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Sunday, May 17, 2015

Argumentation and Persuasion Overview



When you persuade others, you use language, images, and other means of communication to influence their attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions. Persuasive speeches may address questions of fact, value, or policy. Speeches on questions of fact ask whether something is true or not true. Speeches on questions of value take a position on the worth of something. And speeches on questions of policy are concerned with what should or should not be done. Speeches on questions of fact typically are organized using topical, chronological, spatial, or cause-and-effect pattern. Speeches on questions of value are best organized using a topical, chronological, or spatial pattern. Because speeches on questions of policy ask for action or passive agreement on the part of the audience, the problem-solution, problem-cause-solution, or motivated sequence are the best patterns of organization for such speeches.
Click "read more" below for additional information and links.

Persuasive Speaking


What is persuasive speaking?
How do we persuade?
How do you prepare a persuasive speech?
What do you have to consider and understand?
What are common mistakes?
What are fallacies of argumentation?
What role does ethics play?

Image: Spy vs. Spy is the property of Mad Magazine.
Answers to these and other concepts may be found if you click "read more" below.

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

Why kids bend morality...Because schools teach them to!

Why Our Children Don’t Think There Are Moral Facts






The Stone
The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless.


George Washington, depicted here taking the oath of office in 1789, was the first president of the United States. Fact, opinion or both?Credit via Associated Press
What would you say if you found out that our public schools were teaching children that it is not true that it’s wrong to kill people for fun or cheat on tests? Would you be surprised?

I was. As a philosopher, I already knew that many college-aged students don’t believe in moral facts. While there are no national surveys quantifying this phenomenon, philosophy professors with whom I have spoken suggest that the overwhelming majority of college freshmen in their classrooms view moral claims as mere opinions that are not true or are true only relative to a culture.
A misleading distinction between fact and opinion is embedded in the Common Core.
What I didn’t know was where this attitude came from. Given the presence of moral relativism in some academic circles, some people might naturally assume that philosophers themselves are to blame. But they aren’t. There are historical examples of philosophers who endorse a kind of moral relativism, dating back at least to Protagoras who declared that “man is the measure of all things,” and several who deny that there are any moral facts whatsoever. But such creatures are rare. Besides, if students are already showing up to college with this view of morality, it’s very unlikely that it’s the result of what professional philosophers are teaching. So where is the view coming from?

A few weeks ago, I learned that students are exposed to this sort of thinking well before crossing the threshold of higher education. 

When I went to visit my son’s second grade open house, I found a troubling pair of signs hanging over the bulletin board. They read:
Fact: Something that is true about a subject and can be tested or proven.
Opinion: What someone thinks, feels, or believes.

Hoping that this set of definitions was a one-off mistake, I went home and Googled “fact vs. opinion.” The definitions I found online were substantially the same as the one in my son’s classroom. 

As it turns out, the Common Core standards used by a majority of K-12 programs in the country require that students be able to “distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.” And the Common Core institute provides a helpful page full of links to definitions, lesson plans and quizzes to ensure that students can tell the difference between facts and opinions.
So what’s wrong with this distinction and how does it undermine the view that there are objective moral facts?

First, the definition of a fact waffles between truth and proof — two obviously different features. 

Things can be true even if no one can prove them. For example, it could be true that there is life elsewhere in the universe even though no one can prove it. Conversely, many of the things we once “proved” turned out to be false. For example, many people once thought that the earth was flat. It’s a mistake to confuse truth (a feature of the world) with proof (a feature of our mental lives). Furthermore, if proof is required for facts, then facts become person-relative. 

Something might be a fact for me if I can prove it but not a fact for you if you can’t. In that case, E=MC2 is a fact for a physicist but not for me.
But second, and worse, students are taught that claims are either facts or opinions. They are given quizzes in which they must sort claims into one camp or the other but not both. 

But if a fact is something that is true and an opinion is something that is believed, then many claims will obviously be both. For example, I asked my son about this distinction after his open house. He confidently explained that facts were things that were true whereas opinions are things that are believed. 

We then had this conversation:
Me: “I believe that George Washington was the first president. Is that a fact or an opinion?”
Him: “It’s a fact.”
Me: “But I believe it, and you said that what someone believes is an opinion.”
Him: “Yeah, but it’s true.”
Me: “So it’s both a fact and an opinion?”
The blank stare on his face said it all.
Related
How does the dichotomy between fact and opinion relate to morality? I learned the answer to this question only after I investigated my son’s homework (and other examples of assignments online). Kids are asked to sort facts from opinions and, without fail, every value claim is labeled as an opinion. Here’s a little test devised from questions available on fact vs. opinion worksheets online: are the following facts or opinions?

— Copying homework assignments is wrong.
— Cursing in school is inappropriate behavior.
— All men are created equal.
— It is worth sacrificing some personal liberties to protect our country from terrorism.
— It is wrong for people under the age of 21 to drink alcohol.
— Vegetarians are healthier than people who eat meat.

— Drug dealers belong in prison.


The answer? In each case, the worksheets categorize these claims as opinions. The explanation on offer is that each of these claims is a value claim and value claims are not facts. This is repeated ad nauseum: any claim with good, right, wrong, etc. is not a fact.
In summary, our public schools teach students that all claims are either facts or opinions and that all value and moral claims fall into the latter camp. The punchline: there are no moral facts. And if there are no moral facts, then there are no moral truths.
The inconsistency in this curriculum is obvious. 
For example, at the outset of the school year, my son brought home a list of student rights and responsibilities. Had he already read the lesson on fact vs. opinion, he might have noted that the supposed rights of other students were based on no more than opinions. 
According to the school’s curriculum, it certainly wasn’t true that his classmates deserved to be treated a particular way — that would make it a fact. Similarly, it wasn’t really true that he had any responsibilities — that would be to make a value claim a truth. It should not be a surprise that there is rampant cheating on college campuses: If we’ve taught our students for 12 years that there is no fact of the matter as to whether cheating is wrong, we can’t very well blame them for doing so later on.
Indeed, in the world beyond grade school, where adults must exercise their moral knowledge and reasoning to conduct themselves in the society, the stakes are greater. 
There, consistency demands that we acknowledge the existence of moral facts. If it’s not true that it’s wrong to murder a cartoonist with whom one disagrees, then how can we be outraged? If there are no truths about what is good or valuable or right, how can we prosecute people for crimes against humanity? If it’s not true that all humans are created equal, then why vote for any political system that doesn’t benefit you over others?
Our schools do amazing things with our children. And they are, in a way, teaching moral standards when they ask students to treat one another humanely and to do their schoolwork with academic integrity. But at the same time, the curriculum sets our children up for doublethink. They are told that there are no moral facts in one breath even as the next tells them how they ought to behave.
We can do better. Our children deserve a consistent intellectual foundation. 
Facts are things that are true. 
Opinions are things we believe. 
Some of our beliefs are true. Others are not. Some of our beliefs are backed by evidence. Others are not. 
Value claims are like any other claims: either true or false, evidenced or not. The hard work lies not in recognizing that at least some moral claims are true but in carefully thinking through our evidence for which of the many competing moral claims is correct. 
That’s a hard thing to do. But we can’t sidestep the responsibilities that come with being human just because it’s hard.
That would be wrong.

Justin P. McBrayer is an associate professor of philosophy at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colo. He works in ethics and philosophy of religion.

Monday, March 30, 2015

Jillian's Notes

While this is from a previous semester and different text, it is a good preview of things that will need to be researched and learned over the course of your communication studies. Please take the time to review these notes as you advance this semester.

Thank you Jillian!

-Art Lynch
12/14/06


Speech Notes (Partial)

Semantic Noise~ any noise that disrupts the symbols being expressed (i.e. language)


Transactional Model~

(For the model used in class, and on the tests,  refer to Jillian's Notes on Angel under Course Content, Resources and Study Material, 16. Reviews, Jillian's Notes.  The following are alternative ways of conceptualizing and understanding the basic communication model.)





Transmitter, sender, encodes message to the Receiver, audience, who decodes the message. The message is sent along a channel (media) and is disrupted by noise, interference, and screens. Three types- internal (thoughts, how you feel inside), external (things that happen outside of the body that you can’t control), and cultural (everything else that makes you-you!) When the Receiver becomes the transmitter, they are sending feedback. Same filters, screens, and interference will/can occur.




Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Pubic Speaking Notes part II Updated 5/25/2015


Take a breath, review what is below and read, research and study what you may need additional information or help on below. Feel free to ask questions in class and/or contact the instructor.

There is more here than you will need to learn and apply in the remainder of the term..

Do not be concerned, but do ask questions, as some of this was never covered in class and will not be on the exam...
Important review of lecture, notes, text and common sense…

Thumbnail or Keynote Outline is a brief summary of your full outline, with only the key points and only a word or few words per idea.

Full Outline and References, must have APA referencing, including inside the outline itself as well as at the end of the outline. It needs to use traditional outline format (I.; A ; 1, ; a ; I ; etc.)

Narrative is a short summary of your speech, no more than a page, preferably a short paragraph. It is a short version of an abstract on your speech. See abstracts for academic or scholarly articles.
  Developing Your Speech

Length:

The length of a speech is important
In the “real world” timing could be crucial to an event
Shoot for minimum to middle length, as most of the time you may say more than you intended or can stretch. Danger is if you forget portions of your speech and cannot find a way to reach the minimum length.

Name:

Use your name at least once or twice, to humanize and personalize the speaker.

First Step:

Private purpose – your reason for being interested in and wanting to do the speech. The stronger the better. Passion and unseen Ethos and Pathos comes from this.

Public purpose- the reason for doing the speech topic that you reveal to the audience. Your passion and interests are then revealed to support your speech. Can be the same as private, but make sure no one is endangered or hurt, including yourself, if you reveal the private reason. Strongest choice is usually to reveal the private reason.

Thesis Statement- Your short, one sentence statement that says what you want to say. The stronger, the better.

Next: Use scientific method of thesis, conclusion, doing research in between, Change the conclusion or admit you were wrong if that is what you find out.

Finally, prepare the speech, as indicated in four chapters of the text,
Body first.
Conclusion than
Introduction.

Now do the outlines and above all practice the speech.

You do not have to say everything that is in your full outline.
  Communication Model Additional Info

The Power of the Receiver: Using Screens to control information flow 1) Property. You own your attention and can store it wherever you wish. You have CONTROL.

2) Mobility. You can securely move your attention wherever you want whenever you want to. You have the ability to TRANSFER your attention.
3) Economy. You can pay attention to whomever you wish and receive value in return. Your attention has WORTH.
4) Transparency. You can see exactly how your attention is being used. You can DECIDE whom you trust. When you give your attention to any entity.

Any transmitter must understand the codes, noise / filters / screens, objectives and objections of the intended receiver.

In a world of mixed, multiple, constant and intrusive messages it is best for both the transmitter and receiver to remember the powers of property, mobility, economy and transparency in communication transactions.


Outlining.

See previous week’s notes, textbook, other handouts, and demonstration outline links.
Use the Writing Center for assistance if needed.


Presentation Aids.

Review the Textbook.
Search Internet for ideas, clarification, samples

Presentation and Visual Airs, keep it simple, easy to read, large enough and simple to understand. Digital cameras, computers, flip charts, posters (foam backing best), photo enlargements, title cards (use but do not count), overheads, pass outs, pass-around (not usually a good idea), models, music, food, drink, samples, pamphlets. Etc.

Must be key to speech and actually used, not just presented to meet requirements.

Visual aids should reinforce and support what you are presenting. They usually will be used ore exposed after introducing the concept they support or reinforce.

PowerPoint is acceptable, but you should never read the actual power point screen, you should be talking about the concept just prior to it being exposed to the audience, should avoid unneeded flash or distractions from your points and speech and should use an additional visual or presentation aid (other than power point) for any presentation. Avoid using computer presentation if possible and always arrange in advance, as computer access in some classrooms may be limited. Always bring your own computer and a connection to the television in the classroom as a back up should projector not be available at the time requested. Remote controls are also recommended.

Screen any questionable material with teacher in advance. Use disclaimer if needed.

Presentation Aids are visual (sight), auditory (sound), olfactory (smell) materials used to enhance or clarify your speech. Objects, posters, photographs, video, CD’s, performance, overheads, graphs, charts, handouts, slides, Power Point, flip charts, demonstrations, etc.

Visual Aids are the subset that can be seen. Objects, posters, graphs, etc.

Icons: visual representations of an idea, location or thing.

Using presentation aids:

Emphasize or explain key points or overall topic.

Break down complex information.
Simplify complex images or unseen images.

Substitute when necessary for having actual objects or samples.
People have different learning styles.
Use differencing senses, modes of thinking, and differing skills at communication.

Visual learners need to see information to best comprehend it.

Auditory learners need to hear the information.

Kinesthetic learners

Presentation Aids

Presentation Aids are visual, auditory or other material used to enhance or clarify your presentation information. Be sure to review the Rules for Using Presentation Aids located on pages 1054 t 105 in your text. Ask instructor questions in advance of working on aids. Plan and rehearse you aids and allow time for drafts, changes and comfort of presentation. Make sure your aids are ethical, add to the presentation, and support a point or the overall message of the presentation. Do a disclaimer if necessary (always see instructor in advance or risk point loss or possible failure on the speech). Remember CCSN’s basic rules concerning aids as presented in first lecture. See syllabus.
  1.     When to use
1.    When appropriate
2.    Supports major point or idea
3.    Illustrates difficult to understand concepts
4.    Maximum Impact
5.    Avoid too much information
6.    Avoid clutter
7.    Choose material carefully
8.    Balance variety with coherence
9.    Use large lettering
10. Serif on printed boards, san-serif best on computer visuals
11. Upper case best, with capital larger
12. Colors are key, avoid red, yellow and light colors for lettering
13. Colors provide mood, setting, contrast
14. Do not become overly PowerPoint dependent
2.    Visual Design and execution are important

3.     Presentation Aids may and should increase the clarity of the speech. A.    May or can supplement abstract messages with sensory representations B.    Enhance understanding C.   Add authenticity D.   To add variety E.    Increase attention F.    Renew attention G.   For transitions H.   To improve delivery I.      To create or increase lasting impact J.     Neat, attractive, well thought our aids enhance credibility

2.     Presentation aids are almost mandatory in most presentation settings A.    Keep audiences focused and interesting B.    Entertain or answer What’s In It for Me C.    Media society is use to multiple media I inputs and images D.   Greeks identified visual or presentation aids as a primary element of communication

3.    Kinds of aids available are limited only to your imagination
1.    People
1.    Speaker (not counted as an aid in your speech, but may be utilized)
2.    Gestures, actions, movement to illustrate ideas or transitions
3.    Dress and personal grooming to enhance or reinforce speech
4.    Personal Ethos
5.    Other People
6.    Demonstrate described activities
7.    Illustrate specific points or concepts
8.    Testimony (not too long and not make points for you)
9.    Must be willing and know what is expected of them
10. Small enough to carry but large enough to see
11. Kept out of sight until uses in the speech
12. Inanimate make for better presentations than living things (live can distract or even demand attention).
13. Be wary of dangerous, illegal of rotationally offensive objects
14. Make sure it helps make or illustrate a key point
15. Models substitute when objects are too large, unavailable, hard to see, too valuable, too fragile, too dangerous or too complex to bring to presentation or to accurately represent the points and intent of the objects use in a presentations
16. Models are representative and usually made to scale
17. Models make it easy for everyone to see and understand
18. Models are used often in museum
2.    Objects and Models

4.    Graphics or graphic visual aids
1.    Know when to use each type illustrated in the text
2.    Select only what best assists in accurately illustrating or supporting your point.
3.    Sketches or diagrams offer simplified explanations or representation

4.    Maps are good for special
1.    Keep maps simple and to scale
2.    Keep maps free of extraneous information
3.    Carefully and purposefully worked into the presentation
4.    Help create and set a feeling of place and scale

5.    Graphs make statistical information more understandable
1.    Pie Graphs show the size and proportion of a subject’s part in relation to each other and to the whole
2.    Bar graphs show comparison and contrasts between two or more related items or groups.
3.    Line graphs help to illustrate changes over time
4.    Line graphs are useful in indicating trends of growth or decline
5.    Line graphs can illustrate relationships between any two factors
6.    When plotting more than one line be certain that the audience can distinguish the lines and understand how they represents differing trends or elements.
7.    Mountain Graphs are variations of line graphs that fill in the area below the line. It is best used to accentuate the difference between two lines on the same graph or to enhance the strength of a growth or declining trend.

6.    Charts provide summaries of processes and relationships
1.    Often charts are overly simplistic and should be used not as evidence but as a representation of possible interpretations
2.    Flow charts are used to show steps in a process
3.    Flow charts can also be used to show power and responsibility relationships
4.    Do not clutter up a flow charts, instead use sequenced charts shown in succession.
5.    Charts can use icons, pictographs or other visually symbolic representations

7.    Textual Graphics are lists of phrases, words or numbers
1.    Key terms can assist audience in following complicated issues
2.    Bulleted lists work well with other graphics
3.    Bulleted lists help viewers prioritize and understand structure
4.    Acronym use letters from words (usually first letters) to implant ideas in the minds of the audience that makes the speech more memorable.
5.    Acronyms may also represent organizations, ideas, idioms, jargon or shorthand for complex conceptualizations in a variety of subjects.
6.    Acronyms must be explained at least once anytime they are used, because the same acronym may have differing meanings to different groups

8.    Photographs and Pictures have advantages and disadvantages
1.    Can have distracting details
2.    May be too small or too subtle
3.    Distracting when passed around instead of large display
4.    Can take attention away from the speaker when not best time to do so
5.    May cause differing thoughts or emotions in different audience members
6.    Can be altered or taken out of context
7.    “Is worth a thousand words”
8.    Can be memorable and help reinforce concepts or points in a presentation

5.    Media For Presentation Aids
1.    Flip Charts
2.    Posters (use stock or board to keep stiff, non distracting and easy to see
3.    Poster Boards (same idea)

4.    Handouts
1.    Use only when needed
2.    Can distract by having people read ahead or having too much information
3.    Best used with professional groups accustomed to working with handouts during presentations or who require detailed written presentations
4.    Can be offered after speech for less of a distraction
5.    Never distribute handouts during the presentation (before or after only)
6.    Allows spontaneous adaptation to audience feedback
7.    Can be made as current and topical as necessary
8.    Can showcase bad handwriting or spelling skills
9.    Dirty or dusty process
10. May lead speakers to put their backs to the audience
11. Helps focus audience attention
12. Make sure letters and graphics are large enough to be seen and understood
13. Do not overuse chalkboard
5.    Chalk board (not counted as aid in your COM 110 speeches, but may be used as needed or desired).

6.    Overheads
1.    Best for a larger audience
2.    Do not completely darken the room
3.    Make sure they can be read and seen by audience
4.    Keep them simple and easy to read
5.    Use of pen allows revision or highlight during presentation
6.    Allows eye contact with the audience while slides are overhead
7.    Simple and easy to use visual reinforcement of the speech
8.    Do not overuse
9.    Can require speaker to stand by projector, limiting movement range and podium use
10. Always check equipment ahead of time and be ready to go on without overheads if necessary (true of all presentation aids).
11. Do not substitute overheads for actual speaker to audience contact or presentation.

7.    Slides
1.    Best in a large presentation situation
2.    Must darken room, limits notes and eye contact
3.    Clearer and crisper than overheads
4.    Best for photographic presentations or art work
5.    Cost and availability may become an issues

8.    Audio
1.    Strong potential pathos and mythos
2.    Can assist in mood, flow and pace
3.    Can authenticate
4.    Excellent way for secondary ethos (interviews, etc.)
5.    Can gain or maintain audience interests
6.    Use with specific care to subject matter
7.    Do not talk over lyrics or words
8.    Take care with volume,
9.    Take care with language,
10. Keep in mind audience sensibilities

9.    Video
1.    Strongest potential
2.    Must be specific and to the point being made
3.    Keep length from dominating speech
4.    Can authenticate presentation
5.    Adds variety to presentation
6.    Appealing to video generation
7.    Sound, movement, light, graphics included
8.    Can transport the audience to other locations
9.    Potential strong for pathos and mythos
10. Potential strong for secondary ethos
11. Keep short and carefully cued and edited
12. Be ready to go if video equipment fails or not available

10. Computer Generated
1.    Danger of overuse
2.    Danger of ethical misuse
3.    Danger of distracting from speaker
4.    Strong ability to merge other aids
5.    Strong ability to make smaller images seen
6.    Strong ability to reinforce points graphically
7.    Easy and abundance of tools available
8.    Most all presentation tools can be augmented, altered, prepared, edited or in other ways complimented or polished using computers
9.    Can bring text, pictures, artwork, slides, video, audio, animations and other material into a cohesive presentation
10. Should reveal graphic after initially mentioning point supported by graphics
11. Should not let the computer presentation be or upstage the speaker or speakers entire presentation

11. Substantive presentation takes priority over any and all presentation tools

6.    Presentation Presentation Aids should adhere to the basic principles of design
1.    Visible to the entire audience
2.    Easy to read and understand by the entire audience
3.    Emphasize the central idea or main points of the presentation

4.    Pleasing and balanced to the eye (or ear)
1.    Focal point should balance graphic and textual materials
2.    Adequate margins
3.    Use of color should be complimentary and easy to read

5.    Sourced. Site sources for information presented on or for the images used in a presentation aid (ethical and legal responsibilities).
6.    Color
1.    Attention and interests
2.    Can influence moods and impressions
Examples red excites, blue indicates power and stability, green comfort, etc.

1.    Keep in mind that some audience members may be color blind
2.    Colors should stand out from background
3.    Colors can sway opinion, emotions, priorities
4.    The impact of color may vary by culture

7.    Selection, preparation and use of presentation aids takes time and planning
1.    Should have rough and practice drafts just as with the rest of the speech
2.    Abandon use if aid does not support or work in the flow of a speech
3.    All aids should support specific points or overall theme of speech
4.    Aids should compliment the speaker and the speech, not distract
5.    Avoid clutter with too much information, unneeded materials or too many aids in a single presentation for the time allotted or topic selected
6.    Practice using the aid, integrate it into the presentation
7.    Text it out in the room or space where it will be used
8.    Check on all electronic or other support aids needed for your presentation aid to work.
9.    Do not display your aid until you are ready to use it.
10. Make sure your aid can be seen or heard (watch where you stand, site lines, etc,)
11. Point to or indicate the aid was needed, but do not overuse or distract in doing so.
12. Do not leave your audience searching or wondering about the aid
13. Explain as needed
14. Do not distribute materials during a speech
15. Do not pass around items or photographs during a speech
16. Do not use too many presentation aids in a single speech
17. Plan the time it takes to use the aid into your presentation time
18. Make sure you can have quick set up and tear down of your aids or material
19. Think of the staging of the aids as theater and ask if they would help or distract you if you were watching instead of giving the presentation
20. Do no read your aids, let the audience read or use them.
21. Do not let your aid get in the way of your eye contact or other public speaking skills or tools.

Ethic include use of presentation aids
Truthful and non-harmful (declaimer or do not use if harmful).
Alert audience if any images have been altered
Does the image represent an underlying truth?
Is there a valid reason for its use?
Has the image been manipulated, and if so by whom, why and does it remain truthful?
Context. Does it hold up in context? Has it been taken out of context?
Be healthily skeptical about images and other presentation aids
(Commissar’s image, Internet contextual miss-representation, sequential manipulation, others)
Should not take the place of other evidence or support for claims.
Remember that images carry ethical responsibity and can harm or willfully mislead


Ethics

Freedom of Speech does not guarantee freedom from consequence.

All Speech or any communication can change the lives or attitudes of listeners.

You are not free to willfully harm others, in speech or action.

Freedoms are not rights, but privileges. They can be abused or even taken away when they interfere with the rights of others.

Define ethics.

The study of human moral conduct or the branch of philosophy that addresses the right and wrong in human conduct.

A set of moral principals.
Moral, correct, right, proper, just, righteous, honorable, decent, upright, principled, fair, honest, good, virtuous, noble.
Varies by culture and individual, but generally a map or plan to determine right from wrong, truth from falsehood, acceptable form unacceptable.

Ethics
8.    Truthful and non-harmful (declaimer or do not use if harmful).
9.    Should not take the place of other evidence or support for claims.
10. Alert audience if any images have been altered
11. Does the image represent an underlying truth?
12. Is there a valid reason for its use?
13. Has the image been manipulated, and if so by whom, why and does it remain truthful?
14. Context. Does it hold up in context? Has it been taken out of context?
15. Be healthily skeptical about images and other presentation aids
(Commissar’s image, Internet contextual misrepresentation, sequential manipulation, others)


Remember that images carry ethical responsibility and can harm or willfully mislead.


Truth as objective or subjective.

Differentiate between absolute, platonic, relative and Aristotelian truths. See text.

Who were the Sophists?
What is the relationship between culture and truth?
Who is dogmatism?
What is ethnocentrism?
Define Ethos, Pathos, Logos and Mythos.
Give a more detailed definition of Ethos.
How can you incorporate ethics, morals and rights into your speaking?

Dogmatic
Rigidity of belief, example are basic religious beliefs (but dogmatism is not limited to religion and all religious beliefs are not necessarily dogmatic).
Given to asserting to imposing personal beliefs opinions on others.
Doctrinal in structure or belief. Doctrine exercised.
Based on prior principles.
Making unsupported acceptations.
Arbitrary, categorical, dictatorial, pontifical, imperious, peremptory, overbearing, authoritarian, autocratic, uncompromising, high-handed, self-righteous, insistent, Assertive, arrogant, domineering, obdurate, stubborn, intolerant, opinionated, pushy, non-moving in belief, imposing beliefs on others, unquestioning beliefs.

Ethics Continued
1.    Ethical Communication enhances human worth and dignity by enhancing worth and dignity through fostering truthfulness, fairness, responsibility, personal integrity, and respect for self and others.- NCA
2.    Ethics apply to both the speaker and the audience.
3.    Ethics involve contributing positive communication
4.    Critique should be both positive and negative
5.    Negative is never to attack, belittle, undermine or to create or reinforce false information or images. Negative critique is to help the speaker or listener look at their own views or styles and find ways to improve. Points out what is wrong does not have to be attack or harmful.
6.    Core Values
1.Truth
2.Ethics
3.Honesty
4.Reason
5.Avoid plagiarism
6. Improve listening skills
7. Freedom of expression
1.    Diversity of expression
2.    Cultural diversity
3.    Diversity of perspective
4.    Tolerance of Dissent
5.    First Amendment of the Constitution
I. –isms (sexism, ageism, racism, etc.) build walls and as such are unethical in public speaking




Review

Bias, Prejudice, Stereotype
South Pacific example
Maids, Doctors, Drug Dealers, Writers, Scientist, Nurse, Detective, others

Take Home Quiz #1
Review concepts on Quiz

Point Speech
Private Purpose
Public Purpose
Thesis Statement

Rape
Chocolate
Abortion
Voting Age
Electoral College

Sample Thumbnail/ Key Word / Key Note / Presentation Outlines

Review Quiz an Midterm answers and concepts

College appropriate content means researched, college level work, typed (computer typeset) without errors, college level insight, and no plagiarism, balanced, and well reasoned.

Push the envelope, be willing to present controversial or contested information or ideas. Use your interests, backgrounds, beliefs and passions in your speech presentations.

Use of pauses

Dialects (tone, pace, etc.)

Handling Audience Q&A
Steps in organizing a speech


Special Occasion Speaking
Know the types of special occasions speeches and their use
Cognitive Restructuring: change the way you think. This is only a class. I am helping these people. Who cares what they think? etc.



Body Language Use and reading of..

Rules for eye contact



Review and Reinforce Skills and Benefits

1.    Has great value in current and future life
2.    Ability to speak well is the mark of an educated person and the mark of competence in a field.
3.    Skills

1.     
2.    Organization
3.    Compose Meaningful Messages
4.    Compose coherent Messages
5.    Adapt to a Situations
6.    Adapt to Audience, Group or Market
7.    Conduct Responsible Research
8.    Conduct Academic and Balanced Research
9.    Argue and Engage in Opposing Viewpoints
10. Develop Critical and Constructive Listening Skills
4.    Vital in societies that promote open and democratic deliberation
5.    Vital in societies with capitalistic or market economies
6.    Vital for philosophical, theological, sociological, anthological or psychological study and discussion.
7.    Personal
1.    Income
2.    Success
3.    Position
4.    Knowledge
5.    Leadership
6.    Compromise
7.    Forward Progress
8.    Understanding
9.    Growth

    Review and Reinforce Tips for Success in this Course
1.    Attendance
2.    Attitude
1.    It’s only a class
2.    It will help me in life
3.    I can help others in class
4.    I will do the best I possibly can
3.    Complete all assigned readings
4.    Seek out additional readings
1.    Web CT
2.    Other text books
3.    Library research
5.    Class Participation
1.    As student
2.    As audience
3.    As team member
6.    Invest time on Speech Development
1.    Time will pay off in grades and learning experience
2.    Start working on speeches now
3.    Plan your time and time use
4.    Think of this as learning how to be a self learner
5.    Research and written material must be quality and academic
7.    Practice
1.    Polish speech
2.    Do not be afraid to change topics or change the speech
3.    Get so that you do not need note cards (Extemporaneous)

8.    Review Feedback
1.    Listen in class
2.    Listen to audience
3.    Listen to instructor
4.    Make your own notes or observations
5.    Couch things is a positive light
6.    Critique is not meant to hurt
7.    Criticism in a critique is to help
8.    Positive comments help you to build on what you do right
9.    There is no wrong, only things needed to be polished or learned.

L.    Designs/ Organization structures
1.     See previous week’s note postings
2.     See textbook (as always)
3.     Use appropriate and best design for your topic / goals
4.     All designs may be used but the four best for informative are
a.     Spatial
b.     Sequential
c.     Categorical
d.     Comparative
e.     Causation

5.     Spatial Design
a.     Effective for describing places, locations or locating subjects within a physical setting
b.     Ordered by physical location or size, or special relationship or connection
c.     Determine a starting point and proceed in an orderly manner
d.     Complete patterns of descriptions to satisfy an audience need for closure

6.     Sequential Design
a.     Move audiences through time
b.     Effective for showing times steps
c.     Effective for showing change over time
d.     Effective for placing in historical perspective
e.     See previous notes and text for types of sequential design
f.      Includes random sequence, sequence, motivated sequence and chronological designs
g.     Chronological puts main points in order of time
h.     Sequential orders main points in terms of place in a particular process or puts them into a numbered order so that the audience may follow a process

MOTIVATED SEQUENCE

CHRONOLOGICAL

7.     Categorical Design
a.     Appropriate for subjects with natural or customary divisions
b.     Suggested that 2 to 5 categories be used
c.     Begin and end with the most interesting categories
d.     Tie category relationships together
e.     See previous notes and text for additional information
f.      Main points do not have to have an inherent relation to each other

8.     Comparative Designs
a.     Helpful with new, abstract or difficult subjects
b.     Helpful for describing changes
c.     Helpful contrasting differing issues and proposals
d.     Best to relate one topic to something the audience already understands
e.     There are three types of comparative design
1.     A literal analogy draws subjects from the same field of expertise
2.     A figurative analogy draws subjects form differing fields of expertise
3.     Comparison and contact design points to similarities and/or differences

9.     Causation Design
a.     Explains a situation, condition, or event in terms of the causes that led up to it.
b.     See previous notes and text for types of causation design