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Lynch Coaching


Friday, November 30, 2012

Extemp, Eye Contact, Q&A tips, Truth, Ethics, Bias, Sources and more

I.      Extemporaneous Speaking
    1. Method to be used in this course for all but the “impromptu” speech
    2. “Without notes” *but some are usually allowed
    3. A carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes.
    4. Conversational Quality
a.             Presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous, no matter how many times it has been rehearsed or presented.
    1. Is responsive to direct audience feedback
    2. Is responsive to changes in environment, technical changes and other unforeseen or observed on the spot events and influences
    3. Can be adapted to situations, while still following a basic structure and making key reorganized points
    4. Adaptable to a wide range of situations and circumstances
    5. Should sound spontaneous
    6. Not memorized, read, or made up on the spot (exceptions for short periods)
    7. Prepared ahead of time
    8. Greater structure and control than Impromptu
    9. Greater flexibility than Manuscript
    10. Do no appear to use notes (some possible)
    11. Can mean “without notes”

II.    Eye Contact
1.     Eye Contact is direct visual contact with the eyes of another person
2.     Should be
a.     Direct- looking into the eyes of intervals in the audience
b.     Deliberate-
c.     Distributed- cover the overall area of the audience, if not every individual
d.     Sustained- at least a half second (2 or 3 suggested) at a time
e.     80% or more of the time
f.      Appropriate and contextual
3.     Strong non-verbal communication
4.     “The Windows of the Soul” principle
a.     Audiences look into a speaker’s eyes for clues about the speaker’s truthfulness, intelligence, confidence, feelings and ethos
b.     Attitude is often communicated by the eyes
c.     Differing cultures look for differing clues, so a knowledge of the culture of those being addressed is important for proper interpretation and protocol
5.     Rules vary by culture, protocol, situation
6.     Not just looking at audience, but how you look at them
7.     Eye Contacts helps
a.     Capture and maintain an audience’s attention
b.     Establish speaker credibility / ethos
c.     Allows speakers to see and respond to feedback

  1. Audience Q&A
    1. Be prepared for Q&A in every speech
    2. Listen in lecture
    3. For classroom, avoid being overly formal
    4. Contextual in nature
                                               i.     Can cause major problems based on your profile
                                             ii.     Should sound honest, sincere and open
                                            iii.     Major test of your ethos
                                            iv.     Relax, tension can be seen by audience and taken as insecurity
    1. Remain in control, as the speaker, do not give up control of conversation or situation
    2. Prepare answers to anticipated or possible questions
    3. Write down possible questions and answers
    4. Practice delivering the answers
    5. Be flexible
    6. Be honest
    7. “To the best o my understanding”, “I am not sure of the answer’, ‘From what I have learned” or simply ‘I will look into that and let you know” are acceptable
    8. The more you do no know upon questions, the lower your ethos, so do not be shy about answers, just honest.
    9. Managing the Q&A is an important skill
                                               i.     Do not invite questions during a speech, it will throw you off
                                             ii.     Do not invite questions unless the event requires it
                                            iii.     Keep a positive attitude
                                            iv.     You can use Q&A to clarify questions and reengage the audience
                                              v.     If hostility occurs, respond open and honestly but never confront, be defensive or argumentative
                                            vi.     Realize others have their views and ask that they respect yours
                                           vii.     Do not get into an argument or fight, simply acknowledge a difference of opinion or feelings.
    1. Listening skills are essential for good Q&A, by speaker as well as the audience
    2. Answers should be directed to the entire audience and no just the questioner.
    3. Questions should be answered honestly, openly, straightforwardly and in as short a manner as possible (without being abrupt)
    4. Keep it on track
                                               i.     Best to have one question and one follow-up from any single questioner
                                             ii.     Best to keep track or question times, and answer times
                                            iii.     Do not get argumentative and avoid being drawn into an argument
                                            iv.     When time is running out announce only one or two more questions and then stick to that decision.

  1. Truth and Ethics
    1. Ethics-
                                               i.     The study of human moral conduct
                                             ii.     Right and wrong in human interaction
    1. Absolute Truth- Platonic Truth
Complete and unqualified, truth is objective and without exception. Not open to discussion or interpretation. Black and white. Clear and final.
    1. Sophists- Philosophers based loosely on Socrates but who took it to negative lengths by tailoring truth to the audience, patrons, public, paying customers, Many politicians may be Sophists…
    2. Relative Truth- Truth is subjective, open to interpretation
    3. Aristotelian Truth- Relative Truth, varies by situation and environment, comparative, qualified, open to discussion, not the same for everyone.
    4. Dogmatism- Rigidity of Belief. Immovable. Not open to discussion. Religious beliefs are a good and strong example, however Dogmatism is not limited to religion…
    5. Narrative Paradigm- Walter Fisher theory for evaluating stories.
                                               i.     Narrative Coherence- do stories make sense, do characters act consistently
                                             ii.     Narrative Fidelity- do stories “ring true”, hit a responsive cord, do we identify
  1. Bias
    1. Bias – the tendency to feel one way or another about anything. Bias changes. May be positive or negative, or neutral in nature. Is a natural state of being and impossible to avoid, but it can be minimized.
                                               i.     Prejudice –
1.     a subset of prejudice
2.     a strong culturally entrenched bias,
3.     very difficult to change
4.     may be positive or negative
                                             ii.     Stereotype –
1.     communication shorthand that utilizes bias, often reinforced by
                                                Media, community, others

VI.  Ethnocentrism- the belief that your cultures, beliefs, ways of doing things are somehow superior to everyone else’s. Does not mean theirs are wrong or have no value, only that yours are better, superior and should supercede all others, Example: US version of Democracy, tolerance in religious beliefs, consumer based society, we are better. We have the best. We are the best. Our way is the right way.

VII.                 Academic Sources –
A.   Scholarly (another way of putting it)
B.    Juried
C.   University Press
D.   Academic Journals
E.    New York Times, Wall Street Journal
F.    Primary – an expert in field or someone who has expertise and experience
G.   Or material written historically recording events, feelings or trends
H.   Or raw statistics gathered in an acceptable academic methodical manner

VIII.                Demographics- anything you can put a number to. Identifies tendencies, trends,
 attitudes, make-up of a group, individual, audience, market or society.
A. Age- chronological actual age
B. Gender- Male and female tendencies or psychological (Sex is physiological)
C. Psychographics
Psychographics- anything else you can put a number to. Group affiliation, income, household income, education level, people in household, visits to fast food, own a car, own a computer, ethnic affiliation, racial identification, church attended and how often, religious affiliation, and so on…Psychographics are usually self identified, meaning they represent what the individuals feels or who they think they are, and therefore reflect their mind more than economic or physical reality. It is the mind that has the strongest impact on who we are and how we think.


Reggie BC 550 said...

Thank you for the study materials.

Anonymous said...

I think this was very helpful. The part about questions and answers was good. I learner a lot especially about if you don't know the answer it is okay to say that. Gwen Dennett com 101 sec4255