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Sunday, May 17, 2015

Persuasive Speaking

What is persuasive speaking?
How do we persuade?
How do you prepare a persuasive speech?
What do you have to consider and understand?
What are common mistakes?
What are fallacies of argumentation?
What role does ethics play?

Image: Spy vs. Spy is the property of Mad Magazine.
Answers to these and other concepts may be found if you click "read more" below.

I.               Persuasive Speaking Pt I.
A.    Definition:
1.     A speech in which the speaker attempts to reinforce, modify, or change audience members beliefs, attitudes, opinions, values, actions and/or behaviors.
2.     Using language, images and other means of communication to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, values or actions.
3.     Persuasive speeches must inform
4.     Informative speeches may persuade
B.    Question of Fact
1.     A question that ask whether something is true or false
2.     Is the information accurate and believable
3.     Can the information be trusted as fact
4.     Does the information fit into the audience members concepts of what is factual
5.     Can information be verified
6.     Is it well researched
7.     Is it balanced to the point of confirmation
C.    Question of Value
1.     A question that asks for a subjective evaluation of something’s worth, significance, quality or condition.
2.     Is something good or bad, right or wrong, beautiful or ugly, boring or engaging, funny or serious, and so on…
3.     Qualitative judgments of something’s significance.
4.     “To convince my audience…”
D.   Question of Policy
1.     A question that asks what course of action should be take or how a problem should be solved.
2.     A policy is a plan of action
3.     Policies are flexible and change over time
4.     Policies can state specific viewpoints or stands
5.     Policies may be specific ‘if this, then we do that” plans
6.     Policies reflect larger ethos, pathos, logos, mythos and ethics.
7.     Policies may be the formal doctrines of institutions like governments, organizations, schools, teams, clubs, associations, groups
8.     Most politician persuasion falls under policy
9.     Plan of action.
E.    Private Purpose
1.     What is the reason you are doing this speech?
2.     Need not be revealed but does bring the passion, belief and trust needed for the speech to reach a level of sincerity that the audience will perceive.
F.    Public Purpose
1.     The reason you are willing to reveal to the audience
2.     Reinforces the ethos of the speaker.
3.     Allows for the passion behind the speech topic to be understood in context by the audience.
G.   General Purpose
1.     The overall topic of and reason for the speech
2.     General topic area as background for specific information
H.   Specific Purpose
1.     The public purpose refined into a range that is feasible for the time and environment of the speech.
2.     The exact single point you seek to make during the speech.
3.     The core specific reason for doing the speech.
4.     “To persuade the audience to….”
5.     “To convince my audience to…”
I.      Thesis
1.     The statement you are seeking to prove
2.     Keep it simple and to one specific point
J.     Research: Investigation
1.     The process of researching or experimenting to both prove and disprove you thesis statement.
2.     You are obligated to look at both sides of an issue and test your thesis statement before you can ethically seek to persuade others to accept it as fact.
K.   Conclusion
1.     The result of supported claims cumulatively proving your thesis statement
2.     The restatement of your thesis statement, reviewing your full argument in summarized form
3.     The end of the speech
4.     The tying together of the argument at that end of the speech

II.             Persuasive Speaking Pt II.
A.    Intro to Persuasive Speaking
                                               i.     Understand the characteristics of Persuasive Speaking
                                             ii.     The steps in the persuasive process
                                            iii.     Adapting persuasive messages to differing audiences
                                            iv.     Major persuasive functions
                                              v.     Designs for persuasive functions

B.    Root Principles of Persuasive Speaking
                                               i.     The art of convincing others to give favorable attention to our point of view.
                                             ii.     Persuasion is an integral part of our lives
                                            iii.     Can be ethical or unethical
                                            iv.     Learn how to resist bad persuasion
                                              v.     Lean how to be open to positive persuasion
                                            vi.     Our social and political systems rely on free and open persuasion
1.     Deliberation
a.     Is the central process underlying democracy and bottom up based government and decision making
b.     Is the sign of an open and intelligent mind
c.     Involves an open discussion of all sides of issues before reaching a conclusion.
d.     Requires listening and being open to compromise
e.     Requires thought and being open to ideas, points of view, opposing evidence and change.
2.     Persuasion
a.     Is more ethical than force or coercion
b.     Is practical than force or coercion
3.     The freedom to voice unpopular views produces better decisions.
                                           vii.     Persuasion can be ethical and beneficial
1.     Ethical Persuasion is based on
a.     Sound reasoning
b.     Sensitivity to others
c.     Appeals to people’s better nature
d.     Respect for other cultures
2.     Ethical persuasion
a.     Helps us apply received wisdom to new situations
b.     Helps us apply reasoned knowledge to decision making
c.     Improves the quality and humanity off our commitments
C.    Persuasive speaking differs from informative speaking
                                               i.     Informative reveals and clarifies options
                                             ii.     Persuasive speakers advocate choices among options.
                                            iii.     Informative speakers provide information to enlighten
                                            iv.     Persuasive speaking provide evidence to justify conclusions or recommendations
                                              v.     Informative speaking involves offering education
                                            vi.     Persuasive speaking requires audience committeemen and belief
                                           vii.     Leadership is an important issue in persuasion
                                         viii.     Appears to feeling (Pathos) are more appropriate in persuasion
                                            ix.     Persuasive speakers assume greater ethical responsibilities than informative
                                             x.     Both informative and persuasive can change thoughts and lives.
D.   The five major phases of the persuasive process.
                                               i.     Awareness
1.     Make audiences understand how it impacts their lives
a.     Know about
b.     Understand
c.     Attend to (take action)
2.     Convince audiences
a.     Problem does or does not exist
b.     Impacts their lives directly or indirectly
c.     Is of vital importance for action
                                             ii.     Understanding
1.     Get the point
2.     Be moved by ideas
3.     Know how to carry out ideas
4.     Call or action
5.     Be ethical
a.     Expand out knowledge
b.     Not mislead or twist the truth
c.     Demonstrate how some arguments are stronger than others
d.     Provide evidence in support of proposition
e.     Provide key points to support proposition
f.      Support key points with evidence
g.     Do not harm others or call for harm
                                            iii.     Seek Agreement
1.     Success is measured by degree,
2.     Total success may not be possible
3.     Help audiences find find and remember reasons to agree
4.     Help move compromise toward your position
5.     Present indisputable facts
6.     Present facts that will stand up to criticism and critique
7.     Present well reasoned arguments
8.     present arguments that flow smoothly, easy to follow
9.     Help audience remember the reasons for their agreement
10.  Present arguments where opposition is
i. Minimal
ii. Easy to manage
iii. Not overly resistant to change
                                            iv.     Encourage Action
1.     Call for action
2.     Measurable action is best
a.     Petitions
b.     Signatures
c.     Commitment cards
d.     Voice agreement
e.     Take other action
f.      Vote
g.     Try something new
h.     Etc.
                                              v.     Integrate new attitudes and actions into belief and value systems
1.     Make it easy to modify an existing idea or belief to make room for integrate the new idea or value
2.     Make it enforceable through daily action or commitment
3.     Follow-up (more than once)
4.     Repeat and reinforce message
5.     Help overcome risks
6.     Reinforce benefits over time
7.     New ideas are consistent with
ii.              Cherished values
iii.            Existing beliefs
iv.             Existing attitudes
v.              Etc.
8.     Anticipate and respond to objections
9.     You cannot get the results you want from a single speech, it must be reinforced, repeated, or audience must be encouraged and supported in seeking constant reinforcement
                                            vi.     Successful persuasion is rarely an all or nothing proposition
1.     It takes a series of attempts to “get through”
2.     It takes reinforcing to set in
3.     Most of the time results need to be perceived quickly
4.     Commitment must be entrenched over time
5.     Must adapt to audience
a.     Anticipated challenges
b.     Anticipated objections
c.     Physical limitations
d.     Other limitations
e.     Needs
f.      Wants
g.     Etc.
E.    Addressing Specific Audiences
                                               i.     Where does the audience stand on the issues or actions
1.     United for or against
2.     Split- and what percentages
3.     Open or fixed
                                             ii.     How will the audience perceive the speaker
1.     Ethos
2.     Perception of motivations for speech
3.     Perception of committeemen to speech
                                            iii.     Give thoughtful consideration to opposing views
                                            iv.     Acknowledge obvious positive points on opposing side
                                              v.     Co-active approach to bridge differences
1.     Establish identification
a.     Stress common attitudes
b.     Stress common beliefs
c.     Stress common values
d.     Etc.
2.     Emphasizes common values
a.     Find things you have in common
b.     Do this prior to addressing points of opposition
3.     Emphasize explanation
a.     Inform
b.     Do this more than argument
4.     Cite authorities and secondary ethos
5.     Cite evidence that is acceptable to the audience
6.     Work to make ethos and evidence fit existing audience values
7.     Set modest goals for change
8.     Make multi-sided presentations
9.     Help those who agree to find ways to resist tendency to reverse or lean toward opposing views or arguments
                                            vi.     Challenge of a strongly opposed audience
1.     Enhance their ethos
a.     Acknowledge their value to you
b.     Acknowledge their values and beliefs
c.     Be honest
d.     Enhance their importance
e.     Request a fair hearing
f.      Etc.
2.     Avoid an overly ambitious proposal
a.     May result in a boomerang effect
3.     Avoid Great Expectations fallacy
a.     Do not hope for change from one speech or action
b.     Do not promise more than you can deliver
c.     Be honest
4.     Do not expect immediate positive response
a.     May be misleading
b.     May not reflect solid commitment
c.     There may be a sleeper effect over time
d.     Etc.
F.    Removing barriers to commitment
                                               i.     Provide all needed information
a.     Avoid overload
b.     Do provide essentials
c.     Offer additional follow-up
d.     Provide where to go for additional information
                                             ii.     Affirm and apply common values
a.     Build bridges
b.     Use values to cement change
                                            iii.     Strengthen credibility
a.     Cite experts the audience can respect and trust
b.     Cite evidence the audience will accept and trust
c.     Appear as open and non-bias as possible
d.     Provide quality information
e.     Be as multi-sided as possible
f.      Etc.
G.   Moving audience or individuals from attitude to action
                                               i.     Provide a personal connection to the problem and proposed solution
                                             ii.     Provide specific actions and follow-up actions
                                            iii.     Propose a plan for change with reinforcement
                                            iv.     Provide the opportunity and window for action
H.   With Reluctant Listeners
                                               i.     Revitalize shared beliefs and values
                                             ii.     Demonstrate the need for involvement
                                            iii.     Demonstrate the need for action
                                            iv.     Use examples and narratives
                                              v.     Use pathos, logos and mythos
                                            vi.     Present a plan of action
                                           vii.     Show the audience why on each step of the plan
                                         viii.     Show the audience how to proceed
                                            ix.     Answer “What’s in it for me?”
                                             x.     Etc.
I.      Negative or Hostile Audiences
1.     Definition:
a.     A hostile audience is an audience that is informed about the speakers topic and holds an unfavorable view of the speakers position
b.     A tendency to mistrust or dislike the speaker or their point of view
c.     A total lack of commitment to listening to what is being presented
2.     Rely on narratives to relay your points
3.     Find shared ground
4.     Incorporate engaging evidence that further reinforces the audiences commitment to the topic
5.     Use vivid language and images to heighten your audiences enthusiasm for the topic
6.     Rally those that agree with you or can be persuaded to move in your direction, to action
J.     The divided audience
1.     Definition:
a.     An audience is informed about the topic but split between those who agree and those who oppose the opinion, view or proposed action of the speaker
b.     The jury is out in a split way
c.     You have supporters
d.     You have distracters
e.     You may have a middle undecided ground
f.      Thank politics and how it works
2.     Demonstrate that you recognize the legitimacy of arguments for an against the issues.
3.     Establish your ethos
a.     Statistics
b.     Secondary ethos
c.     Assimilation
d.     Common ground
e.     Open in motivation and positive outcome
4.     Establish Pathos
a.     Use emotional appeal to move audience
b.     Be ethical in use of Pathos
5.     Establish common ground
6.     Address objections
7.     Reinforce the position of those who agree with you and create a feeling of belonging associated with this group
8.     Make change to your point of view desirable
9.     Persuading those who already agree with you to have stronger and more immediate support
10.  Persuading those who disagree with you to listen and give what you have to say a fair hearing
11.  Find common ground with those who disagree with you
12.  Find common ground with those who are undecided
13.  Provide positive ethos, pathos, logos and mythos, particularly to those who may be undecided or weak in their support
K.   The Uninformed Audience
                                               i.     Motivate your audience to want to learn
a.     Link the audience with the topic; make them know they are a part of the problem or the solution.
b.     WIIFM
                                             ii.     Demonstrate your expertise
                                            iii.     Demonstrate fairness in considering and addressing all side of an issue, all aspects of an alleged problem.
                                            iv.     Educate the audience on the problem, cause of the problem. The need for change, c. solution to a perceived problem, d. action needed now
                                              v.     Use repetition and redundancy to reinforce your points
                                            vi.     Keep your persuasion subtle
L.    The Apathetic Audience
1.     Definition:
a.     The Audience that is informed on the topic but not interested in it
b.     The Audience that feels that someone else will deal with the problem
c.     The Audience with no knowledge or interests
2.     Gain attention
3.     Pique / Peak their interest
4.     Show how the topic impacts them
5.     Show the audience how much you care about the topic and why you care
6.     Show them What’s In It for Them (WIIFM)
7.     Best to take a once sided approach to the topic

M.  Three major forms of persuasive speaking
                                               i.     Corresponds to their relative functions
                                             ii.     Speeches addressing attitudes and values
1.     Aimed at forming, reforming or reinforcing what people believe or think they believe
2.     Aimed at forming, reforming or reinforcing how people feel or think they feel about something
3.     Paves the way for speeches urging action
4.     Need to begin with common ground
                                            iii.     Speeches seeking direct response
1.     Goes behind attitude change
2.     Seek individual or Group actions
3.     Provide good reason to overcome caution
                                            iv.     Speeches of contention
1.     May be suitable if audiences are split on a topic
2.     Should target uncommitted listeners
3.     May target reasonable opponents open to change or reform
4.     Use tactful, carefully documented arguments and counter arguments
                                              v.     Speeches that are intended to shock and undermine strongly opposed audiences
1.     Usually a poor choice for action,
2.     But good to start a process of challenge, compromise and change
3.     Use rarely and with caution
4.     Best using Pathos and Mythos
5.     Use of humor should be considered but used carefully
N.   Speeches must select appropriate designs, structures or organizational strategies
                                               i.     Can use some or all of the designs or structures utilized in informative speaking
                                             ii.     Categorical can be used to list reasons
                                            iii.     Sequential may be used to show steps in a plan
                                            iv.     Chronological could be used to support reasons for action
                                              v.     Comparative may work well with a speech of contention
O.   Problem-Solution
                                               i.     Convinces audience there is a problem
                                             ii.     Shows audience a probable/ recommended solution
                                            iii.     Shows how to deal with the problem effectively
                                            iv.     Establishes problem exist and is significant
                                              v.     Should offer solutions that are concrete and easy to follow
P.    Problem-Cause-Solution
                                               i.     Establish that a problem exists
                                             ii.     Provide the primary or most likely cause
                                            iii.     Show how you can solve the problem by addressing the cause
Q.   The stock issue approach
                                               i.     Acknowledges a need for change because of a significant problem
                                             ii.     The elephant in the living room or gorilla in the closet
                                            iii.     Questions that reasonable people are likely to have on their mind
                                            iv.     Addresses the following questions
a.     Is there a need for change because of some significant problem
b.     What is the best solution to the problem
c.     Who will put this solution into effect
                                              v.     Focuses on inherency
a.     Is a harmful effect caused by this problem
b.     Will proposed solutions solve it
c.     To what extent is harm an inevitable part of the situation
d.     How much resistance is there to change
e.     Can change occur without greater damage
R.    Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
                                               i.     An elaboration of sequential and problem-solution design
                                             ii.     Shows reason for each step in the process
                                            iii.     Contains six basic steps (or a variation)
a.     Arousing attention
b.     Demonstrate a need for change
c.     Offer a plan of action
d.     Visualize results
e.     Call for action
f.      Reinforce the action over time
                                            iv.     To use motivated sequence effectively
a.     Consider where audience stands
b.     Focus on appropriate steps
c.     Make actions manageable
d.     Make actions measurable
e.     Reinforce actions
                                              v.     Forces speaker to focus on audience outcomes when organizing ideas
                                            vi.     Usually composed of five steps
1.     Attention
a.     Relate the topic to the audience to gain attention
b.     Making it relevant to the audience (WIIFM, What’s in it for me?)
2.     Need
a.     Establishes that there is problem with current or future potential harm
b.     Show why it needs the attention of the audience
3.     Satisfaction
a.     Describe a solution to the problem
b.     Show how this solution can be accomplished
4.     Visualization
a.     Show benefits of proposed solution and/or cost of not implementing it
b.     What’s in it for that audience, help them see it!
5.     Action
a.     Explain how the audience can implement the solution
b.     Get a committeemen to action

S.    Regulative Design
                                               i.     Raises doubt about competing propositions
                                             ii.     Raises attention to competing propositions deficiencies
                                            iii.     Must understand opposing positions before refuting them
                                            iv.     May focus on oppositions
a.     Faulty reasoning
b.     Poor evidence
c.     Self interests
d.     Non substantive solutions
                                              v.     Address the weakest opposing viewpoints first
                                            vi.     Five steps in refuting and argument
a.     State the point to be refuted
b.     Tell how the point will be refuted
c.     Present credible evidence
d.     Interpret the evidence
e.     Explain the significance of the Refutation
                                           vii.     Strengthen regulative positions by supporting counter proposals

III.           Persuasive Speaking, Part III
A.    Ethics.
1.     You are responsible for the impact and eventual repercussions of your communication
2.     You are responsible to provide truth and not deliberate or misleading information
3.     Your words, actions, ideas can change the lives of others
4.     You are responsible to research and establish the pro’s and cons of all sides of an issue
5.     You are responsible to acknowledge the other side in a positive way
6.     See National Communication Association Standards of Ethical Communication
7.     Much more….
B.    Building Blocks
                                               i.     Facts:
1.     True / False
2.     Yes / No
3.     Usually fixed and accepted
                                             ii.     Values:
1.     Good / Bad
2.     Right / Wrong
3.     Moral / Immoral
4.     Usually strong but can be impacted
5.     Scaled (usually 1 to 10 if consciously scale
6.     Conjecture:
                                            iii.     Might Not / Might / Will
1.     Could/ Should / Shouldn't
2.     What If?
3.     Future
4.     Projections
                                            iv.     Policy:
1.     Should / Should not
2.     Action
3.     Plan
4.     Set to deal with
-Fact, values, conjecture and society
C.    Phases of Persuasion
                                               i.      Awareness
1.     Must establish the existence of a need or issue
2.     Must establish that it is a problem or potential problem
                                             ii.     Understanding
1.     Now the need
2.     Be moved to change
3.     Know how it effects listener and others
                                            iii.     Seek Agreement
1.     Consensus or agreement action is needed
                                            iv.     Encourage Action
1.     Change Path and policy
                                              v.     Integrate New Ideas
1.     Into belief system
2.     Into value system
3.     Into every day activities
4.     Into policy decisions
5.     Difficult but needed to sustain change
                                            vi.     Rarely is anything al or nothing
                                           vii.     So be ready to compromise or change
D.   Persuasive Speaking is the art of getting others to pay favorable attention to your point of view
E.    Meeting the challenges of Persuasive Speaking
F.    Entice reluctant audiences to listen
                                               i.     Establish identification
                                             ii.     Establish good will
                                            iii.     Begin with agreement areas where you agree
                                            iv.     Cite sources
                                              v.     Cite authorities listeners trust
                                            vi.     Set modest goals
                                           vii.     Offer a multi-sided presentation
1.     Uses identity,
2.     Positive direction/thinking,
3.     Assimilation,
4.     Explanation,
5.     Sources,
6.     Other
G.   Remover Barriers to Commitment
    1. Provide needed information
    2. Demonstrate the need to improve
    3. Clear a path to action
    4. Achievable goals
    5. Make it easy to act

H.   Persuasion is like an oral exam showing how you apply the concepts of the course.

IV.           Fallacies
A.    Definition:
1.     •An error in reasoning
B.    Neutral in ethics
C.    Dangerous to use
D.   Red Herring
1.     Definition: 
a.     A fallacy that introduces…
b.     Irrelevant issues
c.     To divert attention from the subject under discussion
E.    Ad Hominem
1.     Definition:
a.     To make human,
b.     A fallacy that attacks the person
c.     Rather than dealing with the real issue
d.     To divert attention through personal attack.
F.    Post hoc
1.     Justifying after the fact
2.     Arguing from a temporal sequence to a causal relation
3.     Formulated after the fact
4.     Find the rationale after already taking action
5.     Explain after it happened
6.     “I quit my job because they were bias against me…”
7.     Misrepresenting a causal relationship
8.     Jumping to conclusions
G.   False Dichotomy
1.     Either-or
2.     A fallacy that forces listeners
3.     To choose between two alternatives
4.     When more than two alternatives exits.
5.     Can divert from actual alternative or cause.
6.     Polarizes audience
7.     Used to solidify “right and wrong”,
8.     “For or against.”
9.     Common when one side cannot back up its argument
10.  Common when seeking immediate action where it is not needed
11.  Common in over simplistic slogan dominated campaigns
12.  Examples: you are either for me or against me
H.   Bandwagon
1.     A fallacy that assumes that because something is popular it is therefore good.
2.     Group think
3.     Mob mentality
4.     “Everybody feels this way.”
5.     “Everybody knows…”
I.      Status Quo
1.     Because this is the way it is…
2.     Belief that the ways things are is the best of all possible ways
3.     If it ain’t broke don’t fix it…
4.     Reluctance to change
5.     Conservative in nature and action
6.     This is what my grandmother believes and so do I
7.     Traditional appeal
J.     Slippery Slope
1.     A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
2.     Example: If South Vietnam falls to the communist all of Asia will fall like dominoes to the communist.
3.     False assumption that if this happens than there is a 100% certainty that a series of subsequent event will occur.
K.   Hasty Generalization
1.     Jumping from specific to general on the basis of insufficient evidence
2.     False assumption that if a specific events cause is true, than all similar events must have the same or similar causes.
3.     “If we have a public option in health then the government will control health care”
4.     “If we allow options to be discussed near the time of death as now provided my Medicare, then eventually we will have the government deciding if we live or die.”
L.    Invalid Analogy
1.     An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike
2.     Making parallels between things that may not be parallel or alike
M.  False Cause
1.     Assuming that if one event follows another, there must be a cause and effect.
2.     “Post hoc”, “Ergo proper hoc”
3.     “After this, therefore because of this.”
4.     Jumping to the conclusion of cause without proper evidence of a causal effect.
N.   Fallacies in Claims
1.     False dilemma
a.     False dichotomy is a false dilemma
b.     Reducing choices to just two
2.     Begging the Questions
a.     Something is true just because it is
b.     Justifying some thing with unsubstantiated truth
c.     Relying on one viewpoint to substantiate
3.     Slippery Slope
a.     One event will lead to another
b.     No logical connection needed
4.     Ad Ingorantiam
a.     True because it has not been disproven
b.     “The sun revolves around the earth”
c.     “…are born athletes…”
d.     Being ignorant of fact makes this truth
O.   Fallacies in Evidence
1.     Red Herring
a.     Distract with irrelevant points or information
b.     Dragging a Red Herring across the road to district the dogs on the hunt
c.     Deliberate misdirection
2.     Ad populum
a.     Appealing to a popular idea or attitude
b.     Bandwagon (see earlier in these notes)
c.     “If you are a patriot you will…”
3.     Appeal to Tradition
a.     Support the Status Quo (see Status Quo)
b.     Because it always has been done that way…
4.     Comparative Evidence
a.     Inappropriate use of testimony
b.     Inappropriate use of statistics
c.     Inappropriate use of Ethos, Pathos, Logos or Mythos
d.     No revealing any flows or differences in evidence base used
e.     Drawing hasty generalizations based on misuse or misinterpreted evidence
P.    Fallacies in Reasoning
1.     Division
a. Parts of the whole share the same properties
b. Generalization from large to that all subparts agree
c. “You live in a red state so your voted Republican
      2. Hasty Generalization
a. insufficient examples or an inadequate sample
b. See Hasty Generalization earlier in this outline
     3. Post Hoc
            a. Misrepresenting causal relationship
b. See definition earlier in this document
      4. Weak Analogy
            a. Key dissimilarities make the comparison misleading
Q. Fallicies of Response
      1. Ad hominema. 
            a. to make human
            b. Personal attack
            c. Falsely make the person the problem
            d. lay fault on person rather than actual causes
            e. exaple: Obamacare. Bush's war. Gay Plague.

      2. Guilt  by association
            a. claim linked to another person
            b. claim linked to objectionable person
            c. claim linked to a group where audience can oppose group
            d. use of reverse-assimilation
            e. examples: "Obama's people", "Liberals", "druggies", "cops'
      3. Caricature
            a. Missrepresenting a claim
            b. Forming deliberate over simplification
            c. Using stereotype, bias, prejudice projections
            d. Twisting others words or ideas into cartoon like simplifications
       4. Loaded Words
            a. Missleading language
            b. Pathos or emotionally laden words and arguments
            c. Using language that deliberately missleads
            d. Examples: Abortion is Murder

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International Debate Education Association
This site features an online database of information on debate topics, as well as discussion boards on a range of debate-related topics.
Media Education Foundation
Develops and distributes documentaries encouraging critical thinking about media content. The news page includes articles on a wide range of issues that often address mass persuasion, such as drug company advertising, the commercialization of childhood, and product placement in movies.
Persuasion Analysis
Dr. Hugh Rank, Professor Emeritus of English at Governors State University, provides information for students and teachers on ways to analyze persuasion in advertising and political rhetoric.
Pros and Cons of Controversial Issues
A good resource for identifying possible persuasive speech topics, the website's goal is to promote “education and informed citizenship by presenting controversial issues in a simple, nonpartisan primarily pro-con format."

Critical Thinking Community
Information and resources about critical thinking.
Logical Fallacies: The Fallacy Files
Developed by Dr. Gary N. Curtis, the site includes definitions, examples, quotes, and resources related to fallacies.
The Reasoning Page
Developed by Professor Bruce B. Janz at the University of Central Florida, this page includes links to online resources in argumentation, critical thinking, formal reasoning, the history of logic, and reasoning in context.

First published 10-15-2009