      Visualization
g.     Think Positive
h.     Be well rested
i.      Use physical exercise if it works for you
j.      Breathing exercises are used by many speakers prior to a speech
k.     Be confident about your introduction and conclusion
l.      Forget the past and keep moving forward
m.   Focus on the end goal, result, point
n.     Repeat if needed, as repetition is normal
o.     Be ware that what you see and feel is not the same as the audience
p.     Realize that unlike written words, speech does not remain, so your mistakes and much of what you say will be gone and over, leaving only your overall point and the impact of your speech
q.     Make eye contact
r.      Use presentation aids (often called visual aids)
s.     Understand learning styles and their use
t.      Concentrate on the message, on communicating with your audience, and not yourself or your nerves or words you had planned to say. The message is what is important.
C.    Listening and Critical Thinking
a.     Adults listen 50% or less
b.     Teenagers listen 25% or less
c.     Listening is a voluntary active process, it is psychological
d.     Hearing is physiological
e.     You can learn to listen
f.      Studies show that those who practice listening skills are less likely to develop memory loss in any form
g.     Studies show that those who practice listening skills get better grades, higher pay and achieve their goals more often than those who do not.
h.     Critical thinking requires active listening
i.      Critical thinking involves being able to access the strengths and weaknesses of an argument
j.      Critical thinking involves being able to distinguish between the fact, theory and opinions of an argument
k.     Critical thinking allows for thinking outside of the box
l.      Critical thinking allows for compromise and growth
m.   Critical thinking involves being able to judge the credibility of sources
n.     Critical thinking requires accessing the quality of evidence
o.     Critical thinking involves discerning relationships between ideas
p.     Critical thinking involves priorities on what to remember and in what context
q.     Critical thinking allows for fewer mistakes and reduces trial and error in everyday life
r.      Critical thinking DOES NOT MEAN NEGATIVE THINKING!
s.     Critical thinking is a normal process that requires practice and reinforcement
t.      Critical thinking is an active process
V.            Research:
a.     The process of gathering and interpreting evidence in support of claims
b.     Needed because
                                               i.     Knowledge evolves,
                                             ii.     Facts change,
                                            iii.     New information is always being discovered
                                            iv.     New interpretations are always developing
VI.          Claims:
a.     Statements you want your audience to
                                               i.     Understand
                                             ii.     Remember
                                            iii.     And/or act upon
b.     Speaker must clarify and support their claims
VII.         Evidence through research may be primary, secondary or tertiary.
a.     Evidence is information used to clarify or support a claim
b.    Academic primary evidence 
                                               i.     Includes first hand knowledge or experience,
                                             ii.     Includes original documents or objects,
                                            iii.     Includes juried articles in academic articles or books
1.     Usually through a University or Academic press
2.     That are reviewed by at least three experts in the field
3.     That are reviewed on a “blind test” basis
4.     That are revised to assure accurate and factual material
5.     That may include expert testimony.
6.     That has checks and balances to minimize bias
                                            iv.     May include testimony or narratives from the original sources
1.     Those who have experienced the event or issue considered
2.     Those who have first hand knowledge of the experience or event
3.     Those considered expert witnesses
                                              v.     May include oral or written testimony or narratives
1.     Letters
2.     Personal journals
3.     Original notes
4.     Original documents
5.     Original articles or objects
6.     Actual physical proofs
7.     Complete interviews that minimize bias
8.     Personal well done and professional interview with a primary source
c.     Secondary references include
                                               i.     All other forms of reference that relate to the topic, specific thesis or point being made in a presentation or paper.
                                             ii.     Most books,
                                            iii.     Major news sources
                                            iv.     Major media outlets
                                              v.     Anything related to the thesis, subject, issue, point or sub points
d.     Tertiary sources are other sources not directly related with the point, topic, points or specific thesis of a paper or presentation.
VIII.       Directory media are those secondary or tertiary references that are used primarily to provide a foundation for, or general introductory understanding of the topic, thesis, point or subject.
a.      Directory media include, but are not limited to,
                                               i.     Dictionaries,
                                             ii.     Encyclopedia,
                                            iii.     Atlases,
                                            iv.     Many or most commercial Internet sources
                                              v.     And any book that provides primarily a source for other references, including those that are academic or primary.
b.     Directory media are not, under most circumstances, considered primary sources.
IX.           Supporting Materials provide substance, strength, credibility, and appeal.
a.     Arouse Audience interests
b.     Elaborate
c.     Explain
d.     Show the
                                               i.     Meaning of ideas
                                             ii.     Importance for receiver (audience)
                                            iii.     Substantive statements
                                            iv.     Substantiate controversial statements
                                              v.     Substantiate new information
                                            vi.     Substantiate surprising or hard to understand statements
                                           vii.     Credit ideas of others properly and support ideas derived from others or other sources
                                         viii.     Support statements made that are essential to speakers/transmitters arguments or points
e.     Gathered through personal experience, library resources and expert interviews
X.             Facts and figures tend to be most objective (judge the source objectively).
a.     Factual statements can stand alone but
                                               i.     Source must be supported or believed by receiver / audience.
                                             ii.     Speaker can or even must interpret their meanings
                                            iii.     Speaker should carefully distinguish facts from interpretive claims derived from the information.
                                            iv.     There are usually multiple ways to interpret “facts”
                                              v.     Speaker must cite reputable sources in support of claims and/or “facts” alleged to be interpreted correctly or true.
                                            vi.     Speaker must be cognizant of potential bias in sources of “factual” information
1.     All sources/writers/individuals select information based on their own filters, bias, objectives or thesis.
2.     Even neutral sources and statements are colored by the culture of the source/reference/writer/ speaker/ individual.
3.     Even objective sources must be selective in deciding what information to present and what to omit.
4.     All of communications is filtered or limited by size, time, potential, bias, culture, intent or perceived intent…etc.
b.     Figures, statistics and numbers are considered numerical “facts” (but may or may not accurately indicate what you are studying in their methodology, collection, statistical error, volume or interpretation.
                                               i.     Figures /statistics
1.     Forms of numerical information that describe some population, event, relationship or real world data collected
2.     Describe size
3.     Describe scope
4.     Make predictions
5.     Illustrate trends
6.     Support or disprove claims
7.     Show relationships
8.     May not be relevant when reexamined
                                             ii.     Speakers may
1.     Unpack or present “meaning” of figures for the audience/receiver
2.     Provide explanation
3.     Provide analysis
4.     Use visual aids to make the figures real or show relationships
c.     Facts and Figures are needed
                                               i.     To support claims
                                             ii.     To make the unfamiliar failure
                                            iii.     To add or support credibility
                                            iv.     To help persuade on controversial topics
d.     Facts and figures can
                                               i.     Be used unethically
                                             ii.     Be misleading
                                            iii.     Be mistrusted by the audience/ receiver
                                            iv.     Be misinterpreted by the source/speaker/transmitter
                                              v.     Be bias
                                            vi.     Be incomplete
                                           vii.     Be derived incorrectly
                                         viii.     Include distortions
                                            ix.     Have omissions through fault or in error
                                             x.     Clutter a speech if too many used or used too often
                                            xi.     Confuse the audience if too many used or used too often
                                          xii.     Be outdated (fallacy or regency)
                                         xiii.     Be too dependant on one source or easy sources
                                         xiv.     Be non-academic or academic in nature
                                           xv.     Can represent possibilities instead of certainties
                                         xvi.     Can be willfully misused by source or resource utilized
e.     Speakers should not
                                               i.     Rely too heavily on one or just a few sources
                                             ii.     Ignore contradictory information or sources
                                            iii.     Seek out only sourced that support their own view or assumptions
                                            iv.     Omit material that is important for interpreting the information
f.      Three devises for turning facts and figures into supporting materials
                                              i.     Definitions
1.     Help audiences understand unpopular ideas
2.     Help audiences understand unfamiliar ideas
3.     Help audiences understand unfamiliar concepts
4.     Should include at least two attempts to translate into terms failure with the audience
5.     May have to be repeated in the speech as needed
                                            ii.     Explanations
1.     May combine facts and figures
2.     Are used to clarify a topic, idea or concept
3.     Can be used to demonstrate how something works
4.     Can be used to show why steps in a plan are needed
                                          iii.     Descriptions
1.     Are word pictures
2.     Can invoke vivid, mood setting images
3.     Are needed for full understanding of image or perspective
4.     Are used for visualization of images, concepts or ideas
5.     Can be overused
6.     Can actually confuse audience is used incorrectly
XVIII.   Additional Concepts for Review
A.    Communication is ongoing, changing, and dynamic.
B.    Communication is transactional, negotiated, and unavoidable
C.    We live in a communication society, with marketing/capitalism/commerce very dominated by the process of communication.
D.   We live and depend on an information society, growth areas of 21st Century
E.    Self-identity is influenced and some day defined by communication.
F.    Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, societal, group, mass
G.   Group dynamics include the roles of players, rules of interaction, situation, mores’ of group, structure of the group, role of the group.
H.   Adults listen 50% or less, Teens 25% or less, Kids 15% or less.
I.      Speaking in public is the number 2 fear of Americans
J.     See review for midterm and final notes in future units for specifics on the exams and from the textbook (again it is important you read the text, as the exams are based on the textbook)
K.   Education is repetition
-                         We need to hear messages more than once to be sure we are listening properly and to make sure we understand the message properly
XIX.       Other Notes
A.    Self Concept, how you feel about yourself, a relatively stable set of perceptions you hold about yourself
B.    Self Esteem. Evaluations of self worth
C.    Reference Groups,
1.      The groups you use to evaluate yourself against
2.     The groups you use to craft or reflect your self-image
D.   Negotiation of Meaning, meaning is what is agreed upon or understood between the parties involved
E.    Intent of Receiver, what was expected to be communicated
F.    Symbols, all communication uses symbols, words are symbols, etc.
G.   Transmitter sends with intent, receiver decodes with intent
H.   Intent may differ, altering the communication
I.      Perception, how we see or perceive things.
J.     Selection, data we choose to pay attention to
K.   Organization, how we process and store information
L.    Constructs, the systems of association we use to access stored information
M.  Magic T, how to increase your grade by seating choices
N.   Textbooks go to other textbooks or Internet course notes if you do not understand lecture or what you read in the course textbook
O.   Web CT use
P.    Bell Curve Assignments reviewed
Q.   Point system to be used
R.    Syllabus distributed and explained
S.    Contract signed and returned for course
T.    First Speech sign up
U.   Introduce each other and tell a little about ourselves
V.    Com Model
W.  Proofs
X.    Codes
Y.    Intro to course
Z.    Transmitter is the speaker, originator(s) of the message, source.
XX.         Concepts Continued
A.    Remember you have all semester to master these concepts, but keep in mind the exam and speech dates and reading assignment dates.
B.    Receiver is the audience, respondent, intended target.
C.    Channel is the medium/ media / method used to send a message. Usually multiple methods at one time.
D.   Message is what is intended to be communicated.
E.    Signals or Codes are the elements that are used to put together the message.
F.     Meaning is interpretative and not fixed or constant.
1.     To negotiate meaning implies that signals or codes may have more than one interpretation and can be impacted by the noise/screens/filters of both the sender and the receiver.
G.   Feedback is the reversal of the model, where receiver becomes the transmitter, sending a return message back to the original transmitter.
H.   Noise/ Screens/ Filters impact both the transmission and feedback, both sender and receiver.
I.      Encode is to put the elements of the message together as signals.
J.     Decode is to read and interpret the elements of the message or signals
K.   Stalin example.
L.    Greeks and the reasons for model, codes and proofs.
M.   Codes: Visual, Vocal Verbal.
N.   Verbal: words, the actual written language. Vocabulary, use of words.
O.   Vocal: how you say the words. Subtext. Multiple meanings, Example: I love you.
P.    Visual: everything else includes what you can see, feel, touch, smell, and hear.
Q.    Visual aids are also called Presentation Aids because not all aids are seen.
R.    Some cultures are more verbal, others more visual, and others more vocal.
S.    Vocal, Visual, Verbal for most Americans.
T.     Visual is the most memorable of the codes, but may not be remembered correctly or mean the same to all receivers.
U.    Vocal is why you an understand foreign language films and helps to learn other languages.
V.    Rhetoric; the codes used to transmit or receive a message and how those codes are interpreted. For example: waves crashing on a beach means sex.
W.   (Screens, Filters, Interference) is the natural elements that may interfere with receiving the message as intended. Meaning is negotiated by understanding both the sender and receivers “noise”.
X.    Semantic noise- when words do not mean the same thing and get in the way of the message, when words are not understood or have multiple meanings.
Y.    There are three types of noise, all of which are interconnected and may influence or overlap each other.
Z.    Demographics are numbers used to understand an individual, group, audience or market.
XXI.       Additional Concepts to review and learn
A.    Demographics are determined by how an individual, group or market identifies itself. They are self-volunteered information because identity and identification are most important in understanding the individual or group being studied.
B.    Age and Sex (Gender) are the most commonly used Demographics and are for the most part quantitatively correct (most information is actual and not volunteered).
C.    Psychographic are all other Demographically quantified information. Examples include income level, household income, geographies, geographic history, education level, racial and ethnic identity. Religion / Faith / Beliefs, group affiliations…
D.   Cocooning: closing out the outside world.
E.    Podding: letting in only what you want to hear, seem believe.
F.    Codes:
G.   Ethos: Credibility
H.   Credibility comes from the perception of confidence, integrity, liability, power, competency, experience, and knowledge. Prestige, expertise.
I.      Competence can be education, experience, knowledge, and performance
J.      Integrity can be from being straightforward, truthful, open, honest, ability to look at all sides, commitment, following your own advice, etc.
K.   Likeability comes from good will, personality, appearance, eye contact, facial expression (smile), conversational tone, relevance, and approachability.
L.    Power comes from being decisive, the position you hold, leadership ability, etc..
M.  Pathos is emotion. To tap Pathos use stories (narratives), examples, appeal to ethnocentrism, motivation (to action or change), strong beliefs, group affiliations. Pathos is the second most powerful proof for Americans. Marketing and civic utilize pathos.
N.   Logos is logic. It is reflects what is rational. Logos may use numbers (facts, figures), expert testimony, basic ethics, shared unimpeachable beliefs. Pheno-Grecco-Roman-Anglo roots. Judeao-Christian logic.
O.   Mythos. Myths. Cultural heritage. Examples may include stories (narratives), patriotism, heroes, and pride, historic deeds, group beliefs, shared experiences, things that cement and unify identity.
P.    Underdog…David and Goliath.
Q.   State Anxiety: An uneasiness caused by situation or state.
R.    Physiological and Psychological Indicators are measures of changes that occur because of anxiety.  These do impact screens/filters/interference/noise.
S.    Catastrophizing means blowing things out of proportion.
T.    Cognitive Restructuring: changing the way you think. Example “this is only a class”.
XXII.     Fall 2009 First Day Welcome Notes…MUST READ…and do what it asks?
May or may not apply in current term, but concepts useful

 Use this blog to support, elaborate and in some ways make the concepts of the class both clearer an easier to understand. Read the chapter summaries. Read the unit summaries.

Use the links. Post at least weekly (more often if possible) with meaningful responses or suggested postings for this or the SAG Actors blog. Be active in the course in as many ways as you can find time for. Once you found Angel for the course, do some investigation.

You will find under syllabus just that.

The Study Schedule is the schedule for the course that is also in your syllabus.

Course Calendar has no course information in it, but you are welcome to use it for whatever use you wish. It is your personal calendar while you take the course.

Sources are Internet links and other useful information. Let me know what is dead and suggest other links under Internet on the Discussion section that is also under Communication Tools. More on that later in this note.

Speech Evaluation Forms give you partial points for each speech. You may wish to print these out so you can personally score other people's speeches. If you are really nice (or nasty) you can give your evaluation to that person following the speech. People who use the sheets end up doing better on their own speeches and in exams.

The Association of Students in Communication is the campus organization that networks in the communication fields. THERE ARE SCHOLARSHIPS AVAILABLE! The field ranges from broadcasting to speech therapy, from marketing to public relations, from public affairs to sales. It is really quite broad with something for anyone who finds this class useful.

The Department home page allows links to other professors, and with that links to other Com 101 syllabus' (sylabi?) and notes. It can be useful to find additional information concerning areas of the book or lecture you may still be confused on. You can also check into student employment opportunities, get emergency messages to me or complain about me to the boss!

Course Content is where you find Handouts. It is the most important icon for success in the course. As indicated before you need not print the handouts (unless you want to). They are intended for use on-line as additional support and basic resources to assist you in doing well in this course and applying what you learn after the term is over.

Handouts and files under Course Content include information about communication as a theory (Chapter one and first few days lecture), outlining, links to other professors’ notes (see above), a full set of midterm and final review notes (not complete, but pretty good) from a former student named Jillian.

Your speech assignments (which can also be found in the syllabus), the vocabulary list you will need to master for the midterm and final (it is not as much as it may look like once you read the text and listen closely to lecture), some links on how to do the required APA (American Psychological Association) form of referencing and citation, my resume (Curriculum Vitae as long academic resumes are called), as well as additional short papers ad links to help you with research, study links and various concepts in the course.

The most important part of the Handout Section are the "weekly" Units. For your purposes, since you decided to take summer school, each unit is a keep up or get lost.

The unit notes go into more detail about concepts in the class, cover and recover and repeat specifically what is on the midterm and final, and offer you suggestions and ideas on improving your speeches. Read them on line if you can, as I do not wish to be a part of murdering too many trees!

Now back to the Communication Tools icon, which all of you found or you would not be reading this.

The Angle course e-mail is private. If you e-mail me, no one else will see it. It is the preferred method of communication with the instructor, although I will be at the school at least twenty minutes prior to class (except for today....sorry about that), and can stay for a while after class each day. Text messages or calls are acceptable, however they may not be checked as often as you may your phone calls or texts.

The e-mail is also a great tool to communicate with others in the class. Unlike Internet, this intranet system is private, guaranteed in delivery and limited to those who are in the class (no spam, unless a class member or the teacher sends it).

The Discussion Board tool is also very valuable.

First off to test if you read this, please post your name and an introduction of who you are and why you are taking the class. Be friendly and share something interesting about yourself. Do so under "Introduce yourself".

The topics are somewhat random and in no particular order. If you look at what is already there you will find articles, comments, wonderings and other material that may help you in your research or in stimulating ideas for speeches.  I would appreciate your adding material and even attachment of articles that you feel may help others, now or in future terms.

Use "mail" to post your notes to help others. For some people typing their notes and posting them helps them study and increase their results in the midterm and final, as well as their success in the speeches.

Now to the syllabus: I reserve the right to change things.

As those who were in class the first day when I arrived we will reduce the work load a bit, but we cannot reduce it to the point of not teaching you and your not mastering enough for the course to earn the credits and transfer.

On attendance, YOU MUST BE IN CLASS. As for today, those who left early will not be penalized, BUT I will not go over today’s work just for you.

 (There is no five-minute rule no matter what students tell you...unless there is an instructor absent note on the door you are required to stay. A pro would go over the test, the book or just introduce themselves and socialize with other students in the time they spend waiting for a college instructor).

The midterm will be closed book as will the final. Both are not easy and are written primarily by the authors of the textbook. Review material will be found under the unit notes as I post them, and touched on in class.

I will decide later if we will have the "point/impromptu" speech or if you will be awarded the points for "free" if you complete all other assignments and exams.

I am not going to require the take homes if indicated in the syllabus or textbook. You may do the take homes as they are posted under handouts as proactive and review for your speeches, the midterm and the final, but you will not have to turn them in for credit. It is optional.

You will be required to do all the sources and academic work (the boss says so...sorry), so plan on time to research and work on outlines and to rehearse your speeches. I may allow some references I might not allow in the normal semester, but do not count on it. It is will be my judgment for each paper turned in and every speech.

All material must be types and use APA reference citation.

All material must be turned in and presented on time or in advance of the date assigned.

Any questions?

Have I scared you all away?

Students find they enjoy the class as they meet new people, learn new skills and they can be be ready and improve in their skills much sooner than they think.

There is a great deal to learn and do.

Get started now.

And thank you for taking the class.

I am here for you and when it is over you will be glad you took it.

Trust me....

Art Lynch
*(702) 682-0469 - for if you have to miss class or urgent situations please.


Anonymous said...

Is there a way to print this? Its easier for me to read things on paper.

Rebecca Johnson 4049

Anonymous said...

Nevermind. I got it. And I wouldnt recommend printing it since it turns out to be like 30 pages.

Rebecca Johnson 4049